Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Examining the relationship between nutrition and cerebral structural integrity in older adults without dementia

  • J. M. Reddan (a1), H. Macpherson (a2), D. J. White (a1), A. Scholey (a1) and A. Pipingas (a1)...

Abstract

The proportion of adults aged 60 years and over is expected to increase over the coming decades. This ageing of the population represents an important health issue, given that marked reductions to cerebral macro- and microstructural integrity are apparent with increasing age. Reduced cerebral structural integrity in older adults appears to predict poorer cognitive performance, even in the absence of clinical disorders such as dementia. As such, it is becoming increasingly important to identify those factors predicting cerebral structural integrity, especially factors that are modifiable. One such factor is nutritional intake. While the literature is limited, data from available cross-sectional studies indicate that increased intake of nutrients such as B vitamins (for example, B6, B12 and folate), choline, n-3 fatty acids and vitamin D, or increased adherence to prudent whole diets (for example, the Mediterranean diet) predicts greater cerebral structural integrity in older adults. There is even greater scarcity of randomised clinical trials investigating the effects of nutritional supplementation on cerebral structure, though it appears that supplementation with B vitamins (B6, B12 and folic acid) or n-3 fatty acids (DHA or EPA) may be beneficial. The current review presents an overview of available research examining the relationship between key nutrients or adherence to select diets and cerebral structural integrity in dementia-free older adults.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Jeffery Michael Reddan, email jreddan@swin.edu.au

References

Hide All
1. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2015) World Population Ageing 2015. New York: United Nations.
2. Davis, SW, Dennis, NA, Buchler, NG, et al. (2009) Assessing the effects of age on long white matter tracts using diffusion tensor tractography. NeuroImage 46, 530541.
3. Bendlin, BB, Fitzgerald, ME, Ries, ML, et al. (2010) White matter in aging and cognition: a cross-sectional study of microstructure in adults aged eighteen to eighty-three. Dev Neuropsychol 35, 257277.
4. Gunning-Dixon, FM & Raz, N (2003) Neuroanatomical correlates of selected executive functions in middle-aged and older adults: a prospective MRI study. Neuropsychologia 41, 19291941.
5. Fleischman, DA, Leurgans, S, Arfanakis, K, et al. (2014) Gray-matter macrostructure in cognitively healthy older persons: associations with age and cognition. Brain Struct Funct 219, 20292049.
6. Prins, ND & Scheltens, P (2015) White matter hyperintensities, cognitive impairment and dementia: an update. Nat Rev Neurol 11, 157165.
7. Papp, K V, Kaplan, RF, Springate, B, et al. (2014) Processing speed in normal aging: effects of white matter hyperintensities and hippocampal volume loss. Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn 21, 197213.
8. Bennett, IJ & Madden, DJ (2014) Disconnected aging: cerebral white matter integrity and age-related differences in cognition. Neuroscience 276, 187205.
9. Song, S-K, Sun, S-W, Ju, W-K, et al. (2003) Diffusion tensor imaging detects and differentiates axon and myelin degeneration in mouse optic nerve after retinal ischemia. NeuroImage 20, 17141722.
10. Sun, S-W, Liang, H-F, Trinkaus, K, et al. (2006) Noninvasive detection of cuprizone induced axonal damage and demyelination in the mouse corpus callosum. Magn Reson Med 55, 302308.
11. Sun, S-W, Liang, H-F, Le, TQ, et al. (2006) Differential sensitivity of in vivo and ex vivo diffusion tensor imaging to evolving optic nerve injury in mice with retinal ischemia. NeuroImage 32, 11951204.
12. Song, S-K, Sun, S-W, Ramsbottom, MJ, et al. (2002) Dysmyelination revealed through MRI as increased radial (but unchanged axial) diffusion of water. NeuroImage 17, 14291436.
13. Song, S-K, Yoshino, J, Le, TQ, et al. (2005) Demyelination increases radial diffusivity in corpus callosum of mouse brain. NeuroImage 26, 132140.
14. Resnick, SM, Goldszal, AF, Davatzikos, C, et al. (2000) One-year age changes in MRI brain volumes in older adults. Cereb Cortex 10, 464472.
15. Courchesne, E, Chisum, HJ, Townsend, J, et al. (2000) Normal brain development and aging: quantitative analysis at in vivo MR imaging in healthy volunteers. Neuroradiology 216, 672682.
16. Fotenos, A, Snyder, A, Girton, LE, et al. (2005) Normative estimates of cross-sectional and longitudinal brain volume decline in aging and AD. Neurology 64, 10321039.
17. Raz, N, Gunning, FM, Head, D, et al. (1997) Selective aging of the human cerebral cortex observed in vivo: differential vulnerability of the prefrontal gray matter. Cereb Cortex 7, 268282.
18. Resnick, SM, Pham, DL, Kraut, MA, et al. (2003) Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging studies of older adults: a shrinking brain. J Neurosci 23, 32953301.
19. Gattringer, T, Enzinger, C, Ropele, S, et al. (2011) Vascular risk factors, white matter hyperintensities and hippocampal volume in normal elderly individuals. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 33, 2934.
20. Enzinger, C, Fazekas, F, Matthews, PM, et al. (2005) Risk factors for progression of brain atrophy in aging: six-year follow-up of normal subjects. Neurology 64, 17041711.
21. Scahill, RI, Frist, C, Jenkins, R, et al. (2003) A longitudinal study of brain volume changes in normal aging using serial registered magnetic resonance imaging. Arch Neurol 60, 989994.
22. Allen, JS, Bruss, J, Brown, CK, et al. (2005) Normal neuroanatomical variation due to age: the major lobes and a parcellation of the temporal region. Neurobiol Aging 26, 12451260.
23. Bartzokis, G, Beckson, M, Lu, PH, et al. (2001) Age-related changes in frontal and temporal lobe volumes in men. Arch Gen Psychiatry 58, 461465.
24. Jernigan, TL, Archibald, SL, Fennema-Notestine, C, et al. (2001) Effects of age on tissues and regions of the cerebrum and cerebellum. Neurobiol Aging 22, 581594.
25. McDonald, CR, McEvoy, LK, Gharapetian, L, et al. (2009) Regional rates of neocortical atrophy from normal aging to early Alzheimer disease. Neurology 73, 457465.
26. Good, CD, Johnsrude, IS, Ashburner, J, et al. (2001) A voxel-based morphometric study of ageing in 465 normal adult human brains. NeuroImage 14, 2136.
27. Paul, R, Grieve, SM, Chaudary, B, et al. (2009) Relative contributions of the cerebellar vermis and prefrontal lobe volumes on cognitive function across the adult lifespan. Neurobiol Aging 30, 457465.
28. Smith, CD, Chebrolu, H, Wekstein, DR, et al. (2007) Age and gender effects on human brain anatomy: a voxel-based morphometric study in healthy elderly. Neurobiol Aging 28, 10751087.
29. Tisserand, DJ, van Boxtel, MPJ, Pruessner, JC, et al. (2004) A voxel-based morphometric study to determine individual differences in gray matter density associated with age and cognitive change over time. Cereb Cortex 14, 966973.
30. Curiati, PK, Tamashiro, JH, Squarzoni, P, et al. (2009) Brain structural variability due to aging and gender in cognitively healthy elders: results from the Sao Paulo Ageing and Health Study. Am J Neuroradiol 30, 18501856.
31. Sowell, ER, Peterson, BS, Thompson, PM, et al. (2003) Mapping cortical change across the human life span. Nat Neurosci 6, 309315.
32. Driscoll, I, Davatzikos, C, An, Y, et al. (2009) Longitudinal pattern of regional brain volume change differentiates normal aging from MCI. Neurology 72, 19061913.
33. Fjell, AM, Walhovd, KB, Fennema-Notestine, C, et al. (2009) One-year brain atrophy evident in healthy aging. J Neurosci 29, 1522315231.
34. Giorgio, A, Santelli, L, Tomassini, V, et al. (2010) Age-related changes in grey and white matter structure throughout adulthood. NeuroImage 51, 943951.
35. Hogstrom, LJ, Westlye, LT, Walhovd, KB, et al. (2013) The structure of the cerebral cortex across adult life: age-related patterns of surface area, thickness, and gyrification. Cereb Cortex 23, 25212530.
36. Raz, N, Gunning-Dixon, FM, Head, D, et al. (1998) Neuroanatomical correlates of cognitive aging: evidence from structural magnetic resonance imaging. Neuropsychology 12, 95114.
37. Raz, N, Lindenberger, U, Rodrigue, KM, et al. (2005) Regional brain changes in aging healthy adults: general trends, individual differences and modifiers. Cereb Cortex 15, 16761689.
38. Salat, DH, Buckner, RL, Snyder, AZ, et al. (2004) Thinning of the cerebral cortex in aging. Cereb Cortex 14, 721730.
39. Schuff, N, Tosun, D, Insel, PS, et al. (2012) Nonlinear time course of brain volume loss in cognitively normal and impaired elders. Neurobiol Aging 33, 845855.
40. Taki, Y, Thyreau, B, Kinomura, S, et al. (2013) A longitudinal study of age- and gender-related annual rate of volume changes in regional gray matter in healthy adults. Hum Brain Mapp 34, 22922301.
41. Ziegler, G, Dahnke, R, Jäncke, L, et al. (2012) Brain structural trajectories over the adult lifespan. Hum Brain Mapp 33, 23772389.
42. Zimmerman, M, Brickman, A, Paul, R, et al. (2006) The relationship between frontal gray matter volume and cognition varies across the healthy adult lifespan. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 14, 823833.
43. Du, AT, Schuff, N, Zhu, XP, et al. (2003) Atrophy rates of entorhinal cortex in AD and normal aging. Neurology 60, 481486.
44. Jack, CR, Petersen, RC, Xu, Y, et al. (1998) Rate of medial temporal lobe atrophy in typical aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology 51, 993999.
45. Walhovd, KB, Fjell, AM, Reinvang, I, et al. (2005) Effects of age on volumes of cortex, white matter and subcortical structures. Neurobiol Aging 26, 12611270.
46. Walhovd, KB, Westlye, LT, Amlien, I, et al. (2011) Consistent neuroanatomical age-related volume differences across multiple samples. Neurobiol Aging 32, 916932.
47. Westlye, LT, Walhovd, KB, Dale, AM, et al. (2010) Life-span changes of the human brain white matter: diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and volumetry. Cereb Cortex 20, 20552068.
48. Habes, M, Erus, G, Toledo, JB, et al. (2016) White matter hyperintensities and imaging patterns of brain ageing in the general population. Brain 139, 11641179.
49. Lockhart, SN, Mayda, AB, Roach, AE, et al. (2012) Episodic memory function is associated with multiple measures of white matter integrity in cognitive aging. Front Hum Neurosci 6, 56.
50. Raz, N, Yang, YQ, Rodrigue, KM, et al. (2012) White matter deterioration in 15 months: latent growth curve models in healthy adults. Neurobiol Aging 33, 429.e1429.e5.
51. Vannorsdall, TD, Waldstein, SR, Kraut, M, et al. (2009) White matter abnormalities and cognition in a community sample. Arch Clin Neuropsychol 24, 209217.
52. Abe, O, Aoki, S, Hayashi, N, et al. (2002) Normal aging in the central nervous system: quantitative MR diffusion-tensor analysis. Neurobiol Aging 23, 433441.
53. Barrick, TR, Charlton, RA, Clark, CA, et al. (2010) White matter structural decline in normal ageing: a prospective longitudinal study using tract-based spatial statistics. NeuroImage 51, 565577.
54. Bennett, IJ, Madden, DJ, Vaidya, CJ, et al. (2010) Age-related differences in multiple measures of white matter integrity: a diffusion tensor imaging study of healthy aging. Hum Brain Mapp 31, 378390.
55. Burzynska, A, Preuschhof, C, Bäckman, L, et al. (2010) Age-related differences in white matter microstructure: region-specific patterns of diffusivity. NeuroImage 49, 21042112.
56. Charlton, RA, Barrick, TR, McIntyre, DJ, et al. (2006) White matter damage on diffusion tensor imaging correlates with age-related cognitive decline. Neurology 66, 217222.
57. Hsu, J-L, Van Hecke, W, Bai, C-H, et al. (2010) Microstructural white matter changes in normal aging: a diffusion tensor imaging study with higher-order polynomial regression models. NeuroImage 49, 3243.
58. Inano, S, Takao, H, Hayashi, N, et al. (2011) Effects of age and gender on white matter. Am J Neuroradiol 32, 21032109.
59. Madden, DJ, Whiting, WL, Huettel, SA, et al. (2004) Diffusion tensor imaging of adult age differences in cerebral white matter: relation to response time. NeuroImage 21, 11741181.
60. Madden, DJ, Spaniol, J, Costello, MC, et al. (2008) Cerebral white matter integrity mediates adult age differences in cognitive performance. J Cogn Neurosci 21, 289302.
61. Mella, N, de Ribaupierre, S, Eagleson, R, et al. (2013) Cognitive intraindividual variability and white matter integrity in aging. Sci World J 2013, 350623.
62. Sala, S, Agosta, F, Pagani, E, et al. (2012) Microstructural changes and atrophy in brain white matter tracts with aging. Neurobiol Aging 33, 488498.
63. Xiang, Z, Baoqing, L & Baoci, S (2014) Age related white matter degradation rule of normal human brain: the evidence from diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. Chin Med J 127, 532537.
64. Borghesani, PR, Madhyastha, TM, Aylward, EH, et al. (2013) The association between higher order abilities, processing speed, and age are variably mediated by white matter integrity during typical aging. Neuropsychologia 51, 14351444.
65. Brickman, AM, Meier, IB, Korgaonkar, MS, et al. (2012) Testing the white matter retrogenesis hypothesis of cognitive aging. Neurobiol Aging 33, 16991715.
66. Charlton, RA, Barrick, TR, Lawes, INC, et al. (2010) White matter pathways associated with working memory in normal aging. Cortex 46, 474489.
67. Kerchner, GA, Racine, CA, Hale, S, et al. (2012) Cognitive processing speed in older adults: relationship with white matter integrity. PLOS ONE 7, e50425.
68. Metzler-Baddeley, C, Jones, DK, Belaroussi, B, et al. (2011) Frontotemporal connections in episodic memory and aging: a diffusion MRI tractography study. J Neurosci 31, 1323613245.
69. Salami, A, Eriksson, J, Nilsson, L-G, et al. (2012) Age-related white matter microstructural differences partly mediate age-related decline in processing speed but not cognition. Biochim Biophys Acta 1822, 408415.
70. Yang, Y, Bender, AR & Raz, N (2015) Age related differences in reaction time components and diffusion properties of normal-appearing white matter in healthy adults. Neuropsychologia 66, 246258.
71. Tabatabaei-Jafari, H, Shaw, ME & Cherbuin, N (2015) Cerebral atrophy in mild cognitive impairment: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Alzheimer’s Dement 1, 487504.
72. Sluimer, JD, van der Flier, WM, Karas, GB, et al. (2008) Whole-brain atrophy rate and cognitive decline: longitudinal MR study of memory clinic patients. Radiology 248, 590598.
73. Anstey, KJ & Maller, JJ (2003) The role of volumetric MRI in understanding mild cognitive impairment and similar classifications. Aging Ment Health 7, 238250.
74. Barbeau, EJ, Ranjeva, JP, Didic, M, et al. (2008) Profile of memory impairment and gray matter loss in amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Neuropsychologia 46, 10091019.
75. Dos Santos, V, Thomann, PA, Wüstenberg, T, et al. (2011) Morphological cerebral correlates of CERAD test performance in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis 23, 411420.
76. Elshafey, R, Hassanien, O, Khalil, M, et al. (2014) Hippocampus, caudate nucleus and entorhinal cortex volumetric MRI measurements in discrimination between Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment, and normal aging. Egypt J Radiol Nucl Med 45, 511518.
77. Fennema-Notestine, C, Hagler, DJ, McEvoy, LK, et al. (2009) Structural MRI biomarkers for preclinical and mild Alzheimer’s disease. Hum Brain Mapp 30, 32383253.
78. Fujishima, M, Maikusa, N, Nakamura, K, et al. (2014) Mild cognitive impairment, poor episodic memory, and late-life depression are associated with cerebral cortical thinning and increased white matter hyperintensities. Front Aging Neurosci 6, 306.
79. Hämäläinen, A, Tervo, S, Grau-Olivares, M, et al. (2007) Voxel-based morphometry to detect brain atrophy in progressive mild cognitive impairment. NeuroImage 37, 11221131.
80. Hänggi, J, Streffer, J, Jäncke, L, et al. (2011) Volumes of lateral temporal and parietal structures distinguish between healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis 26, 719734.
81. McDonald, CR, Gharapetian, L, McEvoy, LK, et al. (2012) Relationship between regional atrophy rates and cognitive decline in mild cognitive impairment. Neurobiol Aging 33, 242253.
82. Zheng, D, Sun, H, Dong, X, et al. (2014) Executive dysfunction and gray matter atrophy in amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Neurobiol Aging 35, 548555.
83. Smith, EE, Salat, DH, Jeng, J, et al. (2011) Correlations between MRI white matter lesion location and executive function and episodic memory. Neurology 76, 149211429.
84. Maillard, P, Carmichael, O, Fletcher, E, et al. (2012) Coevolution of white matter hyperintensities and cognition in the elderly. Neurology 79, 442448.
85. Carmichael, O, Schwarz, C, Drucker, D, et al. (2010) Longitudinal changes in white matter disease and cognition in the first year of the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Arch Neurol 67, 13701378.
86. Naranjo, IC, Cuenca, JCP, de San Juan, BD, et al. (2015) Association of vascular factors and amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a comprehensive approach. J Alzheimers Dis 44, 695704.
87. Bosch, B, Arenaza-Urquijo, EM, Rami, L, et al. (2012) Multiple DTI index analysis in normal aging, amnestic MCI and AD. Relationship with neuropsychological performance. Neurobiol Aging 33, 6174.
88. Cooley, SA, Cabeen, RP, Laidlaw, DH, et al. (2015) Posterior brain white matter abnormalities in older adults with probable mild cognitive impairment. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 37, 6169.
89. He, J, Wong, VSS, Fletcher, E, et al. (2012) The contributions of MRI-based measures of gray matter, white matter hyperintensity, and white matter integrity to late-life cognition. Am J Neuroradiol 33, 17971803.
90. Liu, Y, Spulber, G, Lehtimäki, KK, et al. (2011) Diffusion tensor imaging and tract-based spatial statistics in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment. Neurobiol Aging 32, 15581571.
91. Rose, SE, McMahon, KL, Janke, AL, et al. (2006) Diffusion indices on magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological performance in amnestic mild cognitive impairment. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 77, 11221128.
92. Sali, D, Dimitra, S, Verganelakis, DA, et al. (2013) Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the detection of white matter lesions in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Acta Neurol Belg 113, 441451.
93. Stricker, NH, Salat, DH, Foley, JM, et al. (2013) Decreased white matter integrity in neuropsychologically defined mild cognitive impairment is independent of cortical thinning. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 19, 925937.
94. Stricker, NH, Salat, DH, Kuhn, TP, et al. (2016) Mild cognitive impairment is associated with white matter integrity changes in late-myelinating regions within the corpus callosum. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen 31, 6875.
95. Wang, P-N, Chou, K-H, Chang, N-J, et al. (2014) Callosal degeneration topographically correlated with cognitive function in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease dementia. Hum Brain Mapp 35, 15291543.
96. Wang, Y, West, JD, Flashman, LA, et al. (2012) Selective changes in white matter integrity in MCI and older adults with cognitive complaints. Biochim Biophys Acta 1822, 423430.
97. Zhang, Y, Schuff, N, Camacho, M, et al. (2013) MRI markers for mild cognitive impairment: comparisons between white matter integrity and gray matter volume measurements. PLOS ONE 8, e66367.
98. Zhuang, L, Wen, W, Trollor, JN, et al. (2012) Abnormalities of the fornix in mild cognitive impairment are related to episodic memory loss. J Alzheimer’s Dis 29, 629639.
99. Zhuang, L, Sachdev, PS, Trollor, JN, et al. (2013) Microstructural white matter changes, not hippocampal atrophy, detect early amnestic mild cognitive impairment. PLOS ONE 8, e58887.
100. Boespflug, EL, Storrs, J, Sadat-Hossieny, S, et al. (2014) Full diffusion characterization implicates regionally disparate neuropathology in mild cognitive impairment. Brain Struct Funct 219, 367379.
101. Arvanitakis, Z, Fleischman, DA, Arfanakis, K, et al. (2016) Association of white matter hyperintensities and gray matter volume with cognition in older individuals without cognitive impairment. Brain Struct Funct 221, 21352146.
102. Tuladhar, AM, Reid, AT, Shumskaya, E, et al. (2015) Relationship between white matter hyperintensities, cortical thickness, and cognition. Stroke 46, 425432.
103. Schmidt-Wilcke, T, Poljansky, S, Hierlmeier, S, et al. (2009) Memory performance correlates with gray matter density in the ento-/perirhinal cortex and posterior hippocampus in patients with mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls – a voxel based morphometry study. NeuroImage 47, 19141920.
104. Newman, LM, Trivedi, MA, Bendlin, BB, et al. (2007) The relationship between gray matter morphometry and neuropsychological performance in a large sample of cognitively healthy adults. Brain Imaging Behav 1, 310.
105. Brickman, AM, Zimmerman, ME, Paul, RH, et al. (2006) Regional white matter and neuropsychological functioning across the adult lifespan. Biol Psychiatry 60, 444453.
106. Cardenas, V, Chao, L, Studholme, C, et al. (2011) Brain atrophy associated with baseline and longitudinal measures of cognition. Neurobiol Aging 32, 572580.
107. Meyer, P, Feldkamp, H, Hoppstädter, M, et al. (2013) Using voxel-based morphometry to examine the relationship between regional brain volumes and memory performance in amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Front Behav Neurosci 7, 89.
108. Bombois, S, Debette, S, Delbeuck, X, et al. (2007) Prevalence of subcortical vascular lesions and association with executive function in mild cognitive impairment subtypes. Stroke 38, 25952597.
109. Gold, BT, Powell, DK, Xuan, L, et al. (2010) Age-related slowing of task switching is associated with decreased integrity of frontoparietal white matter. Neurobiol Aging 31, 512522.
110. Grambaite, R, Stenset, V, Reinvang, I, et al. (2010) White matter diffusivity predicts memory in patients with subjective and mild cognitive impairment and normal CSF total tau levels. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 16, 5869.
111. Grieve, SM, Williams, LM, Paul, RH, et al. (2007) Cognitive aging, executive function, and fractional anisotrpy: a diffusion tensor MR imaging study. Am J Neuroradiol 28, 226235.
112. Jacobs, HIL, Leritz, EC, Williams, VJ, et al. (2013) Association between white matter microstructure, executive functions, and processing speed in older adults: the impact of vascular health. Hum Brain Mapp 34, 7795.
113. Kennedy, KM & Raz, N (2009) Aging white matter and cognition: differential effects of regional variations in diffusion properties on memory, executive functions, and speed. Neuropsychologia 47, 916927.
114. Nowrangi, MA, Lyketsos, CG, Leoutsakos, J-MS, et al. (2013) Longitudinal, region-specific course of diffusion tensor imaging measures in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimers Dement 9, 519528.
115. Penke, L, Muñoz Maniega, S, Murray, C, et al. (2010) A general factor of brain white matter integrity predicts information processing speed in healthy older people. J Neurosci 30, 75697574.
116. Perry, ME, McDonald, CR, Hagler, DJ, et al. (2009) White matter tracts associated with set-shifting in healthy aging. Neuropsychologia 47, 28352842.
117. Reginold, W, Itorralba, J, Tam, A, et al. (2015) Correlating quantitative tractography at 3T MRI and cognitive tests in healthy older adults. Brain Imaging Behav 10, 12231230.
118. Salami, A, Eriksson, J & Nyberg, L (2012) Opposing effects of aging on large-scale brain systems for memory encoding and cognitive control. J Neurosci 32, 1074910757.
119. Sasson, E, Doniger, GM, Pasternak, O, et al. (2013) White matter correlates of cognitive domains in normal aging with diffusion tensor imaging. Front Neurosci 7, 32.
120. Sasson, E, Doniger, GM, Pasternak, O, et al. (2012) Structural correlates of cognitive domains in normal aging with diffusion tensor imaging. Brain Struct Funct 217, 503515.
121. Schulze, ET, Geary, EK, Susmaras, TM, et al. (2011) Anatomical correlates of age-related working memory declines. J Aging Res 2011, 606871.
122. Voineskos, AN, Rajji, TK, Lobaugh, NJ, et al. (2012) Age-related decline in white matter tract integrity and cognitive performance: a DTI tractography and structural equation modeling study. Neurobiol Aging 33, 2134.
123. Zahr, NM, Rohlfing, T, Pfefferbaum, A, et al. (2009) Problem solving, working memory, and motor correlates of association and commissural fiber bundles in normal aging: a quantitative fiber tracking study. NeuroImage 44, 10501062.
124. NHS (UK National Health Service) (2017) B vitamins and folic acid: vitamins and minerals. https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/vitamins-and-minerals/vitamin-b/ (accessed May 2018).
125. Moretti, R, Torre, P, Antonello, RM, et al. (2004) Vitamin B12 and folate depletion in cognition: a review. Neurol India 52, 310319.
126. Vogiatzoglou, A, Smith, SM & Bradley, KM (2008) Vitamin B12 status and rate of brain volume loss in community-dwelling elderly. Neurology 71, 826832.
127. Selhub, J, Bagley, LC, Miller, J, et al. (2000) B vitamins, homocysteine, and neurocognitive function in the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 614s620s.
128. Erickson, KI, Suever, BL, Prakash, RS, et al. (2008) Greater intake of vitamins B6 and B12 spares gray matter in healthy elderly: a voxel-based morphometry study. Brain Res 1199, 2026.
129. Tangney, CC, Aggarwal, NT, Li, H, et al. (2011) Vitamin B12, cognition, and brain MRI measures: a cross-sectional examination. Neurology 77, 12761282.
130. de Lau, LML, Smith, AD, Refsum, H, et al. (2009) Plasma vitamin B12 status and cerebral white-matter lesions. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 80, 149157.
131. Köbe, T, Witte, AV, Schnelle, A, et al. (2016) Vitamin B-12 concentration, memory performance, and hippocampal structure in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Am J Clin Nutr 103, 10451054.
132. Ford, AH, Garrido, GJ, Beer, C, et al. (2012) Homocysteine, grey matter and cognitive function in adults with cardiovascular disease. PLOS ONE 7, e33345.
133. den Heijer, T, Vermeer, SE, Clarke, R, et al. (2003) Homocysteine and brain atrophy on MRI of non-demented elderly. Brain 126, 170175.
134. Whalley, LJ, Staff, RT, Murray, AD, et al. (2003) Plasma vitamin C, cholesterol and homocysteine are associated with grey matter volume determined by MRI in non-demented old people. Neurosci Lett 341, 173176.
135. Sachdev, PS, Valenzuela, M, Wang, XL, et al. (2002) Relationship between plasma homocysteine levels and brain atrophy in healthy elderly individuals. Neurology 58, 15391541.
136. Seshadri, S, Wolf, PA, Beiser, AS, et al. (2008) Association of plasma total homocysteine levels with subclinical brain injury. Arch Neurol 65, 642649.
137. Narayan, SK, Firbank, MJ, Saxby, BK, et al. (2011) Elevated plasma homocysteine is associated with increased brain atrophy rates in older subjects with mild hypertension. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 31, 341348.
138. Rajagopalan, P, Hua, X, Toga, AW, et al. (2011) Homocysteine effects on brain volumes mapped in 732 elderly individuals. Neuroreport 22, 391395.
139. Madsen, SK, Rajagopalan, P, Joshi, SH, et al. (2015) Higher homocysteine associated with thinner cortical gray matter in 803 participants from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Neurobiol Aging 36, s203s210.
140. Firbank, MJ, Narayan, SK, Saxby, BK, et al. (2010) Homocysteine is associated with hippocampal and white matter atrophy in older subjects with mild hypertension. Int Psychogeriatr 22, 804811.
141. Williams, JH, Periera, EAC, Budge, MM, et al. (2002) Minimal hippocampal width relates to plasma homocysteine in community-dwelling older people. Age Ageing 31, 440444.
142. Feng, L, Isaac, V, Sim, S, et al. (2013) Associations between elevated homocysteine, cognitive impairment, and reduced white matter volume in healthy old adults. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 21, 164172.
143. Raz, N, Yang, Y, Dahle, CL, et al. (2012) Volume of white matter hyperintensities in healthy adults: contribution of age, vascular risk factors, and inflammation-related genetic variants. Biochim Biophys Acta 1822, 361369.
144. Chee, MWL, Chen, KHM, Zheng, H, et al. (2009) Cognitive function and brain structure correlations in healthy elderly East Asians. NeuroImage 46, 257269.
145. Sachdev, P, Parslow, R, Salonikas, C, et al. (2004) Homocysteine and the brain in midadult life: evidence for an increased risk of leukoaraiosis in men. Arch Neurol 61, 13691376.
146. Vermeer, SE, van Dijk, EJ, Koudstaal, PJ, et al. (2002) Homocysteine, silent brain infarcts, and white matter lesions: The Rotterdam Scan Study. Ann Neurol 51, 285289.
147. Tan, B, Venketasubramanian, N, Vrooman, H, et al. (2018) Homocysteine and cerebral atrophy: the Epidemiology of Dementia in Singapore Study. J Alzheimer’s Dis 62, 877885.
148. Wright, CB, Paik, MC, Brown, TR, et al. (2005) Total homocysteine is associated with white matter hyperintensity volume: the Northern Manhattan Study. Stroke 36, 12071211.
149. Hsu, J-L, Chen, W-H, Bai, C-H, et al. (2015) Microstructural white matter tissue characteristics are modulated by homocysteine: a diffusion tensor imaging study. PLOS ONE 10, e0116330.
150. Bettcher, BM, Watson, CL, Walsh, CM, et al. (2014) Interleukin-6, age, and corpus callosum integrity. PLOS ONE 9, e106521.
151. Douaud, G, Refsum, H, de Jager, CA, et al. (2013) Preventing Alzheimer’s disease-related gray matter atrophy by B-vitamin treatment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110, 95239528.
152. Smith, AD, Smith, SM, de Jager, CA, et al. (2010) Homocysteine-lowering by B vitamins slows the rate of accelerated brain atrophy in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial. PLoS ONE 5, e12244.
153. Jernerén, F, Elshorbagy, AK, Oulhaj, A, et al. (2015) Brain atrophy in cognitively impaired elderly: the importance of long-chain ω-3 fatty acids and B vitamin status in a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 102, 215221.
154. Oulhaj, A, Jernerén, F, Refsum, H, et al. (2016) Omega-3 fatty acid status enhances the prevention of cognitive decline by B vitamins in mild cognitive impairment. J Alzheimer’s Dis 50, 547557.
155. van der Zwaluw, NL, Brouwer-Brolsma, EM, van de Rest, O, et al. (2016) Folate and vitamin B12-related biomarkers in relation to brain volumes. Nutrients 9, E8.
156. Clarke, R, Bennett, D, Parish, S, et al. (2014) Effects of homocysteine lowering with B vitamins on cognitive aging: meta-analysis of 11 trials with cognitive data on 22,000 individuals. Am J Clin Nutr 100, 657666.
157. McCaddon, A & Miller, JW (2015) Assessing the association between homocysteine and cognition: reflections on Bradford Hill, meta-analyses, and causality. Nutr Rev 73, 723735.
158. Smith, AD & Refsum, H (2016) Homocysteine, B vitamins, and cognitive impairment. Annu Rev Biochem 36, 211239.
159. Durga, J, van Boxtel, MP, Schouten, EG, et al. (2007) Effect of 3-year folic acid supplementation on cognitive function in older adults in the FACIT trial: a randomised, double blind, controlled trial. Lancet 369, 208216.
160. de Jager, CA, Oulhaj, A, Jacoby, R, et al. (2012) Cognitive and clinical outcomes of homocysteine-lowering B-vitamin treatment in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 27, 592600.
161. Chiuve, SE, Giovannucci, EL, Hankinson, SE, et al. (2007) The association between betaine and choline intakes and the plasma concentrations of homocysteine in women. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 10731081.
162. Cho, E, Zeisel, SH, Jacques, P, et al. (2006) Dietary choline and betaine assessed by food-frequency questionnaire in relation to plasma total homocysteine concentration in the Framingham Offspring Study. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 905911.
163. Küllenberg, D, Taylor, LA, Schneider, M, et al. (2012) Health effects of dietary phospholipids. Lipids Health Dis 11, 3.
164. Olthof, MR, Brink, EJ, Katan, MB, et al. (2005) Choline supplemented as phosphatidylcholine decreases fasting and postmethionine-loading plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 111117.
165. Reddan, JM, White, DJ, Macpherson, H, et al. (2018) Glycerophospholipid supplementation as a potential intervention for supporting cerebral structure in older adults. Front Aging Neurosci 10, 49.
166. Poly, C, Massaro, JM, Seshadri, S, et al. (2011) The relation of dietary choline to cognitive performance and white-matter hyperintensity in the Framingham Offspring Cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 94, 15841591.
167. Crespo, D, Megias, M, Fernandez-Viadero, C, et al. (2004) Chronic treatment with a precursor of cellular phosphatidylcholine ameliorates morphological and behavioral effects of aging in the rat hippocampus. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1019, 4143.
168. Qu, M, Yang, X, Wang, Y, et al. (2016) Docosahexaenoic acid-phosphatidylcholine improves cognitive deficits in an Aβ23–35 Alzheimer’s disease rat model. Curr Top Med Chem 16, 558564.
169. Luchtman, DW & Song, C (2013) Cognitive enhancement by omega-3 fatty acids from child-hood to old age: findings from animal and clinical studies. Neuropharmacology 64, 550565.
170. Little, SJ, Lynch, MA, Manku, M, et al. (2007) Docosahexaenoic acid-induced changes in phospholipids in cortex of young and aged rats: a lipidomic analysis. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 77, 155162.
171. Favreliere, S, Stadelmann-Ingrand, S, Huguet, F, et al. (2000) Age-related changes in ethanolamine glycerophospholipid fatty acid levels in rat frontal cortex and hippocampus. Neurobiol Aging 21, 653660.
172. McNamara, RK, Liu, Y, Jandacek, R, et al. (2008) The aging human orbitofrontal cortex: decreasing polyunsaturated fatty acid composition and associated increases in lipogenic gene expression and stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 78, 293304.
173. Norris, SE, Friedrich, MG, Mitchell, TW, et al. (2015) Human prefrontal cortex phospholipids containing docosahexaenoic acid increase during normal adult aging, whereas those containing arachidonic acid decrease. Neurobiol Aging 36, 16591669.
174. Fraser, T, Tayler, H & Love, S (2010) Fatty acid composition of frontal, temporal and parietal neocortex in the normal human brain and in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurochem Res 35, 503513.
175. Connor, WE, Neuringer, M & Lin, DS (1990) Dietary effects on brain fatty acid composition: the reversibility of n-3 fatty acid deficiency and turnover of docosahexaenoic acid in the brain, erythrocytes , and plasma of rhesus monkeys. J Lipid Res 31, 237247.
176. Barceló-coblijn, G & Murphy, EJ (2009) Alpha-linolenic acid and its conversion to longer chain n-3 fatty acids: benefits for human health and a role in maintaining tissue n-3 fatty acid levels. Prog Lipid Res 48, 355374.
177. Chen, S & Li, KW (2008) Comparison of molecular species of various transphosphatidylated phosphatidylserine (PS) with bovine cortex PS by mass spectrometry. Chem Phys Lipids 152, 4656.
178. Bourre, JM & Dumont, O (2002) The administration of pig brain phospholipids versus soybean phospholipids in the diet during the period of brain development in the rat results in greater increments of brain docosahexaenoic acid. Neurosci Lett 335, 129133.
179. Bourre, J, Dumont, O & Durand, G (1993) Brain phospholipids as dietary source of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids for nervous tissue in the rat. J Neurochem 60, 20182028.
180. Browning, LM, Walker, CG, Mander, AP, et al. (2012) Incorporation of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids into lipid pools when given as supplements providing doses equivalent to typical intakes of oily fish. Am J Clin Nutr 96, 748758.
181. Kew, S, Mesa, MD, Tricon, S, et al. (2004) Effects of oils rich in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on immune cell composition and function in healthy humans. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 674681.
182. Popp-Snijders, C, Schouten, J, van Blitterswijk, WJ, et al. (1986) Changes in membrane lipid composition of human erythrocytes after dietary supplementation of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids. Maintenance of membrane fluidity. Biochim Biophys Acta 854, 3137.
183. Ramprasath, VR, Eyal, I, Zchut, S, et al. (2013) Enhanced increase of omega-3 index in healthy individuals with response to 4-week n-3 fatty acid supplementation from krill oil versus fish oil. Lipids Health Dis 12, 178.
184. Raji, CA, Erickson, KI, Lopez, OL, et al. (2014) Regular fish consumption and age-related brain gray matter loss. Am J Prev Med 47, 444451.
185. Del Brutto, OH, Mera, RM, Ha, J-E, et al. (2015) Oily fish consumption is inversely correlated with cerebral microbleeds in community-dwelling older adults: results from the Atahualpa Project. Aging Clin Exp Res 28, 737743.
186. Virtanen, JK, Siscovick, DS, Longstreth, WT, et al. (2008) Fish consumption and risk of subclinical brain abnormalities on MRI in older adults. Neurology 71, 439446.
187. Titova, OE, Sjögren, P, Brooks, SJ, et al. (2013) Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids is linked to gray matter volume and cognitive function in elderly. Age 35, 14951505.
188. Walhovd, KB, Storsve, AB, Westlye, LT, et al. (2014) Blood markers of fatty acids and vitamin D, cardiovascular measures, body mass index, and physical activity relate to longitudinal cortical thinning in normal aging. Neurobiol Aging 35, 10551064.
189. Samieri, C, Maillard, P, Crivello, F, et al. (2012) Plasma long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and atrophy of the medial temporal lobe. Neurology 79, 642650.
190. Bowman, GL, Dodge, HH, Mattek, N, et al. (2013) Plasma omega-3 PUFA and white matter mediated executive decline in older adults. Front Aging Neurosci 5, 92.
191. Virtanen, JK, Siscovick, DS, Lemaitre, RN, et al. (2013) Circulating omega 3 PUFAS and subclinical brain abnormalities on MRI in older adults. J Am Heart Assoc 2, e000305.
192. Harris, WS & Thomas, RM (2010) Biological variability of blood omega-3 biomarkers. Clin Biochem 43, 338340.
193. Arab, L (2003) Biomarkers of nutritional exposure and nutritional status biomarkers of fat and fatty acid intake. J Nutr 133, 925932.
194. Pottala, J, Yaffe, K, Robinson, JG, et al. (2014) Higher RBC EPA + DHA corresponds with larger total brain and hippocampal volumes: WHIMS-MRI study. Neurology 82, 435442.
195. Tan, ZS, Harris, WS, Beiser, AS, et al. (2012) Red blood cell omega-3 fatty acid levels and markers of accelerated brain aging. Neurology 78, 658664.
196. Zamroziewicz, MK, Paul, EJ, Zwilling, CE, et al. (2017) Predictors of memory in healthy aging: polyunsaturated fatty acid balance and fornix white matter integrity. Aging Dis 8, 372383.
197. Daiello, LA, Gongvatana, A, Dunsiger, S, et al. (2015) Association of fish oil supplement use with preservation of brain volume and cognitive function. Alzheimer’s Dement 11, 226235.
198. Witte, AV, Kerti, L, Hermannstädter, HM, et al. (2013) Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids improve brain function and structure in older adults. Cereb Cortex 24, 30593068.
199. Zhang, Y-P, Miao, R, Li, Q, et al. (2017) Effects of DHA supplementation on hippocampal volume and cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: a 12-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Alzheimer’s Dis 55, 497507.
200. van Gelder, BM, Tijhuis, M, Kalmijn, S, et al. (2007) Fish consumption, n-3 fatty acids, and subsequent 5-y cognitive decline in elderly men: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 11421147.
201. Kalmijn, S, van Boxtel, MP, Ocké, M, et al. (2004) Dietary intake of fatty acids and fish in relation to cognitive performance at middle age. Neurology 62, 275280.
202. Kalmijn, S, Feskens, EJM, Launer, LJ, et al. (1997) Polyunsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants, and cognitive function in very old men. Am J Epidemiol 145, 3341.
203. Morris, MC, Evans, DA, Bienias, JL, et al. (2003) Consumption of fish and n-3 fatty acids and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 60, 940946.
204. Nurk, E, Drevon, CA, Refsum, H, et al. (2007) Cognitive performance among the elderly and dietary fish intake: the Hordaland Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 14701478.
205. Heude, B, Ducimetière, P & Berr, C (2003) Cognitive decline and fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes – The EVA Study. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 803808.
206. Samieri, C, Féart, C & Letenneur, L (2008) Low plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and depressive symptomatology are independent predictors of dementia risk. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 714721.
207. Vauzour, D (2012) Dietary polyphenols as modulators of brain functions: biological actions and molecular mechanisms underpinning their beneficial effects. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2012, 914273.
208. Lephart, ED (2015) Polyphenols and cognitive function. In Diet and Exercise in Cognitive Function and Neurological Diseases, pp. 143161 [T Farooqui and AA Farooqui, editors]. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
209. Spencer, JPE, Vauzour, D & Rendeiro, C (2009) Flavonoids and cognition: the molecular mechanisms underlying their behavioural effects. Arch Biochem Biophys 492, 19.
210. Witte, AV, Kerti, L, Margulies, DS, et al. (2014) Effects of resveratrol on memory performance, hippocampal functional connectivity, and glucose metabolism in healthy older adults. J Neurosci 34, 78627870.
211. Huhn, S, Beyer, F, Zhang, R, et al. (2018) Effects of resveratrol on memory performance, hippocampus connectivity and microstructure in older adults – a randomized controlled trial. NeuroImage 174, 177190.
212. Köbe, T, Witte, AV, Schnelle, A, et al. (2017) Impact of resveratrol on glucose control, hippocampal structure and connectivity, and memory performance in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Front Neurosci 11, 105.
213. Kean, RJ, Lamport, DJ, Dodd, GF, et al. (2015) Chronic consumption of flavanone-rich orange juice is associated with cognitive benefits: an 8-wk, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in healthy older adults. Am J Clin Nutr 101, 506514.
214. Desideri, G, Kwik-Uribe, C, Grassi, D, et al. (2012) Benefits in cognitive function, blood pressure, and insulin resistance through cocoa flavanol consumption in elderly subjects with mild cognitive impairment: the Cocoa, Cognition, and Aging (CoCoA) study. Hypertension 60, 794801.
215. Devore, EE, Kang, JH, Breteler, MMB, et al. (2012) Dietary intakes of berries and flavonoids in relation to cognitive decline. Ann Neurol 72, 135143.
216. Krikorian, R, Boesp, EL, Fleck, DE, et al. (2012) Concord grape juice supplementation and neurocognitive function in human aging. J Agric Food Chem 60, 57365742.
217. Krikorian, R, Nash, TA, Shidler, MD, et al. (2010) Concord grape juice supplementation improves memory function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Br J Nutr 103, 730734.
218. Krikorian, R, Shidler, MD, Nash, TA, et al. (2010) Blueberry supplementation improves memory in older adults. J Agric Food Chem 58, 39964000.
219. Nurk, E, Refsum, H, Drevon, CA, et al. (2009) Intake of flavonoid-rich wine, tea, and chocolate by elderly men and women is associated with better cognitive test performance. J Nutr 139, 120127.
220. Gocmez, SS, Gacar, N, Utkan, T, et al. (2016) Protective effects of resveratrol on aging-induced cognitive impairment in rats. Neurobiol Learn Mem 131, 131136.
221. Satizabal, CL, Zhu, YC, Mazoyer, B, et al. (2012) Circulating IL-6 and CRP are associated with MRI findings in the elderly: the 3C-Dijon Study. Neurology 78, 720727.
222. Arfanakis, K, Fleischman, DA, Grisot, G, et al. (2013) Systemic inflammation in non-demented elderly human subjects: brain microstructure and cognition. PLOS ONE 8, e73107.
223. Bongarzone, ER, Pasquini, JM & Soto, EF (1995) Oxidative damage to proteins and lipids of CNS myelin produced by in vitro generated reactive oxygen species. J Neurosci Res 41, 213221.
224. Brett, R & Rumsby, MG (1994) Susceptibility of myelin glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids to oxidative attack by hydroxyl free radicals as measured by the thiobarbituric acid test. Neurochem Int 24, 241251.
225. Chan, PH, Yurko, M & Fishman, RA (1982) Phospholipid degradation and cellular edema induced by free radicals in brain cortical slices. J Neurochem 38, 525531.
226. Beauchet, O, Celle, S, Roche, F, et al. (2013) Blood pressure levels and brain volume reduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Hypertens 31, 15021516.
227. Allan, CL, Zsoldos, E, Filippini, N, et al. (2015) Lifetime hypertension as a predictor of brain structure in older adults: cohort study with a 28-year follow-up. Br J Psychiatry 206, 308315.
228. Leritz, EC, Salat, DH, Williams, VJ, et al. (2011) Thickness of the human cerebral cortex is associated with metrics of cerebrovascular health in a normative sample of community dwelling older adults. NeuroImage 54, 26592671.
229. van Sloten, TT, Protogerou, AD, Henry, RMA, et al. (2015) Association between arterial stiffness, cerebral small vessel disease and cognitive impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 53, 121130.
230. Lilamand, M, Vidal, J-S, Plichart, M, et al. (2016) Arterial stiffness and medial temporal lobe atrophy in elders with memory disorders. J Hypertens 34, 13311337.
231. Tsao, CW, Beiser, AS, Westwood, AJ, et al. (2013) Relations of arterial stiffness and endothelial function to brain aging in the community. Neurology 81, 984991.
232. Spencer, JPE, Vafeiadou, K, Williams, RJ, et al. (2012) Neuroinflammation: modulation by flavonoids and mechanisms of action. Mol Aspects Med 33, 8397.
233. Nijveldt, RJ, van Nood, E, van Hoorn, DEC, et al. (2001) Flavonoids: a review of probable mechanisms of action and potential applications. Am J Clin Nutr 74, 418425.
234. Cassidy, A, O’Reilly, EJ, Kay, C, et al. (2011) Habitual intake of flavonoid subclasses and incident hypertension in adults. Am J Clin Nutr 93, 338347.
235. Hooper, L, Kroon, PA, Rimm, EB, et al. (2008) Flavonoids, flavonoid-rich foods, and cardiovascular risk: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 3850.
236. Jennings, A, Welch, AA, Fairweather-Tait, SJ, et al. (2012) Higher anthocyanin intake is associated with lower arterial stiffness and central blood pressure in women. Am J Clin Nutr 96, 781788.
237. Poulsen, MM, Fjeldborg, K, Ornstrup, MJ, et al. (2015) Resveratrol and inflammation: challenges in translating pre-clinical findings to improved patient outcomes. Biochim Biophys Acta 1852, 11241136.
238. Bellaver, B, Souza, DG, Souza, DO, et al. (2014) Resveratrol increases antioxidant defenses and decreases proinflammatory cytokines in hippocampal astrocyte cultures from newborn, adult and aged Wistar rats. Toxicol Vitr 28, 479484.
239. Ma, X, Sun, Z, Liu, Y, et al. (2017) Resveratrol improves cognition and reduces oxidative stress in rats with vascular dementia. Neural Regen Res 8, 20502059.
240. Liu, Y, Ma, W, Zhang, P, et al. (2016) Effect of resveratrol on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin Nutr 34, 2734.
241. Rivera, L, Moron, R, Zarzuelo, A, et al. (2009) Long-term resveratrol administration reduces metabolic disturbances and lowers blood pressure in obese Zucker rats. Biochem Pharmacol 77, 10531063.
242. Mithal, A, Wahl, DA, Burckhardt, P, et al. (2009) Global vitamin D status and determinants of hypovitaminosis D. Osteoporos Int 20, 18071820.
243. van Schoor, NM & Lips, P (2011) Worldwide vitamin D status. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 25, 671680.
244. Holick, MF (2007) Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med 357, 266282.
245. Becker, JA, Hedden, T, Carmasin, J, et al. (2011) Amyloid-β associated cortical thinning in clinically normal elderly. Ann Neurol 69, 10321042.
246. Scott, JA, Braskie, MN, Tosun, D, et al. (2015) Cerebral amyloid and hypertension are independently associated with white matter lesions in elderly. Front Aging Neurosci 7, 221.
247. Nosheny, RL, Insel, PS, Truran, D, et al. (2015) Variables associated with hippocampal atrophy rate in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment. Neurobiol Aging 36, 273282.
248. Jefferson, AL, Massaro, JM, Wolf, PA, et al. (2007) Inflammatory biomarkers are associated with total brain volume: The Framingham Heart Study. Neurology 68, 10321038.
249. Sudheimer, KD, O’Hara, R, Spiegel, D, et al. (2014) Cortisol, cytokines, and hippocampal volume interactions in the elderly. Front Aging Neurosci 6, 153.
250. Briones, TL & Darwish, H (2012) Vitamin D mitigates age-related cognitive decline through the modulation of pro-inflammatory state and decrease in amyloid burden. J Neuroinflammation 9, 244.
251. Durk, MR, Han, K, Chow, ECY, et al. (2014) 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 reduces cerebral amyloid-β accumulation and improves cognition in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurosci 34, 70917101.
252. Ito, S, Ohtsuki, S, Nezu, Y, et al. (2011) 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 enhances cerebral clearance of human amyloid-β peptide (1–40) from mouse brain across the blood–brain barrier. Fluids Barriers CNS 8, 20.
253. Yu, J, Gattoni-celli, M, Zhu, H, et al. (2011) Vitamin D3-enriched diet correlates with a decrease of amyloid plaques in the brain of AβPP transgenic mice. J Alzheimer’s Dis 25, 295307.
254. Moore, ME, Piazza, A, McCartney, Y, et al. (2005) Evidence that vitamin D3 reverses age-related inflammatory changes in the rat hippocampus. Biochem Soc Trans 33, 573577.
255. Schleithoff, SS, Zittermann, A, Tenderich, G, et al. (2006) Vitamin D supplementation improves cytokine profiles in patients with congestive heart failure: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 754759.
256. Zhang, Y, Leung, DYM, Richers, BN, et al. (2012) Vitamin D inhibits monocyte/macrophage proinflammatory cytokine production by targeting MAPK phosphatase-1. J Immunol 188, 21272135.
257. Annweiler, C, Annweiler, T, Bartha, R, et al. (2014) Vitamin D and white matter abnormalities in older adults: a cross-sectional neuroimaging study. Eur J Neurol 21, 14361442.
258. Annweiler, C, Bartha, R, Karras, SN, et al. (2015) Vitamin D and white matter abnormalities in older adults: a quantitative volumetric analysis of brain MRI. Exp Gerontol 63, 4147.
259. Annweiler, C, Montero-Odasso, M, Hachinski, V, et al. (2013) Vitamin D concentration and lateral cerebral ventricle volume in older adults. Mol Nutr Food Res 57, 267276.
260. Prager, JM, Thomas, C, Ankenbrandt, WJ, et al. (2014) Association of white matter hyperintensities with low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Am J Neuroradiol 35, 11451149.
261. Moon, Y, Moon, W, Kwon, H, et al. (2015) Vitamin D deficiency disrupts neuronal integrity in cognitively impaired patients. J Alzheimer’s Dis 45, 10891096.
262. Karakis, I, Pase, MP, Beiser, A, et al. (2016) Association of serum vitamin D with the risk of incident dementia and subclinical indices of brain aging: the Framingham Heart Study. J Alzheimer’s Dis 51, 451461.
263. van der Schaft, J, Koek, HL, Dijkstra, E, et al. (2013) The association between vitamin D and cognition: a systematic review. Ageing Res Rev 12, 10131023.
264. Moon, JH, Lim, S, Han, JW, et al. (2015) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and the risk of mild cognitive impairment and dementia: the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA). Clin Endocrinol 83, 3642.
265. Miller, JW, Harvey, DJ, Beckett, LA, et al. (2015) Vitamin D status and rates of cognitive decline in a multiethnic cohort of older adults. JAMA Neurol 72, 12951303.
266. Perna, L, Mons, U, Kliegel, M, et al. (2014) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and cognitive decline: a longitudinal study among non-demented older adults. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 38, 254263.
267. Berti, V, Murray, J, Davies, M, et al. (2015) Nutrient patterns and brain biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease in cognitively normal individuals. J Nutr Health Aging 19, 413423.
268. Bowman, GL, Howieson, D, Traber, MG, et al. (2012) Nutrient biomarker patterns, cognitive function, and MRI measures of brain aging. Neurology 78, 241249.
269. Gu, Y, Vorburger, RS, Gazes, Y, et al. (2016) White matter integrity as a mediator in the relationship between dietary nutrients and cognition in the elderly. Ann Neurol 79, 10141025.
270. Kesse-guyot, E, Andreeva, VA, Lassale, C, et al. (2013) Mediterranean diet and cognitive function: a French study. Am J Clin Nutr 97, 369376.
271. Gardener, H, Scarmeas, N, Gu, Y, et al. (2012) Mediterranean diet and white matter hyperintensity volume in the Northern Manhattan Study. Arch Neurol 69, 251256.
272. Morris, MC, Tangney, CC, Wang, Y, et al. (2015) MIND diet associated with reduced incidence of Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s Dement 11, 10071014.
273. Hardman, RJ, Kennedy, G, Macpherson, H, et al. (2016) Adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet and effects on cognition in adults: a qualitative evaluation and systematic review of longitudinal and prospective trials. Front Nutr 3, 22.
274. Morris, MC, Tangney, CC, Wang, Y, et al. (2015) MIND diet slows cognitive decline with aging. Alzheimer’s Dement 11, 10151022.
275. Mosconi, L, Murray, J, Tsui, WH, et al. (2014) Mediterranean Diet and magnetic resonance imaging-assessed brain atrophy in cognitively normal individuals at risk for Alzheimer’s disease. J Prev Alzheimer’s Dis 1, 2332.
276. Staubo, SC, Aakre, JA, Vemuri, P, et al. (2017) Mediterranean diet, micronutrients and macronutrients, and MRI measures of cortical thickness. Alzheimer’s Dement 13, 168177.
277. Gu, Y, Brickman, AM, Stern, Y, et al. (2015) Mediterranean diet and brain structure in a multiethnic elderly cohort. Neurology 85, 17441751.
278. Pelletier, A, Barul, C & Catherine, F (2015) Mediterranean diet and preserved brain structural connectivity in older subjects. Alzheimer’s Dement 11, 10231031.
279. Luciano, M, Corley, J, Cox, SR, et al. (2017) Mediterranean-type diet and brain structural change from 73 to 76 years in a Scottish cohort. Neurology 88, 449456.
280. Titova, OE, Ax, E, Brooks, SJ, et al. (2013) Mediterranean diet habits in older individuals: associations with cognitive functioning and brain volumes. Exp Gerontol 48, 14431448.
281. de Bruin, EA, Hilleke, EHP, Bijl, S, et al. (2005) Associations between alcohol intake and brain volumes in male and female moderate drinkers. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 29, 656663.
282. Sachdev, PS, Chen, X, Wen, W, et al. (2008) Light to moderate alcohol use is associated with increased cortical gray matter in middle-aged men: a voxel-based morphometric study. Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 163, 6169.
283. den Heijer, T, Vermeer, SE, van Dijk, EJ, et al. (2004) Alcohol intake in relation to brain magnetic resonance imaging findings in older persons without dementia. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 992997.
284. Topiwala, A, Allan, CL, Valkanova, V, et al. (2017) Moderate alcohol consumption as risk factor for adverse brain outcomes and cognitive decline: longitudinal cohort study. BMJ 357, j2353.
285. Taki, Y, Kinomura, S, Sato, K, et al. (2006) Both global gray matter volume and regional gray matter volume negatively correlate with lifetime alcohol intake in non-alcohol-dependent Japanese men: a volumetric analysis and a voxel-based morphometry. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 30, 10451050.
286. Paul, CA, Au, R, Fredman, L, et al. (2008) Association of alcohol consumption with brain volume in the Framingham Study. Arch Neurol 65, 13631367.
287. Gu, Y, Scarmeas, N, Eaton, E, et al. (2014) Alcohol intake and brain structure in a multiethnic elderly cohort. Clin Nutr 33, 662667.
288. Jacka, FN, Cherbuin, N, Anstey, KJ, et al. (2015) Western diet is associated with a smaller hippocampus: a longitudinal investigation. BMC Med 13, 215.
289. Croll, PH, Voortman, T, Ikram, MA, et al. (2018) Better diet quality relates to larger brain tissue volumes: The Rotterdam Study. Neurology 90, e2166e2173.

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Reddan et al. Supplementary Material
Table S1

 Word (84 KB)
84 KB

Examining the relationship between nutrition and cerebral structural integrity in older adults without dementia

  • J. M. Reddan (a1), H. Macpherson (a2), D. J. White (a1), A. Scholey (a1) and A. Pipingas (a1)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed