Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Does physical exercise modify antioxidant requirements?

  • I. Margaritis (a1) and A. S. Rousseau (a2)
Abstract

Physical training is known to induce a biochemical adaptive response which might require an increase in the ingestion and/or the absorption of micronutrients. A question that is still being raised is whether acute or chronic exercise modifies antioxidant requirements. First, the present review brings to light the most crucial studies on the topic. Second, it interprets the established relationships between antioxidant micronutrient intakes and the adaptive response of antioxidant systems. Finally, it exposes the major questions connected with antioxidant micronutrient requirements for athletes. To this effect, the training-load interaction with nutrition is taken into account. As oxidative stress cannot be avoided, the imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants can be alleviated to minimise oxidative damage and outcomes. There is growing evidence that one specific antioxidant cannot by itself prevent oxidative stress-induced damage, as direct adverse effects of supplementation are attributed to undesirable synergic effects. Other effects can be supposed that limit the endogenous adaptive effect of training. High doses of antioxidant supplements can minimise the effects of radical oxygen species themselves or generate pro-oxidant effects. Effects are only exhibited when nutritional status is deficient. There are no convincing effects of supplementation in well-trained athletes. Risk/benefit analysis emerges on evidence for an unknown risk of supranutritional intakes, a supposed impairment of adaptive effects and a still unknown long-term risk. Appropriate status can be achieved by a diversified and balanced diet, adapted to specific needs, by awareness of high-density food intakes (avoiding products containing a low density of micronutrients).

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Does physical exercise modify antioxidant requirements?
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Does physical exercise modify antioxidant requirements?
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Does physical exercise modify antioxidant requirements?
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr Anne-Sophie Rousseau, fax +33 4 93 81 54 32, email Anne-Sophie.ROUSSEAU@unice.fr
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1 JX Wilson (2002) The physiological role of dehydroascorbic acid. FEBS Lett 527, 59.

2 M Levine , Y Wang , SJ Padayatty & JA Morrow (2001) A new recommended dietary allowance of vitamin C for healthy young women. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98, 98429846.

3 R Bergholm , S Mäkimattila , M Valkonen , ML Liu , S Lahdenperä , MR Taskinen , A Sovijärvi , P Malmberg & H Yki-Järvinen (1999) Intense physical training decreases circulating antioxidants and endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in vivo. Atherosclerosis 145, 341349.

4 J Pincemail , J Lecomte , J Castiau , E Collard , T Vasankari , J Cheramy-Bien , R Limet & J Defraigne (2000) Evaluation of autoantibodies against oxidized LDL and antioxidant status in top soccer and basketball players after 4 months of competition. Free Radic Biol Med 28, 559565.

5 H Schröder , E Navarro , A Tramullas , J Mora & D Galiano (2000) Nutrition antioxidant status and oxidative stress in professional basketball players: effects of a three compound antioxidative supplement. Int J Sports Med 21, 146150.

8 R Cazzola , S Russo-Volpe , G Cervato & B Cstaro (2003) Biochemical assessments of oxidative stress, erythrocyte membrane fluidity and antioxidant status in professional soccer players and sedentary controls. Eur J Clin Invest 33, 924930.

9 P Evelson , G Gambino , M Travacio , G Jaita , J Verona , C Maroncelli , R Wikinski , S Llesuy & F Brites (2002) Higher antioxidant defences in plasma and low density lipoproteins from rugby players. Eur J Clin Invest 32, 818825.

12 ID Podmore , HR Griffiths , KE Herbert , N Mistry , P Mistry & J Lunec (1998) Vitamin C exhibits pro-oxidant properties. Nature 392, 559.

13 RJ Bryant , J Ryder , P Martino , J Kim & BW Craig (2003) Effects of vitamin E and C supplementation either alone or in combination on exercise-induced lipid peroxidation in trained cyclists. J Strength Cond Res 17, 792800.

14 A Childs , C Jacobs , T Kaminski , B Halliwell & C Leeuwenburgh (2001) Supplementation with vitamin C and N-acetyl-cysteine increases oxidative stress in humans after an acute muscle injury induced by eccentric exercise. Free Radic Biol Med 31, 745753.

15 B Sandström (2001) Micronutrient interactions: effects on absorption and bioavailability. Br J Nutr 85, Suppl. 2, 181S185S.

16 H Zoller & W Vogel (2004) Iron supplementation in athletes – first do no harm. Nutrition 20, 615619.

20 J St-Pierre , S Drori , M Uldry , . (2006) Suppression of reactive oxygen species and neurodegeneration by the PGC-1 transcriptional coactivators. Cell 127, 397408.

21 M Khassaf , A McArdle , C Esanu , A Vasilaki , F McArdle , RD Griffiths , DA Brodie & MJ Jackson (2003) Effect of vitamin C supplements on antioxidant defence and stress proteins in human lymphocytes and skeletal muscle. J Physiol 549, 645652.

23 JS Coombes , B Rowell , SL Dodd , HA Demirel , H Naito , RA Shanely & SK Powers (2002) Effects of vitamin E deficiency on fatigue and muscle contractile properties. Eur J Appl Physiol 87, 272277.

24 P Mardones & A Rigotti (2004) Cellular mechanisms of vitamin E uptake: relevance in α-tocopherol metabolism and potential implications for disease. J Nutr Biochem 15, 252260.

26 A Aguiló , P Tauler , M Pilar Guix , G Villa , A Córdova , JA Tur & A Pons (2003) Effect of exercise intensity and training on antioxidants and cholesterol profile in cyclists. J Nutr Biochem 14, 319325.

27 J Pincemail , C Deby , G Camus , F Pirnay , R Bouchez , L Massaux & R Goutier (1988) Tocopherol mobilization during intensive exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 57, 189191.

28 K Okamura , T Doi , K Hamada , M Sakurai , Y Yoshioka , R Mitsuzono , T Migita , S Sumida & Y Sugawa-Katayama (1997) Effect of repeated exercise on urinary 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine excretion in humans. Free Radic Res 26, 507514.

29 A Mastaloudis , SW Leonard & MG Traber (2001) Oxidative stress in athletes during extreme endurance exercise. Free Radic Biol Med 31, 911922.

30 PM Tiidus (2000) Estrogen and gender effects on muscle damage, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Can J Appl Physiol 25, 274287.

31 PM Tiidus , WA Behrens , R Madere & ME Houston (1993) Muscle vitamin E levels following acute submaximal exercise in female rats. Acta Physiol Scand 147, 249250.

33 A Hartmann , AM Niess , M Grunert-Fuchs , B Poch & G Speit (1995) Vitamin E prevents exercise-induced DNA damage. Mutat Res 346, 195202.

36 AL Buchman , D Killip , CN Ou , CL Rognerud , H Pownall , K Dennis & JK Dunn (1999) Short-term vitamin E supplementation before marathon running: a placebo-controlled trial. Nutrition 15, 278283.

38 SR McAnulty , LS McAnulty , LS McAnulty , DC Nieman , JD Morrow , LA Shooter , S Holmes , C Heward & DA Henson (2005) Effect of α-tocopherol supplementation on plasma homocysteine and oxidative stress in highly trained athletes before and after exhaustive exercise. J Nutr Biochem 16, 530537.

39 DC Nieman , DA Henson , SR McAnulty , LS McAnulty , JD Morrow , A Ahmed & CB Heward (2004) Vitamin E and immunity after the Kona Triathlon World Championship. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36, 13281335.

40 E Herrera & C Barbas (2001) Vitamin E: action, metabolism and perspectives. J Physiol Biochem 57, 4356.

41 NI Krinsky & KJ Yeum (2003) Carotenoid-radical interactions. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 305, 754760.

43 S Sumida , T Doi , M Sakurai , Y Yoshioka & K Okamura (1997) Effect of a single bout of exercise and β-carotene supplementation on the urinary excretion of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine in humans. Free Radic Res 27, 607618.

44 AS Rousseau , I Margaritis , J Arnaud , H Faure & AM Roussel (2006) Physical activity alters antioxidant status in exercising elderly subjects. J Nutr Biochem 17, 463470.

45 MC Schmidt , EW Askew , DE Roberts , RL Prior , WY Ensign Jr & RE Hesslink Jr (2002) Oxidative stress in humans training in a cold, moderate altitude environment and their response to a phytochemical antioxidant supplement. Wilderness Environ Med 13, 94105.

46 A Kontush , W Weber & U Beisiegel (2000) Alpha- and beta-carotenes in low density lipoprotein are the preferred target for nitric oxide-induced oxidation. Atherosclerosis 148, 8793.

49 CK Ameho , CY Chen , D Smith , C Sanchez-Moreno , PE Milbury & JB Blumberg (2008) Antioxidant activity and metabolite profile of quercetin in vitamin-E-depleted rats. J Nutr Biochem 19, 467474.

51 MB Ruiz-Larrea , AR Mohan , G Paganga , NJ Miller , GP Bolwell & CA Rice-Evans (1997) Antioxidant activity of phytoestrogenic isoflavones. Free Radic Res 26, 6370.

52 J Viña , J Sastre , FV Pallardó , J Gambini & C Borrás (2008) Modulation of longevity-associated genes by estrogens or phytoestrogens. Biol Chem 389, 273277.

54 VS Panza , E Wazlawik , G Ricardo Schutz , L Comin , KC Hecht & EL da Silva (2008) Consumption of green tea favorably affects oxidative stress markers in weight-trained men. Nutrition 24, 433442.

55 DC Nieman , DA Henson , JM Davis , . (2007) Quercetin's influence on exercise-induced changes in plasma cytokines and muscle and leukocyte cytokine mRNA. J Appl Physiol 103, 17281735.

56 SR McAnulty , LS McAnulty , DC Nieman , . (2008) Chronic quercetin ingestion and exercise-induced oxidative damage and inflammation. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 33, 254262.

57 DC Nieman , DA Henson , SJ Gross , . (2007) Quercetin reduces illness but not immune perturbations after intensive exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 39, 15611569.

58 SJ Duthie , W Johnson & VL Dobson (1997) The effect of dietary flavonoids on DNA damage (strand breaks and oxidised pyrimdines) and growth in human cells. Mutat Res 390, 141151.

62 JE Coleman (1992) Zinc proteins: enzymes, storage proteins, transcription factors, and replication proteins. Annu Rev Biochem 61, 897946.

65 RJ Cousins (1989) Theoretical and practical aspects of zinc uptake and absorption. Adv Exp Med Biol 249, 312.

67 RA Anderson , NA Bryden , MM Polansky & PA Deuster (1995) Acute exercise effects on urinary losses and serum concentrations of copper and zinc of moderately trained and untrained men consuming a controlled diet. Analyst 120, 867870.

68 I Margaritis , AS Rousseau , I Hininger , S Palazzetti , J Arnaud & AM Roussel (2005) Increase in selenium requirements with physical activity loads in well-trained athletes is not linear. Biofactors 23, 4555.

69 JM Peake , DF Gerrard & JF Griffin (2003) Plasma zinc and immune markers in runners in response to a moderate increase in training volume. Int J Sports Med 24, 212216.

72 W Slikker Jr, ME Andersen , MS Bogdanffy , . (2004) Dose-dependent transitions in mechanisms of toxicity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 201, 203225.

74 J Davidson , DM Medeiros , RL Hamlin & JE Jenkins (1993) Submaximal, aerobic exercise training exacerbates the cardiomyopathy of postweanling Cu-depleted rats. Biol Trace Elem Res 38, 251272.

76 I Margaritis , S Palazzetti , AS Rousseau , MJ Richard & A Favier (2003) Antioxidant supplementation and tapering exercise improve exercise-induced antioxidant response. J Am Coll Nutr 22, 147156.

77 RR Jenkins , R Friedland & H Howald (1984) The relationship of oxygen uptake to superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in human skeletal muscle. Int J Sports Med 5, 1114.

78 DR Landes (1975) Influence of dietary carbohydrate on copper, iron, and zinc status of the rat. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 150, 686689.

79 CD Thomson (2004) Assessment of requirements for selenium and adequacy of selenium status: a review. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 391402.

80 GV Kryukov , S Castellano , SV Novoselov , AV Lobanov , O Zehtab , R Guigó & VN Gladyshev (2003) Characterization of mammalian selenoproteomes. Science 300, 14391443.

82 LL Ji , FW Stratman & HA Lardy (1988) Antioxidant enzyme systems in rat liver and skeletal muscle. Influences of selenium deficiency, chronic training, and acute exercise. Arch Biochem Biophys 263, 150160.

84 JC Soares , V Folmer & JB Rocha (2003) Influence of dietary selenium supplementation and exercise on thiol-containing enzymes in mice. Nutrition 19, 627632.

85 JT Deagen , JA Butler , BA Zachara & PD Whanger (1993) Determination of the distribution of selenium between glutathione peroxidase, selenoprotein P, and albumin in plasma. Anal Biochem 208, 176181.

87 EJ Ha & AM Smith (2003) Plasma selenium and plasma and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity increase with estrogen during the menstrual cycle. J Am Coll Nutr 22, 4351.

89 F Tessier , I Margaritis , MJ Richard , C Moynot & P Marconnet (1995) Selenium and training effects on the glutathione system and aerobic performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 27, 390396.

90 S Palazzetti , MJ Richard , A Favier & I Margaritis (2003) Overloaded training increases exercise-induced oxidative stress and damage. Can J Appl Physiol 28, 588604.

91 A Mastaloudis , JD Morrow , DW Hopkins , S Devaraj & MG Traber (2004) Antioxidant supplementation prevents exercise-induced lipid peroxidation, but not inflammation, in ultramarathon runners. Free Radic Biol Med 36, 13291341.

93 PA Grimaldi (2007) Regulatory functions of PPARβ in metabolism: implications for the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Biochim Biophys Acta 1771, 983990.

94 GD Bjelakovic , LL Nikolova , RG Gluud , RG Simonetti & C Gluud (2007) Mortality in randomized trials of antioxidant supplements for primary and secondary prevention: systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 297, 842857.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Nutrition Research Reviews
  • ISSN: 0954-4224
  • EISSN: 1475-2700
  • URL: /core/journals/nutrition-research-reviews
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 19
Total number of PDF views: 240 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 202 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 24th May 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.