Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 24
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Cho, Margaret Carter, Janell Harari, Saul and Pei, Zhiheng 2014. The Interrelationships of the Gut Microbiome and Inflammation in Colorectal Carcinogenesis. Clinics in Laboratory Medicine, Vol. 34, Issue. 4, p. 699.

    Da Pieve, Chiara Sahgal, Natasha Moore, Sharon A. and Velasco-Garcia, Maria N. 2013. Development of a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method to investigate the presence of biomarkers of DNA damage in urine related to red meat consumption and risk of colorectal cancer. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, Vol. 27, Issue. 21, p. 2493.

    2013. Processing and Nutrition of Fats and Oils.

    Sala-Vila, Aleix Folkes, Jacqueline and Calder, Philip C. 2010. The effect of three lipid emulsions differing in fatty acid composition on growth, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the HT-29 colorectal cancer cell line. Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 29, Issue. 4, p. 519.

    Mortensen, Alicja Kulling, Sabine E. Schwartz, Heidi Rowland, Ian Ruefer, Corinna E. Rimbach, Gerald Cassidy, Aedin Magee, Pamela Millar, Julie Hall, Wendy L. Kramer Birkved, Franziska Sorensen, Ilona K. and Sontag, Gerhard 2009. Analytical and compositional aspects of isoflavones in food and their biological effects. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, Vol. 53, Issue. S2, p. S266.

    Munjal, Umang Glei, Michael Pool-Zobel, Beatrice Louise and Scharlau, Daniel 2009. Fermentation products of inulin-type fructans reduce proliferation and induce apoptosis in human colon tumour cells of different stages of carcinogenesis. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 102, Issue. 05, p. 663.

    2009. Erratum: Analytical and compositional aspects of isoflavones in food and their biological effects. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, Vol. 53, Issue. 11, p. 1479.

    Lund, E. and Kampman, E. 2008. Improving Seafood Products for the Consumer.

    Knöbel, Y. Weise, A. Glei, M. Sendt, W. Claussen, U. and Pool-Zobel, B.L. 2007. Ferric iron is genotoxic in non-transformed and preneoplastic human colon cells. Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 45, Issue. 5, p. 804.

    Knöbel, Y. Glei, M. Osswald, K. and Pool-Zobel, B.L. 2006. Ferric iron increases ROS formation, modulates cell growth and enhances genotoxic damage by 4-hydroxynonenal in human colon tumor cells. Toxicology in Vitro, Vol. 20, Issue. 6, p. 793.

    Pool-Zobel, Beatrice Veeriah, Selvaraju and Böhmer, Frank-D. 2005. Modulation of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes by anticarcinogens—focus on glutathione S-transferases and their role as targets of dietary chemoprevention in colorectal carcinogenesis. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, Vol. 591, Issue. 1-2, p. 74.

    Heavey, Patricia M. McKenna, Declan and Rowland, Ian R. 2004. Colorectal Cancer and the Relationship Between Genes and the Environment. Nutrition and Cancer, Vol. 48, Issue. 2, p. 124.

    Kennedy, O.B. Stewart‐Knox, B.J. Mitchell, P.C. and Thurnham, D.I. 2004. Consumer perceptions of poultry meat: a qualitative analysis. Nutrition & Food Science, Vol. 34, Issue. 3, p. 122.

    Johnson, Ian T 2003. Functional foods and bowel cancer. Food Science <html_ent glyph="@amp;" ascii="&amp;"/> Technology Bulletin: Functional Foods, Vol. 1, Issue. 3, p. 1.

    Rowland, Ian and Heavey, Patricia 2003. Reviews in Food and Nutrition Toxicity.

    Brouns, Fred Kettlitz, Bernd and Arrigoni, Eva 2002. Resistant starch and “the butyrate revolution”. Trends in Food Science & Technology, Vol. 13, Issue. 8, p. 251.

    Glei, Michael Latunde-Dada, Gladys O. Klinder, Annett Becker, Thomas W. Hermann, Uta Voigt, Klaus and Pool-Zobel, Beatrice L. 2002. Iron-overload induces oxidative DNA damage in the human colon carcinoma cell line HT29 clone 19A. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Vol. 519, Issue. 1-2, p. 151.

    Higgs, J. and Mulvihill, B. 2002. Meat Processing.

    Higgs, J.D. and Mulvihill, B. 2002. The Nutrition Handbook for Food Processors.

    Steer, Toni E. and Gibson, Glenn R. 2002. The microbiology of phytic acid metabolism by gut bacteria and relevance for bowel cancer. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, Vol. 37, Issue. 7, p. 783.


Epidemiology and Mechanisms Relating Diet to Risk of Colorectal Cancer

  • Sheila A. Bingham (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 14 December 2007
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Epidemiology and Mechanisms Relating Diet to Risk of Colorectal Cancer
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Epidemiology and Mechanisms Relating Diet to Risk of Colorectal Cancer
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Epidemiology and Mechanisms Relating Diet to Risk of Colorectal Cancer
      Available formats
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

ATBC (Alpha Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group) (1994). The effect of vitamin E and β-carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. New England Journal of medicine 330, 10291035.

K. E. Anderson , A. H. Conney & A. Kappas (1982). Nutritional influences on chemical biotransformations in humans. Nutrition Reviews 40, 161171.

E. Änggård (1994). Nitric oxide: mediator, murderer, and medicine. Lancet 343, 11991206.

M. Anti , F. Armelao , G. Marra , A. Percesepe , G. M. Bartoli , P. Palozza , P. Parrella , C. Canetta , N. Gentiloni , I. DeVitis & G. Gasbarrini (1994). Effect of different levels of ω3 fatty acids on rectal cell proliferation in patients at high risk for colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology 107, 17091718.

M. Anti , G. Marra , F. Armelao , G. M. Bartoli , R. Ficarelli , A. Percesepe , I. de Vitis , G. Maria , L. Sofo , G. L. Rapaccini (1992). Effects of ω3 fatty acids on rectal mucosal proliferation in subjects at risk for colon cancer. Gastroenterology 103, 883889.

B. Armstrong & R. Doll (1975). Environmental factors and the incidence and mortality from cancer in different countries with special reference to dietary practices. International Journal of Cancer 15, 617631.

P. J. Barrington , R. S. U. Baker , A. S. Truswell , A. M. Bonin , A. J. Ryan & A. P. Paulin (1990). Mutagenicity of basic fractions derived from lamb and beef cooked by common household methods. Food and Chemical Toxicology 28, 141146.

H. P. Bartram , A. Gostner , W. Scheppach , B. S. Reddy , C. V. Rao , G. Dusel , F. Richter & H. Kasper (1993). Effects of fish oil on rectal cell proliferation, mucosal fatty acids and prostaglandin E2 release in healthy subjects. Gastroenterology 105, 13171322.

H. Bartsch & R. Montesano (1984). Relevance of nitrosamines to human cancer. Carcinogenesis 5, 13811393.

E. Benito , E. Cabeza , V. Moreno , A. Obrador & F. X. Bosch (1993). Diet and colorectal adenomas: a case-control study in Majorca. International Journal of Cancer 55, 213219.

S. A. Bingham & J. H. Cummings (1989). Effect of exercise and physical fitness on large intestinal function. Gastroenterology 97, 13891399.

S. A. Bingham , B. Pignatelli , J. Pollock , A Ellul , C. Mallaveille , G. Gross , S. Runswick , J. H. Cummings & I. K. O'Neill (1996). Does increased formation of endogenous N nitroso compounds in the human colon explain the association between red meat and colon cancer? Carcinogenesis 17, 515523.

S. A. Bingham , D. R. R. Williams , T. J. Cole & W. P. T. James (1979). Dietary fibre and regional large bowel cancer mortality in Britain. British Journal of Cancer 40, 456463.

S. A. Bingham , D. R. R. Williams & J. H. Cummings (1985). Dietary fibre consumption in Britain: new estimates and their relation to large bowel cancer mortality. British Journal of Cancer 52, 399402.

W. F. Bodmer , C. J. Bailey , J. Bodmer , H. J. R. Bussey , A Ellis , R. Gorman , C. F. Lucibello , V. A. Murday , S. H. Rider , P. scambler , D. Sheer , E. Solomon & N. K. Spurr (1987). Localisation of the gene for familial adenomatous polyposis on chromosome 5. Nature 328, 614616.

J. J. P. Bogaards , H. Verhagen , M. I. Willems , G. van Poppel & P. J. van Bladeren (1994). Consumption of Brussels sprouts results in elevated α-class glutathione S-transferase levels in human blood plasma. Carcinogenesis 15, 10731075.

L. Boing , R. Martinez , F. R. Beyme & F. U. Oltersdorf (1985). Regional nutritional patterns and cancer mortality in the Federal Republic of Germany. Nutrition and Cancer 7, 121130.

R. M. Bostick , L. Fosdick , J. R. Wood , P. Grambsch , G. A. Grandits , T. J. Lillemoe , T. A. Louis & J. D. Potter (1995). Calcium and colorectal epithelial cell proliferation in sporadic adenoma patients: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 87, 13071315.

R. M. Bostick , J. D. Potter , L. H. Kushi , T. A Sellers , K. A. Steinmetz , D. R. McKenzie , S. M. Gapstyr & A. R. Folsom (1994). Sugar, meat, and fat intake and non-dietary risk factors for colon cancer incidence in lowa women. Cancer Causes and Control 5, 3852.

P. Boyle , R. Kevi , F. Lucchuni & C. La Vecchia (1993). Trends in diet-related cancers in Japan: a conundrum? Lancet 342, 752.

C. E. Bronner , S. M. Baker , P. T. Morrison , G. Warren , L. G. Smith , M. K. Lescoe , M. Kane , Lipford, J. Earabino , A. Lindblom (1994). Mutation in the DNA mismatch repair gene homologue hMLHl is associated with hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer. Nature 368, 258261.

S. Calmels , H. Ohshima , P. Vincent , A.-M. Gounot & H. Bartsch (1985). Screening of microorganisms for nitrosation catalysis at pH 7 and kinetic studies on nitrosamine formation from secondary amines by E. coli strains. Carcinogenesis 6, 911915.

A. Cassidy , S. A. Bingham & J. H. Cummings (1994). Starch intake and colorectal cancer risk: an international comparison. British Journal of Cancer 69, 937942.

A. Chacko & J. H. Cummings (1988). Nitrogen losses from the human small bowel: obligatory losses and the effect of physical form of food. Gut 29, 809815.

D. E. Corpet , R. Bellier , S. Petrowitsch & Y. Vigouroux (1994). Digestion and fermentation of proteins in rats fed keratin, albumin, cooked casein and antibiotics. Reproduction, Nutrition, Development 34, 5764.

M. Cravo , P. Fidalgo , A. D. Pereira , A. Gouveia Oliveira , P. Chaves , J. Selhub , J. B. Mason , F. C. Mira & C. N. I. Leitao (1994). DNA methylation as an intermediate biomarker in colorectal cancer: modulation by folic acid supplementation. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 3, 473479.

J. H. Cummings (1981 b). Short chain fatty acids in the human colon. Gut 22, 763779.

J. H. Cummings , S. A. Bingham , K. W. Heaton & M. A. Eastwood (1992). Fecal weight, colon cancer risk, and dietary intake of nonstarch polysaccharides (dietary fiber). Gastroenterology 103, 17831789.

J. H. Cummings , E. W. Pomare , W. J. Branch , C. P. E. Naylor & G. T. Macfarlane (1987). Short chain fatty acids in human large intestine, portal, hepatic and venous blood. Gut 28, 12211227.

J. H. Cummings , H. S. Wiggins , D. J. A. Jenkins , H. Houston , T. Jivraj , B. S. Drasar & M. J. Hill (1978). Influence of diets high and low in animal fat on bowel habit, gastrointestinal transit time, fecal microflora, bile acid and fat excretion. Journal of Clinical Investigation 61, 953963.

J. J. Decosse , H. H. Miller & M. L. Lesser (1989). Effect of wheat fibre and vitamins C and E on rectal polyps in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 81, 12901297.

T. M. C. M. De Kok , D. Pachen , M. L. P. S. Van Iersel , C. G. M. I. Baeten , L. G. J. B. Engels , F. ten Hoor & J. C. S. Kleinjans (1993). Case control study on fecapentaene excretion in adenomatous polyps in the colon and rectum. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 85, 12411244.

E. E. Deschner , J. F. Ruperto , J. R. Lupton & H. L. Newmark (1990). Butyrate (tributyrin) does not enhance AOM-induced colon tumorigenesis. Cancer Letters 52, 7982.

E. E. Deschner , J. Ruperto , G. Wong & H. L. Newmark (1991). Quercetin and rutin as inhibitors of azoxymethanol-induced colonic neoplasia. Carcinogenesis 12, 11931196.

E. E. Deschner , J. F. Ruperto , G. Y. Wong & H. L. Newmark (1993). The effect of dietary quercetin and rutin on AOM-induced acute colonic epithelial abnormalities in mice fed a high fat-diet. Nutrition and Cancer 20, 199204.

B. S. Drasar & D. Irving (1973). Environmental factors and cancer of the colon and breast. British Journal of Cancer 27, 167172.

G. Eisenbrand & W. Tang (1993). Food borne heterocyclic amines. Chemistry, formation, occurrence and biological activities. A literature review. Toxicology 84, 182.

E. R. Fearon & B. Vogelstein (1990). A genetic model for colorectal tumorigenesis. Review. Cell 61, 759767.

S. M. Feingold , V. L. Sugger & G. E. Mathisen (1983). Normal indigenous intestinal flora. In Intestinal Flora in Health and Disease, pp. 331 [D. J. Hentges editor]. New York: Academic Press.

G. R. Fenwick , R. K. Heaney & W. J. Mullin (1982). Glucosinolates and their breakdown products in food and food plants. CRC Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 18, 123201.

H. J. Freeman (1986). Effects of differing concentrations of sodium butyrate in 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine induced rat intestinal neoplasia. Gastroenterology 91, 596602.

C. M. Friedenreich , G. R. Howe & A. B. Miller (1991). The effect of recall bias on the association of calorie providing nutrients and breast cancer. Epidemiology 2, 424429.

S. Friend (1994). A glimpse at the puppet behind the shadow play. Science 265, 334335.

M. D. Friesen , K. Kaderlik , D. X. Lin , L. Garren , H. Bartsch , N. P. Lang & F. F. Kadlubar (1994). Analysis of DNA adducts of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4, 5-b]pyridine in rat and human tissues by alkaline hydrolysis and gas chromatography electron capture mass spectrometry: validation by comparison with 32P postlabelling. Chemical Research in Toxicology 7, 733739.

M. L. Garg & J. C. Haerdi (1993). The biosynthesis and functions of plasmalogens. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 14, 7182.

M. Gerhardsson de Verdier , G. Steineck , U. Hagman , A. Rieger & S. E. Norell (1990). Physical activity and colon cancer: a case reference study in Stockholm. International Journal of Cancer 46, 985989.

G. R. Gibson , G. T. Macfarlane & J. H. Cummings (1988). Occurrence of sulphate-reducing bacteria in human faeces and the relationship of dissimilatory sulphate reduction to methanogenesis in the large gut. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 65, 103111.

E. Giovannucci , M. J. Stampfer , G. A. Colditz , E. B. Rimm , D. Trichopoulos , B. A. Rosner , F. E. Speizer & W. C. Willett (1993 b). Folate, methionine, and alcohol intake and risk of colorectal adenoma. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 85, 875884.

E. Giovannucci , M. J. Stampfer , G. Colditz , E. B. Rimm & W. C. Willett (1992). Relationship of diet to risk of colorectal adenoma in men. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 84, 9198.

A. Goldbohm , M. G. L. Hertog , H. A. M. Brants , G. van Poppel & G. van den Brandt (1996). Consumption of black tea and cancer risk: a prospective cohort study. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 88, 93100.

E. Graf & J. W. Eaton (1993). Suppression of colonic cancer by dietary phytic acid. Nutrition and Cancer 19, 1119.

E. R. Greenberg , J. A. Baron , T. D. Tosteson , D. H. Freeman , G. J. Beck , J. H. Bond , T. A. Colacchio , J. A. Coller , H. D. Frankl , R. W. Haile (1994). A clinical trial of antioxidant vitamins to prevent colorectal adenoma. New England Journal of Medicine 331, 141147.

G. A. Gross (1990). Simple methods for quantifying mutagenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in food products. Carcinogenesis 11, 15971603.

J. G. Guillem , C. A. Obrian , C. J. Fitzer , M. D. Johnson , K. A. Forde , P. LoGerfo & B. Weinstein (1987). Studies on protein kinase C and colon carcinogenesis. Archives of Surgery 122, 14751478.

I. Gupta , K. Suzuki , W. R. Bruce , J. J. Krepinski & P. Yates (1984). A model study of fecapentaenes: mutagens of bacterial origin with alkylating properties. Science 225, 521523.

A. Hague , A. M. Manning , K. A. Hanlon , L. I. Huschtscha , D. Hart & C. Paraskeva (1993). Sodium butyrate induces apoptosis in human colonic tumour cell lines in a p53-independent pathway. Implications for the possible role of dietary fibre in the prevention of large-bowel cancer. International Journal of Cancer 55, 498505.

C. N. Hall , A. F. Badawi , P. J. O'Connor & R. Saffhill (1991). The detection of alkylation damage in the DNA of human gastrointestinal tissues. British Journal of Cancer 64, 5963.

C. C. Harris (1993). p53 at the crossroads of molecular carcinogenesis and risk assessment. Science 262, 19801981.

B. Havsteen (1983). Flavonoids, a class of natural products of high pharmacological potency. Biochemical Pharmacology 32, 11411148.

L. K. Heilbrun , A. Nomura , J. H. Hankin & G. N. Stemmermann (1989). Diet and colorectal cancer with special reference to fiber intake. International Journal of Cancer 44, 16.

D. C. Heimburger , C. B. Alexander , R. Birch , C. C. Butterworth , W. C. Bailey & C. L. Krumdieck (1988). Improvement in bronchial squamous metaplasia in smokers treated with folate and vitamin B12. Journal of the American Medical Association 259, 15251530.

M. J. Hinzman , C. Novotny , A. Ullah & A. M. Shamsuddin (1987). Fecal mutagen fecapentaene-12 damages mammalian colon epithelial DNA. Carcinogenesis 8, 14751479.

G. Hoff , I. E. Moen , K. Trygg , W. Frolich , J. Sauar , M. Vatn , E. Gjone & S. Larsen (1986). Epidemiology of polyps in the rectum and sigmoid colon. Evaluation of nutritional factors. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 21, 199204.

M. Hollstein , D. Sidransky , B. Vogelstein & C. C. Harris (1991). p53 mutations in human cancer. Science 253, 4953.

M. A. Howell (1975). Diet as an etiological factor in the development of cancers of the colon and rectum. Journal of Chronic Diseases 28, 6780.

N. Ito , R. Hasegawa , M. Sano , S. Tamano , H. Esumi , S. Takayama & T. Sugimura (1991). A new colon and mammary carcinogen in cooked food, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4, 5-b]pyridine (Phlp). Carcinogenesis 12, 15031506.

R. lyengar , D. J. Stuehr & M. A. Marletta (1987). Macrophage synthesis of nitrite, nitrate, and N-nitrosamines: precursors and role of the respiratory burst. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 84, 63696373.

L. R. Jacobs (1990). Influence of soluble fibres on experimental colon carcinogenesis. In Dietary Fibre, pp. 389–420 [D. Kritchevsky C. Bonfield and J. W. Anderson editors]. New York: Plenum Press.

R. F. Jacoby , R. J. Alexander , R. F. Raicht & T. A. Brasitus (1992). K-ras oncogene mutations in rat colon tumours induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. Carcinogenesis 13, 4549.

R. F. Jacoby , X. Llor , B.-B. Teng , N. 0. Davidson & T. A. Brasitus (1991). Mutations in the K-ras oncogene induced by 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine in preneoplastic and neoplastic rat colonic mucosa. Journal of Clinical Investigation 87, 624630.

G. K. Johansson , L. Ottova & J. A. Gustafsson (1990). Shift from a mixed diet to a lactovegetarian diet: influence on some cancer associated intestinal bacterial enzyme activities. Nutrition and Cancer 14, 239246.

F. F. Kadlubah (1994). Rethinking the role of intestinal microflora in bioactivation of food-borne heterocyclic amine carcinogens. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 86, 5.

F. F. Kadlubar , M. A. Butler , K. R. Kaderlik , H. C. Chou & N. P. Lang (1992). Polymorphisms for aromatic amine metabolism in humans. Relevance for human carcinogenesis. Environmental Health Perspectives 98, 6974.

T. Kato , H. Migita , H. Ohgaki , S. Sato , S. Takayama & T. Sugimura (1989). Induction of tumors in the Zymbal gland, oral cavity, colon, skin and mammary gland of F344 rats by a mutagenic compound, 2-amino-3, 4-dimethylimidazo[4, 5-f]quinoline. Curcinogenesis 10, 601603.

S. O. Keli , M. G. H. Hertog , J. M. Feskens & D. Kroumhout (1996). Dietary flavonoids, antioxidant vitamins and incidence of stroke. Archives of Internal Medicine 156, 637642.

A. L. Klatsky , M. A. Armstrong , G. D. Freidman & R. A. Hiatt (1988). The relations of alcoholic beverage use to colon and rectal cancer. American Journal of Epidemiology 128, 10071015.

J. H. Kleibeuker , J. W. M. Welberg , N. H. Mulder , R. Vandermeer , A. Cats , A. J. Limburg , W. M. T. Kreumer , M. J. Hardonk & E. G. E. De Vries (1993). Epithelial cell proliferation in the sigmoid colon of patients with adenomatous polyps increases during oral calcium supplementation. British Journal of Cancer 67, 500503.

D. M. Klurfeld (1990). Insoluble dietary fiber and colon cancer. In Dietary Fiber, pp. 403416 [D. Kritchevsky C. Bonfield & J. W. Anderson editors]. New York: Plenum Press.

P. Knekt , A. Reunanen , H. Takkunene , A. Aromaa , M. Heliovaara & T. Hakulinene (1989). Body iron stores and risk of cancer. International Journal of Cancer 56, 379382.

S. Kono , K. Imanishi , K. Shinchi & F. Yanai (1993). Relationship of diet to small and large adenomas of the sigmoid colon. Japanese Journal of Cancer Research 84, 1319.

C. Kuratko & B. C. Pence (1995). Dietary lipid and iron modify normal colonic mucosa without affecting phospholipase A2 activity. Cancer Letters 95, 181187.

P. W. Laird , L. Jackson-Grusby , A. Fazeli , S. L. Dickinson , W. E. Jung , E. Li , R. A. Weinberg & R. Jaenisch (1995). Suppression of intestinal neoplasia by DNA hypomethylation. Cell 81, 197205.

B. A. Lashner (1993). Red blood cell folate is associated with the development of dysplasia and cancer in ulcerative colitis. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 119, 549554.

B. A. Lashner , P. A. Heidenreich , G. L. Su , S. V. Kane & S. B. Hanauer (1989). Effect of folate supplementation on the incidence of dysplasia and cancer in chronic ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 97, 255259.

D. W. Layton , K. T. Bogen , M. G. Knize , F. T. Hatch , V. M. Johnson & J. S. Felton (1995). Cancer risk of heterocyclic amines in cooked foods. Carcinogenesis 16, 3962.

A. Leaf & P. C. Weber (1988). Cardiovascular effects of n-3 fatty acids. New England Journal of Medicine 318, 549557.

A. M. Lotfi , R. J. Spencer , D. M. Ilstrup & L. J. Melton (1986). Colorectal polyps and risk of subsequent carcinoma. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 61, 337343.

M. P. Longnecker , J. M. M. Moreno , P. Knekt , A. M. Y. Nomura , S. E. Schober , H. B. Stahelin , N. J. Wald , K. F. Gey W. C. Willett (1992). Serum α-tocopherol concentration in relation to subsequent colorectal cancer: pooled data from five cohorts. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 84, 430435.

M. P. Longnecker , M. J. Orza , M. E. Adams (1990). A meta analysis of alcoholic beverage consumption in relation to colorectal cancer. Cancer Causes and Control 1, 5968.

J. B. McConnell , J. Murison & W. K. Stewart (1979). The role of the colon in the pathogenesis of hyperchloraemic acidosis in ureterosigmoid anastomosis. Clinical Science 57, 305312.

G. McKeown-Eyssen & E. Bright-See (1985). Dietary factors in colon cancer: international relationships. An update. Nutrition and Cancer 7, 251253.

R. MacLennan , F. Macrae , C. Bain , D. Battistutta , P. Chapuis , H. Gratten , J. Lambert , R. C. Newland , M. Ngu , A. Russell , M. Ward & M. L. Wahlqvist (1995). Randomized trial of intake of fat, fiber, and beta carotene to prevent colorectal adenomas. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 87, 17601766.

A. J. McMichael , M. G. McCall , J. M. Hartshorne & T. L. Woodings (1980). Patterns of gastrointestinal cancer in European migrants to Australia – the role of dietary change. International Journal of Cancer 25, 431437.

A. J. McMichael , J. D. Potter & B. S. Hetzel (1979). Time trends in colorectal cancer mortality in relation to food and alcohol consumption: United States, United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand. International Journal of Epidemiology 8, 295303.

G. MacQuart-Moulin , E. Riboli , J. Cornée , R. Kaaks & P. Berthezène (1987). Colorectal polyps and diet: a case-control study in Marseilles. International Journal of Cancer 40, 179188.

A. K. Mallett , I. R. Rowland & C. A. Bearne (1986). Influence of wheat bran on some reductive and hydrolytic activities of the rat cecal flora. Nutrition and Cancer 8, 125131.

A. K. Mallett , I. R. Rowland , C. A. Bearne , J. C. Flynn , B. J. Fehilly , S. Udeen & M. Farthing (1988 a). Effects of dietary supplements of apple pectin, wheat bran or fat on the enzyme activity of the human fecal flora. Microbiology and Ecology of Health and Disease 1, 2329.

A. K. Mallett , D. G. Walters & I. R. Rowland (1988 b). Protein-related differences in the excretion of nitrosoproline and nitrate by the rat - possible modification of de novo nitrate synthesis. Food and Chemical Toxicology 26, 831835.

T. Midvedt & A. M. Norman (1968). Parameters in 7-α dehydroxylation of bile acids by anaerobic bacteria. Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica 72, 313329.

H. Mukhtar , Z. Y. Wang , S. Katiyar & R. Agarwal (1992). Tea components: antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects. Preventive Medicine 21, 351361.

P. P. Nair , S. Shami , E. Sainz , M. Menon , L. B. Jerabek , D. Y. Jones , J. T. Judd , W. S. Campbell , M. H. Schiffman , P. R. Taylor , A. Schatzkin , C. Guidry & C. C. Brown (1990). lnfluence of dietary fat on fecal mutagenicity in premenopausal women. International Journal of Cancer 46, 374377.

T. Narisawa & Y. Fukaura (1993). A very low dose of green tea polyphenols in drinking water prevents N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced colon carcinogenesis in F344 rats. Japanese Journal of Cancer Research 84, 10071009.

R. L. Nelson , F. G. Davis , E. Sutter , L. H. Sobin , J. W. Kikendall & P. Bowen (1994). Body iron stores and risk of colonic neoplasia. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 86, 455460.

A. I. Neugut , G. C. Grabowski , W. C. Lee , T. Murray , J. W. Nieves , K. A. Forde , M. R. Treat , J. D. Waye & C. Fenogliopreiser (1993). Dietary risk factors for the incidence and recurrence of colorectal adenomatous polyps. A case-control study. Annals of Internal Medicine 118, 9195.

W. A. Nijhoff , T. P. Mulder , H. Verhagen , G. van Poppel & W. H. M. Peters (1995). Effects of consumption of brussels sprouts on plasma and urinary GST in humans. Carcinogenesis 16, 955957.

Y. Nishizuka (1986). Studies and perspectives of protein kinase C. Science 233, 305312.

I. O'Neill , H. Ohgaki , A. Ellul & R. J. Turesky (1992). Entrapment by magnetic microcapsules of the protein pryolysates IQ, PhIP and Glu-P-1, and alteration of IQ metabolite exposure within the rat gastrointestinal tract by risk-modulating components of the human diet. Carcinogenesis 13, 23532359.

G. M. Paganelli , G. Biasco , G. Brandi , R. Santucci , G. Gizzi , V. Villani , M. Cianci , M. Miglioli & L. Barbara (1992). Effect of vitamins A, C, and E supplementation on rectal cell proliferation in patients with colorectal adenomas. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 84, 4751.

R. M. J. Palmer , A. G. Ferrige & S. Moncada (1987). Nitric oxide release accounts for the biological activity of endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Nature 327, 524526.

P. Peltomäauml;ki , L. A. Aaltonen , P. Sistonen , L. Pylkkäauml;nen , J.-P. Mecklin , H. Jârvinen , J. S. Green , J. R. Jaso , J. L. Weber , F. S. Leach , G. M. Petersen , S. R. Hamilton , A. de la Chapelle & B. Vogelstein (1993). Genetic mapping of a locus predisposing to human colorectal cancer. Science 260, 810812.

B. P. Pence , M. J. Butler , D. M. Dunn , M. F. Miller , C. Zhao & M. Landers (1995). Non promoting effects of lean beef in the rat colon carcinogenesis model. Carcinogenesis 16, 11571160.

J. Powles & D. R. R. Williams (1984). Trends in bowel cancer in selected countries in relation to wartime changes in flour milling. Nutrition and Cancer 6, 4048.

J. J. Rafter , V. W. S. Eng , R. Furrer , A. Medline & W. R. Bruce (1986). Effects of calcium and pH on the mucosal damage produced by deoxycholic acid in the rat colon. Gut 27, 13201329.

B. S. Reddy , B. Simi & A. Engle (1994). Effect of types of fibre on colonic DAG in women. Gastroenterology 106, 883889.

B. S. Reddy , J. H. Weisburger & E. L. Wynder (1974). Fecal bacterial β-glucuronidase: control by diet. Science 183, 416417.

J. W. Rodriguez , W. G. Kirlin , R. J. Ferguson , M. A. Doll , K. Gray , T. D. Rustan , M. E. Lee , K. Kemp , P. Urso & D. W. Hein (1993). Human acetylator genotype: relationship to colorectal cancer incidence and arylamine N-acetyltransferase expression in colon cytosol. Archives of Toxicology 67, 445452.

W. E. W. Roediger (1980). Role of anaerobic bacteria in the metabolic welfare of the colonic mucosa in man. Gut 21, 793798.

W. E. W. Roediger , A. Duncan , O. Kapaniris & S. Millard (1993). Reducing sulfur compounds of the colon impair colonocyte nutrition. Implications for ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 104, 802809.

C. R. Roger (1988). The nutritional incidence of flavonoids: some physiological and metabolic considerations. Experientia 44, 725804.

A. E. Rogers , S. H. Zeisel & J. Groopman (1993). Diet and carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis 14, 22052217.

I. R. Rowland , T. Granli , O. C. Bockman , P. E. Key & R. C. Massey (1991). Endogenous N-nitrosation in man assessed by measurement of apparent total N-uitroso compounds in feces. Carcinogenesis 12, 13951401.

I. R. Rowland , A. K. Mallett , C. A. Bearne & M. J. G. Farthing (1986). Enzyme activities of the hind gut microflora of laboratory animals and man. Xenobiotica 16, 519523.

I. R. Rowland & R. Tanaka (1993). The effects of transgalactosylated oligosaccharides on gut flora metabolism in rats associated with a human faecal microflora. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 74, 667674.

C. J. Rumney , I. R. Rowland , T. M. Coutts , K. Randerath , R. Reddy , A. B. Shah , A. Ellul & I. K. O'Neill (1993). Effects of risk associated human dietary macrocomponents on processes related to carcinogenesis in human-flora-associated (HFA) rats. Carcinogenesis 14, 7984.

R. S. Sandler , C. M. Lyles , L. A. Peipins , C. A. McAuliffe , J. T. Woosley & L. L. Kupper (1993). Diet and risk of colorectal adenomas – macronutrients, cholesterol and fiber. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 85, 884891.

W. Scheppach , W. Burghart , P. Bartram (1990). Addition of dietary fibre to liquid formula diets. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 14, 204209.

W. Scheppach , C. Fabian , M. Sachs & H. Kasper (1988). The effect of starch malabsorption on fecal short chain fatty acid excretion in man. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 23, 755759.

W. B. Scheppach , A. Richter , H. Liepald (1992). Effect of short chain fatty acids on the human colonic mucosa in vitro. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 16, 4348.

P. F. Schofield & D. J. Jones (1992). Colorectal neoplasia I: Benign colonic tumours. British Medical Journal 304, 14981500.

I. Segal , A. R. P. Walker , S. Lord & J. H. Cummings (1988). Breath methane and large bowel cancer risk in contrasting African populations. Gut 29, 608613.

K. D. R. Setchell & H. Adlercreutz (1988). Mammalian lignans and phytoestrogens. In Role of the Gut Flora in Toxicity and Cancer, pp. 315345 [I. R. Rowland editor]. New York: Academic Press.

A. Shibata , A. Paganini-Hill , R. K. Ross , R. Henderson & B. E. Henderson (1992). Intake of vegetables, fruits, β-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin supplements and cancer incidence among the elderly: a prospective study. British Journal of Cancer 66, 673679.

K. R. Silvester & J. H. Cummings (1995). Does digestibility of meat protein help explain large bowel cancer risk? Nutrition and Cancer 24, 279288.

M. L. Slattery , A. W. Sorenson , A. W. Mahoney , T. K. French , D. Kritchevsky & J. C. Street (1988). Diet and colon cancer: assessment of risk by fiber type and food source. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 80, 14741480.

I. C. M. Slob , L. M. C. Lambregts , A. J. Schuit & F. J. Kok (1993). Calcium intake and 28-year gastrointestinal cancer mortality in Dutch civil servants. International Journal of Cancer 54, 2025.

P. J. Smith (1986). n-Butyrate alters chromatin accessibility to DNA repair enzymes. Carcinogenesis 7, 423429.

E. Solomon , R. Voss , V. Hall , W. F. Bodmer , J. R. Jaso , A. J. Jeffreys , F. C. Lucibello , I. Patel & S. H. Rider (1987). Chromosome 5 allele loss in human colorectal carcinomas. Nature 328, 616619.

V. L. Sparnins , G. Barany & L. W. Wattenberg (1988). Effects of organosulphur compounds from garlic and onions on benzo[a]pyrene induced neoplasia and glutathione S-transferase activity in the mouse. Carcinogenesis 9, 131134.

R. G. Stevens , B. I. Graubard , M. S. Micozzi , K. Neriishi & B. S. Blumberg (1994). Moderate elevation of body iron level and increased risk of cancer occurrence and death. International Journal of Cancer 56, 364369.

R. C. Strange , B. Matharoo , G. C. Faulder , P. Jones , W. Cotton , J. B. Elder & M. Deakin (1991). The human glutathione S-transferases: a case-control study of the incidence of the GSTl-O phenotype in patients with adenocarcinoma. Carcinogenesis 12, 2528.

D. J. Stuehr & M. A. Marletta (1985). Mammalian nitrate biosynthesis: mouse macrophages produce nitrite and nitrate in response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. Proceedings ofthe National Academv of Sciences, USA 82, 77387742.

T. Sugimura (1986). Past, present, and future of mutagens in cooked foods. Environmental Health Perspectives 67, 510.

S. Takahashi , K. Hakoi , H. Yada , M. Hirose , N. Ito & S. Fukushima (1992). Enhancing effects of diallyl sulphide on hepatocarcinogenesis and inhibitory actions of the related diallyl disulphide on colon and renal carcinogenesis in rats. Carcinogenesis 13, 15131518.

E. S. Tank , D. N. Krausch & J. Lapides (1973). Adenocarcinoma of the colon associated with uretero-sigmoidoscopy. Diseases of the Colon and Rectum 16, 300304.

I. S. Thind (1986). Diet and cancer: an international study. International Journal of Epidemiology 15, 160163.

M. J. Thun , E. E. Calle , M. M. Namboodiri , W. D. Flanders , R. J. Coates , T. Byers , P. Boffetta , L. Garfinkel & C. W. Heath (1992). Risk factors for fatal colon cancer in a large prospective study. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 84, 14911500.

B. Trock , E. Lanza & P. Greenwald (1990). Dietary fiber, vegetables and colon cancer: critical review and meta-analysis of the epidemiologic evidence. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 82, 650661.

M. Tsujii , S. Kawano , S. Tsuji , T. Ito , K. Nagano , Y. Sasaki , N. Hayashi , H. Fusamoto & T. Kamada (1993). Cell kinetics of mucosal atrophy in rat stomach induced by long-term administration of ammonia. Gastroenterology 104, 796801.

M. Tsujii , S. Kawano , S. Tsuji , K. Nagano , T. Ito , N. Hayashi , H. Fusamoto , T. Kamada & K. Tamura (1992). Ammonia – a possible promoter in Helicobacter pylori related gastric carcinogenesis. Cancer Letters 65, 1518.

R. J. Turesky , N. P. Lang , M. A. Butler , C. H. Teitel & F. F. Kadlubar (1991). Metabolic activation of carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines by human liver and colon. Carcinogenesis 12, 18391845.

A. F. Tuyns , R. Kaaks & M. Haelterman (1987). Colorectal cancer and the consumption of nutrients: a case control study in Belgium. Nutrition and Cancer 10, 181196.

A. Ullah & A. M. Shamsuddin (1990). Dose dependent inhibition of large intestinal cancer by inositol hexaphosphate in F344 rats. Carcinogenesis 11, 22192222.

I. P. Van Munster , A. Tangerman & F. M. Nagengast (1994). Effect of resistant starch on colonic fermentation, bile acid metabolism, and mucosal proliferation. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 39, 834842.

R. L. Van Tassell , T. Piccariello , D. G. I. Kingston & T. D. Wilkins (1989). The precursors of fecapentaenes: purification and properties of a novel plasmalogen. Lipids 24, 454459.

S. Venitt , D. Bosworth & A. J. Alldrick (1986). Pilot study of the effect of diet on the mutagenicity of human faeces. Mutagenesis 1, 353358.

H. Verhagen , H. E. Poulsen , S. Loft , G. van Poppel , M. I. Willems , & P. J. van Bladeren (1995). Reduction of oxidative DNA-damage in humans by Brussels sprouts. Curcinogenesis 16, 969970.

B. Vogelstein , E. R. Fearon , S. R. Hamilton , S. E. Kern , A. C. Preisinger , M. Leppert , Y. Nakamura , R. White , A. M. M. Smits & J. L. Bos (1988). Genetic alterations during colorectal-tumour development. New England Journal of Medicine 319, 525532.

D. A. Wagner , V. R. Young & S. R. Tannenbaum (1983). Mammalian nitrate biosynthesis: incorporation of 15NH3 into nitrate is enhanced by endotoxin treatment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 80, 45184521.

F. W. Ward , M. E. Coates & R. Walker (1989). Influence of dietary protein and gut microflora on endogenesis synthesis of nitrate and N-nitrosamines in the rat. Food and Chemical Toxicology 27, 445449.

J. M. Ward , T. Anjo , L. Ohannesian , L. K. Keefer , D. E. Devor , P. J. Donovan , G. T. Smith J. R. Henneman , A. J. Streeter , N. Konishi , S. Rehm , E. J. Reist , W. W. Bradford & J. M. Rice (1988). Inactivity of fecapentaene-12 as a rodent carcinogen or tumour initiator. Cancer Letters 42, 4959.

M. J. Wargovich (1987). Diallyl sulphide, a flavour component of garlic (Allium sativum) inhibits dimethyl-hydrazine-induced colon cancer. Carcinogenesis 8, 487489.

L. W. Wattenberg (1971). Studies of polycyclic hydrocarbon hydroxylases of the intestine possibly related to cancer. Effect of diet on benzpyrene hydroxylase activity. Cancer 28, 99102.

J. H. Weisburger , R. C. Jones , C.-X. Wang , J. Y. C. Backlund , G. M. Williams , D. G. I. Kingston , R. L. van Tassell , R. F. Keyes , T. D. Wilkins , P. P. de Wit , M van der Steeg , & A. van der Gen (1990). Carcinogenicity test of fecapentaene-12 in mice and rats. Cancer Letters 49, 8998.

J. H. Weisburger , A. Rivenson , J. Reinhardt , C. Aliaga , J. Braley , L. M. Dolan , G. M. Williams , E. Zang , D. G. I. Kingston , M. Bashir (1994). Genotoxicity in rats 70H IQ, and intestinal metabolite of IQ. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 86, 2530.

N. Whitehead , F. Reyner & J. Lindenbaum (1973). Megaloblastic changes in the cervical epithelium. Journal of the American Medical Association 226, 14211424.

W. C. Willett , M. J. Stampfer , G. A. Colditz , B. A. Rosner & F. E. Speizer (1990). Relation of meat, fat, and fiber intake to the risk of colon cancer in a prospective study among women. New England Journal of Medicine 323, 16641672.

R. T. Williams (1978). Nutrients in drug detoxification mechanisms. In Nutrition in Drug Interrelations, pp. 303318 [J. Coon and J. H. Hathcock , editors]. New York: Academic Press.

T. Yamane , N. Hagiwara , M. Tateishi , S. Akachi , M. Kim , J. Okuzumi , Y. Kitao , M. Inagake , K. Kuwata & T. Takahashi (1991). Inhibition of azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats by green tea polyphenol fraction. Japanese Journal of Cancer Research 82, 13361339.

C. S. Yang & Z. Y. Wang (1993). Tea and cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 85, 10381049.

G. P. Young , A. Mclntyre , V. Albert , M. Folino , J. Muir & P. R. Gibson (1996). Wheat bran suppresses potato starch-potentiated colorectal tumorigenesis at the aberrant crypt stage in a rat model. Gastroenterology 110, 508514.

M. Zarkovic , X. S. Qin , Y. Nakatsuru , H. Oda , T. Nakamura , A.M. Shamsuddin & T. Ishikawa (1993). Tumour promotion by fecapentaene-12 in a rat colon carcinogenesis model. Carcinogenesis 14, 12611264.

Y. Zhang , P. Talalay , C.-G. Cho & G. H. Posner (1992). A major inducer of anticarcinogenic protective enzymes from broccoli: isolation and elucidation of structure. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 89, 23992403.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Nutrition Research Reviews
  • ISSN: 0954-4224
  • EISSN: 1475-2700
  • URL: /core/journals/nutrition-research-reviews
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *