Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Food choice and intake: towards a unifying framework of learning and feeding motivation

  • Jon E. L. Day (a1), Ilias Kyriazakis (a2) and Peter J. Rogers (a1)
Abstract

The food choice and intake of animals (including humans) has typically been studied using frameworks of learning and feeding motivation. When used in isolation such frameworks could be criticized because learning paradigms give little consideration to how new food items are included or excluded from an individual's diet, and motivational paradigms do not explain how individuals decide which food to eat when given a choice. Consequently we are posed with the question of whether individuals actively interact with the food items present in their environment to learn about their nutritional properties? The thesis of this review is that individuals are motivated to actively sample food items in order to assess whether they are nutritionally beneficial or harmful. We offer a unifying framework, centred upon the concept of exploratory motivation, which is a synthesis of learning and paradigms of feeding motivation. In this framework information gathering occurs on two levels through exploratory behaviour: (i) the discrimination of food from nonfood items, and (ii) the continued monitoring and storage of information concerning the nutritional properties of these food items. We expect that this framework will advance our understanding of the behavioural control of nutrient intake by explaining how new food items are identified in the environment, and how individuals are able to monitor changes in the nutritional content of their food resource.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Food choice and intake: towards a unifying framework of learning and feeding motivation
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Food choice and intake: towards a unifying framework of learning and feeding motivation
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Food choice and intake: towards a unifying framework of learning and feeding motivation
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
Address to which all correspondence should be sent: Dr. J. E. L. Day, Consumer Sciences Department, Institute of Food Research, Reading Laboratory, Earley Gate, Reading, RG6 6BZ. Telephone: 0118 935 7000 Facsimile: 0118 926 7917 E-mail: jon.day@bbsrc.ac.uk
References
Hide All
Ackroff, K., Manza, L. & Sclafani, A. (1993). The rat's preference for sucrose, polycose and their mixtures. Appetite 21, 6980.
Almeida, S. S., Garcia, R. A., Cibien, M. M. R., DeAraujo, M., Moreira, G. M. S. & DeOliveira, L. M. (1994). The ontogeny of exploratory behaviors in early-protein-malnourished rats exposed to the elevated plus-maze test. Psychobiology 22, 283288.
Asahida, Y. & Mimura, K. (1972). Eating behavior of chicks to 4 weeks of age. Journal of the Faculty of Fisheries and Animal Husbandry, Hiroshima University 11, 1522.
Baker, B.J. & Booth, D.A. (1989). Genuinely Olfactory preferences conditioned by protein repletion. Appetite 13, 223227.
Baker, B. J., Booth, D. A., Duggan, J. P. & Gibson, E. L. (1987). Protein appetite demonstrated: learned specificity of protein-cue preference to protein need in adult rats. Nutrition Research 7, 481487.
Balleine, B. (1992). Instrumental performance following a shift in primary motivation depends on incentive learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behaviour Processes 18, 236250.
Bence, J. R. & Murdoch, W. W. (1986). Prey size selection by the mosquitofish: relation to optimal diet theory. Ecology 67, 324336.
Berlyne, D. E. (1960). Conflict, Arousal, and Curiosity. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Biquand, S. & Biquand-Guyot, V., (1992). The influence of peers, lineage and environment on food selection of the criollo goat (Capra hircus). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 34, 231245.
Birch, L. L. & Marlin, D. W. (1982). I don't like it; I never tried it: effects of exposure on two-year-old children's food preferences. Appetite 3, 353360.
Bolen, R. H. & Green, S. M. (1997). Use of olfactory cues in foraging by owl monkeys (Aotus nancymai) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Journal of Comparative Psychology 111, 152158.
Bolles, R. C. (1975). Theory of Motivation, 2nd edn. New York: Harper and Row.
Booth, D. A. (1985). Food conditioned eating preferences and aversions with introceptive elements: conditioned appetites and satiety. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 443, 2237 (Experimental Assessments and Clinical Applications of Conditioned Food Aversions [Braveman, N.S. & Bronstein, P, editors]).
Booth, D. A. (1992). Integration of internal and external signals in intake control. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 51, 2128.
Brigham, A. J. & Sibly, R. M. (1998). A review of the phenomenon of neophobia. In Advances in Vertebrate Pest Management, pp. [Cowan, D.P., & Feare, C. J., editors]. Furth: Filander Verlag GmbH. (in press)
Castonguay, T. W. (1985). Studies of food choice: the nutritional challenge. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8, 334335.
Charnov, E. L. (1976). Optimal foraging, the marginal value theorem. Theoretical Population Biology 9, 129136.
Cheney, C. D. & Miller, E. R. (1997). Effects of forced flavor exposure on food neophobia. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 53, 213217.
Coil, J. D., Hankins, W. G., Jenden, D. J. & Garcia, J. (1978). The attenuation of a specific cue-to-consequence association by antiemetic agents. Psychopharmacology 56, 2125.
Cowans, P. E. (1983). Exploration in small mammals: ethology and ecology. In Exploration in Animals and Humans, pp. 147175 [Archer, J. and Birke, L. I. A., editors]. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Dardaillon, M. (1989). Age-class influences on feeding choices of free-ranging wild boars (Sus scrofa). Canadian Journal of Zoology 67, 27922796.
Day, J. E. L., Kyriazakis, I. & Lawrence, A. B. (1995). The effect of food deprivation on the expression of foraging and exploratory behaviour in the growing pig. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 42, 193206
Day, J. E. L., Kyriazakis, I. & Lawrence, A. B. (1996 a). The use of a second-order schedule to assess the effect of food bulk on the feeding motivation of growing pigs. Animal Science 63, 447455.
Day, J. E. L., Kyriazakis, I. & Lawrence, A. B. (1996 b). An investigation into the causation of chewing behaviour in growing pigs: the role of exploration and feeding motivation. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 48, 4759.
Day, J. E. L., Kyriazakis, I. & Lawrence, A. B. (1996 c). The use of a second-order schedule to measure feeding motivation in the pig. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 50, 1531.
Day, J. E. L., Kyriazakis, I. & Rogers, P. J. (1997). Feeding motivation in animals and man: a comparative review of its measurement and uses. Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews A 67, 107117.
Day, J. E. L., Rogers, P. J., Finch, G. M., & Gaffan, E. A., (1998). Do food related cues elicit ‘general’ or ‘specific’ appetites in the rat? Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science, in press.
Duncan, A. J., Frutos, P., & Young, S. A. (1997). Rates of oxalic acid degradation in the rumen of sheep and goats in response to different levels of oxalic acid administration. Animal Science 65, 451456.
Duncan, I. J. H., & Hughes, B. O. (1972). Free and operant feeding in domestic fowls. Animal Behaviour 20, 775777.
Edwards, G. R., Newman, J. A., Parsons, A. J., & Krebs, J. R. (1997). Use of cues by grazing animals to locate food patches: an example with sheep. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 51, 5968.
Emmans, G. C. (1991). Diet selection by animals: theory and experimental design. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 50, 5964.
Emmans, G. C. & Kyriazakis, I. (1995). The idea of optimization in animals—uses and dangers. Livestock Production Science 44, 189197.
Forbes, J. M. (1992). Metabolic aspects of satiety. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 51, 1319.
Forbes, J. M. & Kyriazakis, I. (1995). Food preferences in farm animals: why don't they always choose wisely. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 54, 429440.
Forkman, B. A. (1993). Self-reinforced behaviour does not explain contra-freeloading in the Mongolian gerbil. Ethology 94, 109112.
Frädrich, H. (1974). A Comparison of Behavior in the Suidae. The Behavior of Ungulates and its Relation to Management, pp. 133143. Morges: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.
Fraser, A. F. & Broom, D. M. (1990). Farm Animal Behaviour and Welfare, 3rd edn, p.34. London: Baillière Tindall.
Freeland, W. J. & Janzen, D. H., (1974). Strategies in herbivory by mammals: the role of plant secondary compounds. American Naturalist 108, 269289.
Galef, B. G. (1977). Mechanisms for the social transmission of food preferences from adult to weanling rats. In Learning Mechanisms in Food Selection, pp. 123150 [Barker, L. M., Best, M. and Domjan, M., editors]. Waco: Baylor University Press.
Galef, B. G. (1996). Food selection: problems in understanding how we choose foods to eat. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 20, 6773.
Garcia, J. (1989). Food for Tolman: cognition and cathexis in concert. In Aversion, Avoidance and Anxiety, pp. 4585 [Archer, T. and Nilsson, L., editors]. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.
Garcia, J., Ervin, F. R., Yorke, C. H. & Koelling, R. A. (1967). Conditioning with delayed vitamin injections. Science 155, 716718.
Gibson, E. L. & Booth, D. A. (1989). Dependence of carbohydrate-conditioned flavor preference on internal state in rats. Learning and Motivation 20, 3647.
Green, K. F. & Garcia, J. (1971). Recuperation from illness: flavor enhancement for rats. Science 173, 749751.
Green, G. C., Elwin, R. L., Mottershead, B. E., Keogh, R. G. & Lynch, J. J. (1984). Long tern effects of early experience to supplementary feeding in sheep. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production 15, 373375.
Hill, A. J. & Blundell, J. E. (1990). Sensitivity of the appetite control system in obese subjects to nutritional and serotoninergic challenges. International Journal of Obesity 14, 219233.
Hinde, R. A. (1970). Animal Behaviour: a synthesis of ethology and comparative psychology, 2nd edn. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Hocking, P. M. & McCormack, H. A., (1995). Differential sensitivity of ovarian follicles to gonadotrophin stimulation in broiler and layer lines of domestic fowl. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 105, 4955.
Hogan, J. A. (1973 a). Development of food recognition in young chicks. I. Maturation and nutrition. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 83, 355366.
Hogan, J. A. (1973 b). Development of food recognition in young chicks. II. Learned associations over long delays. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 83, 367373.
Holman, E. W. (1973). Temporal properties of gustatory spontaneous alternation in rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 85, 536539.
Houston, A. & Sumida, B. (1985). A positive feedback model for switching between two activities. Animal Behaviour 33, 315325.
Huang, X. F., Zhang, G. X. & Herring, S. W. (1994). Age changes in mastication in the pig. Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology 107A, 647654.
Hughes, R. N. (1993). Introduction. In Diet Selection, pp. 19 [Hughes, R. N, editor]. London: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
Hull, C. L. (1943). Principles of Behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Illius, A. W. & Gordon, I. J. (1993). Diet selection in mammalian herbivores: constraints and tactics. In Diet Selection, pp. 157181 [Hughes, R. N., editor]. London: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
Inglis, I. R. (1983). Towards a cognitive theory of exploratory behaviour. In Exploration in Animals and Humans, pp. 72115 [Archer, J. and Birke, L. I. A, editors]. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Inglis, I. R. & Ferguson, N. J. K., (1986). Starlings search for food rather than eat freely available identical food. Animal Behaviour 34, 614616.
Inglis, I. R., Forkman, B. & Lazarus, J. (1997). Free food or earned food? A review and fuzzy model of contrafreeloading. Animal Behaviour 53, 11711191.
Inglis, I. R., Shepherd, D. S., Smith, P., Haynes, P. J., Bull, D. S., Cowan, D. P. & Whitehead, D. (1996). Foraging behavior of wild rats (Rattus norvegicus) towards new foods and bait containers. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 47, 175190.
Jensen, G. D. (1963). Preference for bar pressing over ‘freeloading’ as a function of number of rewarded presses. Journal of Experimental Psychology 65, 451454.
Jensen, M. B., Kyriazakis, I. & Lawrence, A. B. (1993). The activity and straw directed behaviour of pigs offered foods with different crude protein content. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 37, 211221.
Kalat, J. W. (1974). Taste salience depends on novelty, not concentration, in taste-aversion learning in the rat. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology 86, 4750.
Kyriazakis, I. (1994). The voluntary food intake and diet selection of pigs. In Principles of Pig Science, pp. 85105 [Cole, D.J.A.Wiseman, J. and Varley, M., editors]. Nottingham: Nottingham University Press.
Kyriazakis, I., (1997). The nutritional choices of farm animals: to eat or what to eat? In Animal Choices, pp. 5565 [Forbes, J.M., Lawrence, T. L. J., Rodway, R. G. and Varley, M. A., editors]. Edinburgh: British Society of Animal Science.
Kyriazakis, I., Anderson, D. H., & Duncan, A. J., (1998). Conditioned flavour aversion in sheep: the relationship between the dose of a plant secondary compound and the acquisition and persistence of aversion. British Journal of Nutrition 79, 5562.
Kyriazakis, I., Emmans, G. C. & Whittemore, C. T. (1990). Diet selection in pigs: choices made by growing pigs given foods of different protein concentrations. Animal Production 51, 189199.
Laland, K. N. (1992). A theoretical investigation of the role of social transmission in evolution. Ethological Sociobiology 13, 87113.
Laland, K. N. & Plotkin, H. C., (1990). Social learning and social transmission of foraging information in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Animal Learning and Behavior 18, 246251.
Lawrence, A. B., Terlouw, E. M. C., & Kyriazakis, I. (1993). The behavioural effects of undernutrition in confined farm animals. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 52, 219229.
Leathwood, P. D. & Ashley, D. K. M. (1983). Behavioural strategies in the regulation of food choice. Experientia 44 (Suppl.) 171196.
Le Magnen, J. (1986). Hunger. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Levitsky, D. A. (1979). Malnutrition and the hunger to learn. In Malnutrition, Environment and Behavior, pp. 161179.[Levitsky, D. A., editor]. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
McFarland, D. J. (1971). Feedback Mechanisms in Animal Behaviour. London: Academic Press.
McFarland, D. J. & Sibly, R. M., (1975). The behavioural final common path. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B270, 265293.
Mehiel, R. & Bolles, R. C. (1984). Learned flavor preferences based on caloric outcome. Animal Learning and Behavior 12, 421427.
Mela, D. & Rogers, P. J. (1998). Food, Eating and Obesity: the psychobiological basis of appetite and weight control. London: Chapman and Hall.
Mizra, S. N. & Provenza, F. D. (1990). Preference of the mother affects selection and avoidance of foods by lambs differing in age. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 28, 255263.
Mizra, S. N. & Provenza, F. D. (1992). Effects of age and conditions of exposure on maternally mediated food selection by lambs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 33, 3542.
Morrison, G. R. (1974). Alterations in palatability of nutrients for the rat as a result of prior tasting. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology 86, 5661.
Nicol, C. J. & Pope, S. J. (1994). Social-learning in sibling pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 40, 3143.
Olsen, J. D. & Ralphs, M. H. (1986). Feed aversion induced by intraruminal infusion with larkspur extract in cattle. American Journal of Veterinary Research 47, 18291833.
Pelchat, M. L. & Rozin, P. (1982). The special role of nausea in the acquisition of food dislikes by humans. Appetite 3, 341351.
Perry, D. M. (1987). Optimal diet theory: behavior of a starved predatory snail. Oecologia 72, 360365.
Pliner, P., Eng, A. & Krishnan, K. (1995). The effects of fear and hunger on food neophobia in humans. Appetite 25, 7787.
Provenza, F. D. (1995). Postingestive feedback as an elementary determinant of food preference and intake in ruminants. Journal of Range Management 48, 217.
Provenza, F. D. (1996). Acquired aversions as the basis for varied diets of ruminants foraging on rangelands. Journal of Animal Science 74, 2010–2020.
Provenza, F. D. & Burritt, E. A. (1991). Socially-induced diet preference ameliorates conditioned food aversion in lambs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 31, 229236.
Provenza, F. D. & Cincotta, R. P. (1993). Foraging as a self-organizational learning process: accepting adaptability at the expense of predictability. In Diet Selection, pp. 78101. [Hughes, R. N.,editor]. London: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
Provenza, F. D., Ortega-Reyes, L., Scott, C. B., Lynch, J. J. & Burritt, E. A. (1994). Antiemetic drugs attenuate food aversions in sheep. Journal of Animal Science 72, 19891994.
Ralphs, M. H. (1997). Persistence of aversions to larkspur in naive and native cattle. Journal of Range Management 50, 367370.
Rechten, C., Avery, M. & Stevens, A. (1983). Optimal prey selection: why do great tits show partial preferences? Animal Behaviour 31, 576584.
Renner, M. J. (1988). Learning during exploration: the role of behavioral topography during exploration in determining subsequent adaptive behavior. International Journal of Comparative Psychology 2, 4356.
Renner, M. J. (1990). Neglected aspects of exploratory and investigatory behavior. Psychobiology 18, 1622.
Renner, M. J. & Seltzer, C. P. (1994). Sequential structure in behavioral components of object investigation by Long-Evans rats (Rattus norvegicus). Journal of Comparative Psychology 108, 335343.
Revusky, S. H. & Bedarf, E. W. (1967). Association of illness with prior ingestion of novel foods. Science 155, 219220.
Richman, C. L., Dember, W. N. & Kim, P. (19861987). Spontaneous alternation behaviour in animals: a review. Current Psychological Research and Reviews 5, 358391.
Rogers, P. J. & Blundell, J. E. (1984). Meal patterns and food selection during the development of obesity in rats fed a cafeteria diet. Neuroscience and Biobehavioural Reviews 8, 441453.
Rogers, P. J. & Blundell, J. E. (1990). Psychobiological bases of food choice. British Nutrition Foundation Bulletin 15, Suppl, 1, 3140.
Rogers, P. J. & Blundell, J. E. (1991). Mechanisms of diet selection: the translation of needs into behaviour. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 50, 6570.
Rogers, P. J., Tonkiss, T. & Smart, J. L. (1986). Incidental learning is impaired during early life undernutrition. Developmental Psychobiology 19, 113124.
Rose, S. P. & Kyriazakis, I. (1991). Diet selection of pigs and poultry. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 50, 8798.
Rozin, P. (1969). Adaptive food sampling patterns in vitamin deficient rats. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology 69, 126132.
Salvatierra, N. A., Torre, R. B. & Arce, A. (1997). Learning and novelty induced increase of central benzodiazepine receptors from chick forebrain, in a food discrimination task. Brain Research 757, 7984.
Sibly, R. M. (1975). How incentive and deficit determine feeding tendency. Animal Behaviour 23, 437446.
Siegel, P. B. (1993). Behaviour-genetic analyses and poultry husbandry. Poultry Science 72, l6.
Snyderman, M. (1983). Optimal prey selection: the effects of food deprivation. Behaviour Analysis Letters 3, 359369.
Steiner, J. E., (1983). What the neonate can tell us about umami. In Umami: a basic taste, pp. 97123. [Kawamura, Y. and Kare, M. R., editors]. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc.
Stephens, D. W., & Krebs, J. R. (1986). Foraging Theory. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Thorhallsdottir, A. G., Provenza, F. D. & Balph, D. F. (1987). Food aversion learning in lambs with or without a mother: discrimination, novelty and persistence. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 18, 327340.
Toates, F. M. (1980). Animal Behaviour—a systems approach. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Toates, F. M.. (1981). The control of ingestive behaviour by internal and external stimuli—a theoretical review. Appetite 2, 2550.
Toates, F. M. (1983). Exploration as a motivational and learning system: a cognitive incentive view. In Exploration in Animals and Humans, pp. 5571. [Archer, J and Birke, L. I. A., editors]. New YorkVan Nostrand Reinhold.
Toates, F. M. (1986). Motivational Systems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Toates, F. M. (1997). Has pure ethology the right foundations for applied ethology? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 53, 113.
Tolkamp, B. J., Day, J. E. L. & Kyriazakis, I. (1998). Measuring nutrient intake in farm and laboratory animals. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, in press.
Tolkamp, B. J. & Ketelaars, J. J. M. H. (1992). Toward a new theory of feed intake regulation in ruminants. 2. Costs and benefits of feed consumption: an optimization approach. Livestock Production Science 30, 297317.
Treit, D.Spetch, M. L. & Deutsch, J. A. (1983). Variety in the flavor of food enhances eating in the rat: a controlled demonstration. Physiology and Behavior 30, 207211.
Watanabe, S. (1997). Visual discrimination of real objects and pictures in pigeons. Animal Learning and Behavior 25, 185192.
Weingarten, H. P. (1983). Conditioned cues elicit feeding in sated rats: a role for learning in meal initiation. Science 220, 431433.
Weingarten, H. P. (1984). Meal initiation controlled by learned cues: basic behavioral properties. Appetite 5, 147158.
Weingarten, H. P. (1985). Stimulus control of eating: implications for a two-factor theory of hunger. Appetite 6, 387401.
Whiting, J. W. M. & Mowrer, O. H. (1943). Habit progression and regression—a laboratory study of some factors relevant to human socialization. Journal of Comparative Psychology 36, 229253.
Wiepkema, P. R. (1971). Positive feedbacks at work during feeding. Behaviour 39, 266273.
Wood-Gush, D. G. M., Stolba, A. & Miller, C. (1983). Exploration in farm animals and animal husbandry. In Exploration in Animals and Humans, pp. 198209. [Archer, J. and Birke, L. I. A., editors]. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Wood-Gush, D. G. M. & Vestergaard, K. (1989). Exploratory behavior and the welfare of intensively kept animals. Journal of Agricultural Ethics 2, 161169.
Wood-Gush, D. G. M. & Vestergaard, K. (1991). The seeking of novelty and its relation to play. Animal Behaviour 42, 599606.
Wright, P. (1991). Development of food choice during infancy. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 50, 107113.
Yeomans, M. R. (1996). Palatability and the micro-structure of feeding in humans: the appetizer effect. Appetite 27, 119133.
Young, P. T. (1940). Reversal of food preferences of the white rat through controlled pre-feeding. Journal of General Psychology 22, 3366.
Zahorik, D. M., Maier, S. F. & Pies, R. W. (1974). Preferences for tastes paired with recovery from thiamine deficiency in rats: appetitive conditioning or learned safety? Journal of Comparative Physiological Psychology 87, 10831091.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Nutrition Research Reviews
  • ISSN: 0954-4224
  • EISSN: 1475-2700
  • URL: /core/journals/nutrition-research-reviews
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed