Skip to main content Accessibility help

The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure, biological activity and beneficial effects on human health

  • Elisa Tripoli (a1), Marco Giammanco (a1), Garden Tabacchi (a1), Danila Di Majo (a1), Santo Giammanco (a1) and Maurizio La Guardia (a1)...


The Mediterranean diet is rich in vegetables, cereals, fruit, fish, milk, wine and olive oil and has salutary biological functions. Epidemiological studies have shown a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases and certain kinds of cancer in the Mediterranean area. Olive oil is the main source of fat, and the Mediterranean diet's healthy effects can in particular be attributed not only to the high relationship between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids in olive oil but also to the antioxidant property of its phenolic compounds. The main phenolic compounds, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, which give extra-virgin olive oil its bitter, pungent taste, have powerful antioxidant activity both in vivo and in vitro. The present review focuses on recent works analysing the relationship between the structure of olive oil polyphenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity. These compounds' possible beneficial effects are due to their antioxidant activity, which is related to the development of atherosclerosis and cancer, and to anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure, biological activity and beneficial effects on human health
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure, biological activity and beneficial effects on human health
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure, biological activity and beneficial effects on human health
      Available formats


Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Professor M. Giammanco, fax +39 091 6236407, email


Hide All
Abbey, M, Nestel, PJ & Baghurst, PA (1993) Antioxidant vitamins and low density lipoprotein oxidation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 58, 52.
Adlercreutz, H, Bannwart, C, Wähälä, K, Makela, T, Brunow, G, Hase, T, Arosemena, PJ, Kellis, JT Jr & Vickery, LE (1993) Inhibition of human aromatase by mammalian lignans and isoflavoid phytooestrogens. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 44, 147153.
Adlercreutz, H, Mousavi, Y, Clark, J, Hockerstedt, K, Hamalainen, E, Wähälä, K, Makela, T & Hase, T (1992) Dietary phytoestrogens and cancer: in vitro and in vivo studies. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 41, 331337.
Aeschbach, R, Loliger, J, Scott, BC, Murcia, A, Butler, J, Halliwell, B & Aurome, OI. (1994) Antioxidant actions of tymol, carvacrol, 6-gingerolo, zingerone and hydroxytyrosol. Food and Chemical Toxicology 32, 3136.
Alarcon de la Lastra, C, Barranco, MD, Motilova, V & Herrerias, JM (2001) Mediterranean diet and health: biological importance of olive oil. Current Pharmaceutical Design 7, 933950.
Alloggio, V & Caponio, F (1997) The influence of olive paste preparation techniques on the quality of olive oil. 2. Evolution of phenolic substances and of some quality parameters referred to the ripening of drupes in virgin olive oil from the Coratina cv. Rivista Italiana Sostanze Grasse 74, 443447.
Amiot, MJ, Fleuriet, A & Macheix, JJ (1986) Importance and evolution of phenolic compounds in olive during growth and maturation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 34, 823826.
Amiot, MJ, Fleuriet, A & Macheix, JJ (1989) Accumulation of oleuropein derivatives during olive maturation. Phytochemistry 28, 6769.
Angerosa, F, D'Alessandro, N, Konstantinou, P & Di Giacinto, L (1995) GC–MS evaluation of phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 43, 18021807.
Aruoma, OI (1994) Nutrition and health aspects of free radicals and antioxidants. Food and Chemical Toxicology 32, 671683.
Aruoma, OI, Deiana, M, Jenner, A, Halliwell, B, Harparkash, K, Banni, S, Corongiu, FF, Dessì, MA & Aeschbach, R (1998) Effect of hydroxytyrosol found in extra virgin olive oil on DNA damage and on low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 46, 51815187.
Aziz, NH, Farag, SE, Mousa, LAA & Abo Zaid, MA (1998) Comparative antibacterial and antifungal effects of some phenolic compounds. Microbios 93, 4354.
Bai, C, Yan, X, Takenake, M, Sekiya, K & Nagata, T (1998) Determination of synthetic hydroxytyrosol in rat plasma by GC-MS. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 46, 39984001.
Benkhalti, F, Prost, J, Paz, E, Perez-Jimenez, F, El Modafar, C & El Boustani, E (2002) Effects of feeding virgin olive oil or their polyphenols on lipid of rat liver. Nutrition Research 22, 10671075.
Berra, B, Caruso, D, Cortesi, N, Fedeli, E, Rasetti, MF & Galli, G (1995) Antioxidant properties of minor polar components of olive oil on the oxidative processes of cholesterol in human LDL. La Rivista Italiana delle Sostanze Grasse 72, 285288.
Beuchat, LR & Golden, DA (1989) Antimicrobials occurring naturally in foods. Food Technology 43, 134142.
Bianco, A, Lo Scalzo, R & Scarpati, ML (1993) Isolation of cornoside from Olea europaea and its transformation into halleridone. Phytochemistry 32, 455457.
Bianco, A & Uccella, N (2000) Biophenolic components of olives. Food Research International 33, 475485.
Bianco, AD, Mazzei, RA, Melchioni, C, Romeo, G, Scarpati, ML & Uccella, N (1998 a) Microcomponents of olive oil. Part 2: digalactosyldiacylglycerols from Olea europaea. Food Chemistry 62, 343346.
Bianco, AD, Mazzei, RA, Melchioni, C, Romeo, G, Scarpati, ML & Uccella, N (1998 b) Microcomponents of olive oil-3. Glucosides of 2 (3, 4-dihydroxy-phenyl)ethanol. Food Chemistry 63, 461464.
Bisignano, G, Tomaino, A, Lo Cascio, R, Crisafi, G, Uccella, N & Saija, A (1999) On the in-vitro antimicrobial activity of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 51, 971974.
Bonanome, A, Pagnan, A, Biffanti, S, Opportuno, A, Sorgato, F, Dorella, M, Maiorino, M & Ursini, F (1992) Effect of dietary monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids on the susceptibility of plasma low density lipoproteins to oxidative modification. Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 12, 529533.
Bourne, LC, Rice-Evans, CA (1998) Urinary detection of hydroxycinnamates and flavonoids in humans after high dietary intake of fruit. Free Radical Research 28, 429438.
Brenes, M, Garcia, A, Garcia, P, Rios, JJ & Garrido, A (1999) Phenolic compounds in Spanish olive oils. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 47, 35353540.
Brown, MS & Goldstein, JL (1983) Lipoprotein metabolism in the macrophage: implications for cholesterol deposition in atherosclerosis. Annual Review of Biochemistry 52, 223.
Burant, C, Takeda, J, Brot-Laroche, EBell, GDavidson, N (1992) Fructose transporter in human spermatozoa and small intestine is Glut5. Journal of Biological Chemistry 267, 1452314526.
Calis, I, Saracoglu, I, Zor, M & Alacam, R (1988) Antimicrobial activities of some phenylpropanoid glycosides isolated from Scrophularia scopoli. Turk Tip Eczacilik Dergisi 12, 230233.
Cao, G, Sofic, E & Prior, RL (1997) Antioxidant and prooxidant behavior of flavonoids: structure-activity relationships. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 22, 749760.
Capasso, R, Cristinzio, G, Evidente, A & Scognamiglio, F (1992) Isolation, spectroscopy and selective phytotoxic effects of polyphenols from vegetable waste waters. Phytochemistry 31, 41254128.
Capasso, R, Evidente, A, Avolio, S & Solla, F (1999) A highly convenient synthesis of hydroxytyrosol and its recovery from agricultural waste waters. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 47, 17451748.
Capasso, R, Evidente, A, Schivo, L, Orru, G, Marcialis, MA & Cristinzio, G (1995) Antibacterial polyphenols from olive oil mill waste waters. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 79, 393398.
Caruso, D, Colombo, R, Patelli, R, Giavarini, F & Galli, G (2000) Rapid evaluation of phenolic component profile and analysis of oleuropein aglycon in olive oil by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48, 11821185.
Caruso, D, Visioli, F, Patelli, R, Galli, C & Galli, G (2001) Urinary excretion of olive oil phenols and their metabolites in humans. Metabolism Clinical and Experimental 50, 14261428.
Chen, J, Blanc, P, Stoddart, CA, Bogan, M, Rozhon, EJ, Parkinson, N, Ye, Z, Cooper, R, Balick, M, Nanakorn, W, Kernan, MR, Chen, JL & Ye, ZJ (1998) New iridoids from the medicinal plant Barleria prionitis with potent activity against respiratory syncytial virus. Journal of Natural Products 61, 12951297.
Cinquanta, L, Esti, M & La Notte, E (1997) Evolution of phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil during storage. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society 74, 12591264.
Climato, A, Mattei, A & Osti, M (1990) Variation of polyphenol composition with harvesting period. Acta Horticulturae 286, 453456.
Colditz, GA (1993) Epidemiology of breast cancer. Findings from the Nurses' Health Study. Cancer 71, 14801489.
Cominacini, L, Garbin, U, Cenci, B & Davoli, A (1991) Predisposition to LDL oxidation during copper-catalyzed oxidative modification and its relation to α-tocopherol content in humans. Clinica Chimica Acta 204, 5768.
D'Angelo, S, Manna, C, Migliardi, V, Mazzoni, O, Morrica, P, Capasso, G, Pontoni, G, Galletti, P & Zappia, V (2001) Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of hydroxytyrosol, a natural antioxidant from olive oil. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 29, 14921498.
Davin, BD, Bedgar, DL, Katayama, T & Lewis, NG (1992) On the stereoselective synthesis of (+)-pinoresinol in Forsythia suspensa from its achiral precursor, coniferyl alcohol. Phytochemistry 31, 38693874.
Deiana, M, Aruoma, OI, Bianchi, MDLP, Spencer, JPE, Kaur, H, Halliwell, B, Aeschbach, R, Banni, S, Dessi, MA & Corongiu, FP (1999) Inhibition of peroxynitrite dependent DNA base modification and tyrosine nitration by the extra virgin olive oil-derived antioxidant hydroxytyrosol. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 26, 762769.
De la Puerta, R, Martínez-Domínguez, E & Ruíz-Gutiérrez, V (2000) Effect of minor components of virgin olive oil on topical antiinflammatory assays. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung 55, 814819.
De la Puerta, R, Ruiz Gutierrez, V, Robin, J &Hoult, S (1999) Inhibition of leukocyte 5-lipoxygenase by phenolics from virgin olive oil. Biochemical Pharmacology 57, 445449.
De Pergola, G, Giorgino, F, Garruti, G,Cignarelli, M & Giorgino, R (1996) Rapporto tra variabili antropometriche, ormoni sessuali e complicanze dell'obesità (Relationship between anthropometric variables, sex hormones and complications in obesity). Metabolismo Oggi 13, 138145.
de Rojas-Walker, T, Tamir, S, Ji, H, Wishnock, J & Tennanbaum, SR (1995) Nitric oxide induces oxidative damage in addition to deamination in macrophages DNA. Chemical Research in Toxicology 8, 473477.
Edgecombe, SC, Stretch, GL & Hayball, PJ (2000) Oleuropein, an antioxidant polyphenol from olive oil, is poorly absorbed from isolated perfused rat intestine. Journal of Nutrition 130, 29963002.
Eling, TE, Curtis, JF, Harman, LS & Mason, RP (1986) Oxidation of glutathione to its thiyl free radical metabolite by prostaglandin H synthase. Journal of Biological Chemistry 261, 50235028.
Esterbauer, H, Gebicki, J, Puhl, H & Jurgens, G (1992) The role of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in oxidative modification of LDL. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 13, 341.
Esti, M, Cinquanta, L, Notte, EI & La Notte, E (1998) Phenolic compounds in different olive varieties. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 46, 3235.
Federici, F & Bongi, G (1983) Improved method for isolation of bacterial inhibitors from oleuropein hydrolysis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 46, 509510.
Finotti, E & Di Majo, D (2003) Influence of solvents on the antioxidant property of flavonoids. Nahrung/Food 47, 186187.
Garrido Fernández, A, Fernández Díez, MJ & Adams, MR (1997) Table Olives: Production and Processing, pp 67109. London: Chapman & Hall.
Gourama, H & Bullerman, LB (1987) Effects of oleuropein on growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus. Lebensmittel Wissenschaft Technologie 20, 226228.
Gutierrez, F, Jimenez, B, Ruiz, A & Albi, MA (1999) Effect of olive ripeness on the oxidative stability of virgin olive oil extracted from the varieties picual and hojiblanca and on the different components involved. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 47, 121127.
Halliwell, B (1997) Antioxidants and human disease: a general introduction. Nutrition Reviews 55, 4452.
Halliwell, B, Aeschbach, R, Loliger, J & Aruoma, OI (1995) The characterization of antioxidants. Food and Chemical Toxicology 33, 601617.
Halliwell, B & Gutterige, MC (1990) Role of free radicals and catalytic metal ions in human disease: an overview. Methods in Enzymology 186, 185.
Hankinson, SE, Willett, WC, Manson, JE, Hunter, DJ, Colditz, GA, Stampfer, MJ, Longcope, C & Speizer, FE (1995) Alcohol, height, and adiposity in relation to estrogen and prolactin levels in postmenopausal women. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 87, 12971302.
Hertog, MLG, Feskens, EJM, Katan, MB & Kromhout, D (1993) Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Lancet 342, 1007.
Hirano, T, Fukuoka, F, Oka, K, Naito, T, Hosaka, K, Mitsuhashi, H & Matsumoto, Y (1990) Antiproliferative activity of mammalian lignan derivatives against the human breast carcinoma cell line, ZR–75–1. Cancer Investigation 8, 592602.
Hirschman, SZ (1972) Inactivation of DNA polymerases of murine leukaemia viruses by calcium elenolate. Nature: New Biology 238, 277279.
Huang, MT, Osawa, T, Ho, CT & Rosen, RT (1994) Food phyto-chemicals for cancer prevention. In Fruits and Vegetables. ACS Symposium Series no. 46 Washington, DC: American Chemical Society.
Jialal, I, Fuller, CJ & Huet, BA (1995) The effect of α-tocopherol supplementation on LDL oxidation. A dose-response study. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 15, 190198.
Johnson, IT, Williamson, G & Musk, SRR (1994) Anticarcinogenic factors in plant foods. A new class of nutrients. Nutrition Research Reviews 7, 130.
Juven, B, Henis, Y & Jacoby, B (1972) Studies on the mechanism of the antimicrobial action of oleuropein. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 35, 559567.
Kane, S, Seatter, M & Gould, G (1997) Functional studies of human Glut5: effect of pH on substrate selection and an analysis of substrate interactions. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 238, 503505.
Kardono, LB, Tsauri, S, Pezzuto, JM & Kinghorn, AD (1990) Cytotoxic constituents of the bark of Plumeria rubra collected in Indonesia. Journal of Natural Products 53, 14471455.
Kato, MJ, Chu, A, Davin, LB & Lewis, NG (1998) Biosynthesis of antioxidant lignans in Sesamum indicum seeds. Phytochemistry 47, 583591.
Kayano, T, Burant, C, Fukumoto, H, Gould, G, Fan, Y, Eddy, R, Byers, M, Shows, T, Seino, S & Bell, G (1990) Human facilitative glucose transporters. Journal of Biological Chemistry 265, 1327613282.
Keceli, T & Gordon, MH (2001) The antioxidant activity and stability of the phenolic fraction of green olives and extra virgin olive oil. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 81, 13911396.
Kernan, MR, Amarquaye, A, Chen, J, Chan, J, Sesin, DF, Parkinson, N, Ye, Z, Barrett, M, Bales, C, Stoddart, CA, Sloan, B, Blanc, P, Limbach, C, Mrisho, S, Rozhon, EJ, Chen, JL & Ye, ZJ (1998) Antiviral phenylpropanoid glycosides from the medicinal plant Markhamia lutea. Journal of Natural Products 61, 564570.
Keys, A (1995) Mediterranean diet and public health: personal reflections. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 61, 13211323.
Kissebah, AH & Krakower, GR (1994) Regional adiposity and morbidity. Physiological Reviews 74, 761811.
Kohyama, N, Nagata, T, Fujimoto, S & Sekiya, K (1997) Inhibition of arachidonate lipoxygenase activities by 2- (3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol, a phenolic compound from olives. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 61, 347350.
Laranjinha, JA, Almeida, LM & Madeira, VM (1994) Reactivity of dietary phenolic acids with peroxyl radicals: antioxidant activity upon low density lipoprotein peroxidation. Biochemical Pharmacology 48, 487494.
Leenen, R, Roodenburg, AJ, Vissers, MN, Schuurbiers, JA, van Putte, KP, Wiseman, SA & van de Put, FH (2002) Supplementation of plasma with olive oil phenols and extracts: influence on LDL oxidation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50, 12901297.
Limiroli, R, Consonni, R, Ottolina, G, Marsilio, V, Bianchi, G & Zetta, L (1995) 1 H and 13 C NMR characterization of oleuropein aglycones. Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 1 5, 15191523.
Limiroli, R, Consonni, R, Ranalli, A, Bianchi, G & Zetta, L (1996) 1H NMR study of phenolics in the vegetation water of three cultivars of Olea europaea: similarities and differences. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 44, 20402048.
Lipworth, L, Martinez, ME, Angell, J, Hsien, CC & Trichopoulos, D (1997) Olive oil and human cancer an assessment of evidence. Preventive Medicine 26, 181190.
Lo Scalzo, R, Scarpati, ML & Scalzo, RI (1993) A new secoiridoid from olive wastewaters. Journal of Natural Products 56, 621623.
Maggino, T, Pirrone, F, Velluti, F & Bucciante, G (1993) The role of the endocrine factors and obesity in hormone-dependent gynecological neoplasias. European Journal of Gynaecological Oncology 14, 119126.
Manna, C, Galletti, P, Cucciolla, V, Moltedo, O, Leone, A & Zappia, V (1997) The protective effect of the olive oil polyphenol (3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol counteracts reactive oxygen metabolite-induced cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells. Journal of Nutrition 127, 286292.
Manna, C, Galletti, P, Cucciolla, V, Montedoro, GF & Zappia, V (1999) Olive oil hydroxytirosol protects human erythrocytes against oxidative damages. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 10, 159165.
Manna, C, Galletti, P, Misto, G, Cucciolla, V, D'Angelo, S & Zappia, V (2000) Transport mechanism and metabolism of olive oil hydroxytyrosol in Caco-2 cells. FEBS Letters 470, 341344.
Mannino, S, Cosio, MS & Bertuccioli, M (1993) High performance liquid chromatography of phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil using amperometric detector. Italian Journal of Food Science 4, 363370.
Martinez-Dominguez, E, de la Puerta, R & Ruiz-Gutierrez, V (2001) Protective effects upon experimental inflammation models of a polyphenol-supplemented virgin olive oil diet. Inflammation Research 50, 102106.
Masella, R, Cantafora, A, Modesti, D, Cardilli, A, Gennnaro, L, Bocca, A & Coni, E (1999) Antioxidant activity of 3, 4-DHPEA-EA and protocatechuic acid: a comparative assessment with other olive oil biophenols. Redox Report 4, 113121.
Miró Casas, E, Albadalejo, MF, Covas Planells, MI, Colomer, MF, Lamuela Raventós, RM & de la Torre Fornell, R (2001) Tyrosol bioavailability in humans after ingestion of virgin olive oil. Clinical Chemistry 47, 341343.
Miró Casas, E, Covas, MI, Farre, M, Fito, M, Ortuno, J, Weinbrenner, T, Roset, P & de la Torre, R (2003) Hydroxytyrosol disposition in humans. Clinical Chemistry 49, 945952.
Mirochnitchenko, O, Prokopenko, O, Palnitkar, U, Kister, I, Powell, WS & Inouye, M (2000) Endotoxemia in transgenic mice overexpressing human glutathione peroxidases. Circulation Research 87, 289295.
Montedoro, GF (1972) I costituenti fenolici presenti negli oli vergini di oliva. Nota 1: identificazione di alcuni acidi fenolici e loro potere antiossidante (Phenolic constituents present in virgin olive oils. Part 1: identification of some phenolic acids and their antioxidant ability). STA 3, 177186.
Montedoro, G, Servili, M, Baldioli, M & Miniati, E (1992) Simple and hydrolyzable phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil. 1. Their extraction, separation, and quantitative and semiquantitative evaluation by HPLC. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 40, 15711576.
Monteleone, E, Caporale, G, Carlucci, A & Pagliarini, E (1998) Optimisation of extra virgin olive oil quality. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 77, 3137.
Moreno, JJ & Mitjavilab, MT (2003) The degree of unsaturation of dietary fatty acids and the development of atherosclerosis (Review). Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 14, 182195.
Mosca, L, De Marco, C, Visioli, F, Cannella, C (2000) Enzymatic assay for the determination of olive oil polyphenol content: assay conditions and validation of the method. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48, 297301.
Mousavi, Y & Adlercreutz, H (1992) Enterolactone and estradiol inhibit each others proliferative effect on MCF-7 breast cancer cells in culture. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 41, 615619.
Mulinacci, N, Romani, A, Galardi, C, Pinelli, P, Giaccherini, C & Vincieri, FF (2001) Polyphenolic content in olive oil waste waters and related olive samples. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49, 35093514.
Nardini, M, D'aquino, M, Tomassi, G, Gentili, V, Di Felice, M & Scaccini, C (1995) Inhibition of human low-density lipoprotein oxidation by caffeic acid and other idroxycinnamic acid derivatives. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 19, 541552.
Newcomb, TG & Loeb, LA (1998) Mechanism of mutagenicity of oxidatively-modified bases. In Molecular Biology of Free Radicals in Human Diseases, pp. 137166 [Aruoma, OI and Halliwell, B, editors]. Saint Lucia: OICA International.
Nomoto, M, Yamada, K, Haga, M & Hayashi, M (1998) Improvement of intestinal absorption of peptide drugs by glycosylation: transport of tetrapeptide by the sodium ion-dependent D-glucose transporter. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 87, 326332.
Owen, RW, Giacosa, A, Hull, WE, Haubner, R, Spiegelhalder, B & Bartsch, H (2000 a) The antioxidant/anticancer potential of phenolic compounds isolated from olive oil. European Journal of Cancer 36, 12351247.
Owen, RW, Giacosa, A, Hull, WE, Haubner, R, Wurtele, G, Spiegelhalder, B & Bartsch, H (2000 b) Olive-oil consumption and health: the possible role of antioxidants. Lancet Oncology 1, 107112.
Owen, RW, Mier, W, Giacosa, A, Hull, WE, Spiegelhalder, B & Bartsch, H (2000 c) Identification of lignans as major components in the phenolic fraction. Clinical Chemistry 46, 976988.
Papadopoulos, G & Boskou, D (1991) Antioxidant effect of natural phenols on olive oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society 68, 669671.
Pardo, F, Perich, F, Villarroel, L & Torres, R (1993) Isolation of verbascoside, an antimicrobial constituent of Buddleja globosa leaves. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 39, 221222.
Parthasarathy, S (1991) Novel atherogenic oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein. Diabetes/Metabolism Reviews 7, 163.
Petroni, A, Blasevich, M, Salami, M, Papini, N, Montedoro, GF & Galli, C (1995) Inhibition of platelet aggregation and eicosanoid production by phenolic components of olive oil. Thrombosis Research 78, 151160.
Pezzuto, JM (1997) Plant-derived anticancer agents. Biochemical Pharmacology 53, 121133.
Prasad, K (1997) Hydroxyl radical-scavenging property of secoisolar-iciresinol diglucoside (SDG) isolated from flax-seed. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 168, 117123.
Princen, HMG, van Poppel, G, Vogelazang, C, Buytenhek, R, Kok, FJ (1992) Supplementation with vitamin E but not β-carotene in vivo protects low density lipoprotein from lipid peroxidation in vitro. Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 12, 554.
Ranalli, A, De Mattia, G, Ferrante, ML (1997) Comparative evaluation of the olive oil given by a new processing system. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 32, 289297.
Ranalli, A, De Mattia, G & Ferrante, ML (1998) The characteristics of percolation olive oils produced with a new processing enzyme aid. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 33, 247258.
Ranalli, A, Ferrante, ML, De Mattia, G & Costantini, N (1999) Analytical evaluation of virgin olive oil of first and second extraction. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 47, 417424.
Reaven, PD, Khouw, A, Beltz, WF, Parthasarathy, S & Witztum, J (1993) Effect of dietary antioxidant combinations in humans. Protection of LDL by vitamin E but not by β-carotene. Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 13, 590.
Reaven, PD, Parthasarathy, S, Grasse, BJ, Miller, E, Almazan, F, Mattson, FH, Khoo, JC, Steinberg, D & Witztum, JL (1991) Feasibility of using an oleate-rich diet to reduce the susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein to oxidative modification in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54, 701706.
Rice-Evans, CA, Miller, NJ & Paganga, G (1996) Structure-antioxidant activity relationship of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 20, 933956.
Rohn, TT, Hinds, TR & Vincenzi, FF (1993) Ion transport ATPases as targets for free radical damage. Protection by an aminosteroid of the Ca21 pump ATPase and Na1/K1 pump ATPase of human red blood cell membranes. Biochemical Pharmacology 46, 525534.
Ryan, D, Lawrence, H, Prenzler, PD & Antolovic, M (2001) Recovery of phenolic compounds from Olea europeae. Analytica Chimica Acta 445, 6777.
Sadrzadeh, SMH, Graf, E, Panter, SS, Hallaway, PE & Eaton, JW (1984) Hemoglobin. A biologic Fenton reagent. Journal of Biological Chemistry 259, 1435414356.
Salami, M, Galli, C, De Angelis, L & Visioli, F (1995) Formation of F2-isoprostanes in oxidized low density lipoprotein. Inhibitory effects of hydroxytyrosol. Pharmacological Research 31, 275279.
Scaccini, C, Nardini, M, D'Acquino, M, Gentili, V Di Felice M Tomassi G (1992) Effect of dietary oils on lipid peroxidation and on antioxidant parameters of rat plasma and lipoprotein fractions. Journal of Lipid Research 33, 627633.
Schapira, DV, Kumar, NB & Lyman, GH (1991) Obesity, body fat distribution, and sex hormones in breast cancer patients. Cancer 67, 22152218.
Schroder, HC, Merz, H, Steffen, R, Muller, WE, Sarin, PS, Trumm, S, Schulz, J & Eich, E (1990) Differential in vitro antiHIV activity of natural lignans. Zeitschrift Naturforschung 45, 12151221.
Serraino, M & Thompson, LU (1991) The effect of flaxseed supplementation on early risk markers for mammary carcinogenesis. Cancer Letters 60, 135142.
Serraino, M & Thompson, LU (1992) The effect of flaxseed consumption on the initiation and promotional stages of mammary carcinogenesis. Nutrition and Cancer 17, 153159.
Servili, M, Baldioli, M, Selvaggini, R, Macchioni, A & Montedoro, GF (1999 a) Phenolic compounds of olive fruit: one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of nüzhenide and its distribution in the constitutive parts of fruit. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 47, 1218.
Servili, M, Baldioli, M, Selvaggini, R, Miniati, E, Macchioni, A & Montedoro, GF (1999 b) HPLC evaluation of phenols in olive fruit, virgin olive oil, vegetation waters and pomace and 1D and 2D-NMR characterization. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society 76, 873882.
Soler-Rivas, C, Espin, JC, Wichers, HJ (2000) Oleuropein and related compounds. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 80, 10131023.
Solinas, M & Cichelli, A (1981) Sulla determinazione delle sostanze fenoliche dell'olio di oliva (On the determination of phenolic substances of olive oil). Rivista Italiana Sostanze Grasse 58, 159164.
Speroni, E, Guerra, MC, Minghetti, A, Crespi-Perellino, NPasini, PPiazza, FRoda, A (1998) Oleuropein evaluated in vitro and in vivo as an antioxidant. Phytotherapy Research 12, 98100.
Stretch, G, Nation, R, Evans, A & Milne, R (1999) Organ perfusion techniques in drug development. Drug Development Research 46, 292301.
Takata, K (1995) Glucose transporters in the transepithelial transport of glucose. Journal of Electron Microscopy 45, 275284.
Tanaka, T, Makita, H, Kawamori, T, Kawabata, K, Mori, H, Murakami, A, Satoh, K, Hara, A, Ohigashi, H & Koshimizu, K (1997) A xanthine oxidase inhibitor 10 acetoxychavicol acetate inhibits azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in rats. Carcinogenesis 18, 11131118.
Tassou, CC & Nychas, GJE (1994) Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus by olive phenolics in broth and in a model food system. Journal of Food Protection 57, 120124.
Tassou, CC & Nychas, GJE (1995) Inhibition of Salmonella enteritidis by oleuropein in broth and in a model food system. Letters in Applied Microbiology 20, 120124.
Tassou, CC, Nychas, GJE & Board, RG (1991) Effect of phenolic compounds and oleuropein on the germination of Bacillus cereus T spores. Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry 13, 231237.
Thompson, LU, Seidl, MM, Rickard, SE, Orcheson, LJ & Fong, HH (1996) Antitumorigenic effect of a mammalian lignan precursor from flaxseed. Nutrition and Cancer 26, 159165.
Tranter, HS, Tassou, SC & Nychas, GJ (1993) The effect of the olive phenolic compound, oleuropein, on growth and enterotoxin B production by Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 74, 253259.
Trichopoulou, A (1995) Olive oil and breast cancer. Cancer Causes Control 6, 475476.
Trichopoulou, A, Vasilopoulou, E & Lagiou, A (1999) Mediterranean diet and coronary heart disease: are antioxidants critical? Nutrition Reviews 57, 253255.
Tsimidou, M, Lytridou, M, Boskou, D, Paooa-Lousi, A, Kotsifaki, F & Petrakis, C (1996) On the determination of minor phenolic acids of virgin olive oil by RP-HPLC. Grasas y Aceites en la Nutrición Humana 47, 151157.
Tsukamoto, H, Hisada, S & Nishibe, S (1984) Lignans from bark of the Olea plants, 1. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 32, 27302735.
Tsukamoto, H, Hisada, S & Nishibe, S (1985) Lignans from bark of the Olea plants, 2. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 33, 12321241.
Tuck, KL, Freeman, MP, Hayball, PJ, Stretch, GL & Stupans, I (2001) The in vivo fate of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, antioxidant phenolic constituents of olive oil, after intravenous and oral dosing of labeled compounds to rats. Journal of Nutrition 131, 19931996.
Tuck, KL & Hayball, PJ (2002) Major phenolic compounds in olive oil: metabolism and health effects. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 13, 636644.
van Dyke, BR & Saltman, P (1996) Hemoglobin: a mechanism for the generation of hydroxyl radicals. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 20, 985989.
Vasquez Roncero, A (1978) Les polyphenols de l'huile d'olive et leur influence sur les characteristiques de l'huile (Polyphenols of olive oil and their influence on oil characteristics). Revue Française des Corps Gras 25, 2126.
Venkatasubbaiah, P & Chilton, WS (1990) Phytotoxins of Botryosphaeria obtusa. Journal of Natural Products 53, 16281630.
Vieira, O, Laranjinha, J, Madeira, V & Almeida, L (1998) Cholesteryl ester hydroperoxide formation in myoglobin-catalyzed low density lipoprotein oxidation: concerted antioxidant activity of caffeic and p-coumaric acids with ascorbate. Biochemical Pharmacology 55, 333340.
Visioli, F (2000) Antioxidants in Mediterranean diets. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 87, 4355.
Visioli, F, Bellomo, G, Montedoro, GF & Galli, C (1995 a) Low density lipoprotein oxidation is inhibited in vitro by olive oil constituents. Atherosclerosis 117, 2532.
Visioli, F, Bellomo, GF & Galli, C (1998) Free radical scavenging properties of olive oil polyphenols. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 247, 6064.
Visioli, F, Bordone, R, Perugini, C, Bagnati, M, Cau, C & Bellomo, G (2000 a) The kinetics of copper-induced LDL oxidation depend upon its lipid composition and antioxidant content. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 268, 818822.
Visioli, F, Borsani, L & Galli, C (2000 b) Diet and prevention of coronary heart disease: the potential role of phytochemicals. Cardiovascular Research 47, 419425.
Visioli, F & Galli, C (1998 a) Olive oil phenols and their potential effects on human health. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 46, 42924296.
Visioli, F & Galli, C (1998 b) The effect of minor constituents of olive oil on cardiovascular disease: new findings. Nutrition Reviews 56, 142147.
Visioli, F & Galli, C (2001) Antiatherogenic components of olive/olive oil. Current Atherosclerosis Reports 3, 6467.
Visioli, F, Galli, C, Bornet, F, Mattei, A, Patelli, R, Galli, G & Caruso, D (2000 c) Olive oil phenolics are dose-dependently absorbed in humans. FEBS Letters 468, 159160.
Visioli, F, Poli, A & Galli, C (2002) Antioxidant and other biological activities of phenols from olives and olive oil. Medicinal Research Reviews 22, 6575.
Visioli, F, Vinceri, FF & Galli, C (1995 b) “Waste waters” from olive oil production are rich in natural antioxidants. Experientia 51, 3234.
Walter, WM Jr, Flemming, HP & Etchells, JL (1973) Preparation of antimicrobial compounds by hydrolysis of oleuropein from green olives. Applied Microbiology 26, 773776.
Wang, C, Mäkelä, T, Hase, T, Adlercreutz, H & Kurzer, MS (1994) Lignans and flavonoids inhibit aromatase enzyme in human preadipocytes. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 50, 205212.
Willet, WC, Sacks, S, Trichopoulou, A, Drescher, G, Ferro-Luzzi, A, Helsinf, E & Trichopoulos, D (1995) Mediterranean diet pyramid: a cultural model for healthy eating. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 61, 14021406.
Wiseman, SA, Mathot, JNNJ, De Fouw, NJ & Tijburg, LBM (1996) Dietary non-tocopherol antioxidants present in extra virgin olive oil increase the resistance of low density lipoproteins to oxidation in rabbits. Atherosclerosis 120, 1523.
Yamanaka, N, Oda, O & Nagao, S (1997) Green tea catechins such as (-)-epicatechin and (-)-epigallocatechin accelerate Cu2+ -induced low-density lipoprotein oxidation in propagation phase. FEBS Letters 401, 230234.
Yermilov, V, Rubio, J & Ohshima, H (1995) Formation of 8-nitroguanine in DNA treated with peroxynitrite in vitro and its rapid removal from DNA by depurination. FEBS Letters 376, 207210.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure, biological activity and beneficial effects on human health

  • Elisa Tripoli (a1), Marco Giammanco (a1), Garden Tabacchi (a1), Danila Di Majo (a1), Santo Giammanco (a1) and Maurizio La Guardia (a1)...


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.