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Food choice and intake: towards a unifying framework of learning and feeding motivation

  • Jon E. L. Day (a1), Ilias Kyriazakis (a2) and Peter J. Rogers (a1)

The food choice and intake of animals (including humans) has typically been studied using frameworks of learning and feeding motivation. When used in isolation such frameworks could be criticized because learning paradigms give little consideration to how new food items are included or excluded from an individual's diet, and motivational paradigms do not explain how individuals decide which food to eat when given a choice. Consequently we are posed with the question of whether individuals actively interact with the food items present in their environment to learn about their nutritional properties? The thesis of this review is that individuals are motivated to actively sample food items in order to assess whether they are nutritionally beneficial or harmful. We offer a unifying framework, centred upon the concept of exploratory motivation, which is a synthesis of learning and paradigms of feeding motivation. In this framework information gathering occurs on two levels through exploratory behaviour: (i) the discrimination of food from nonfood items, and (ii) the continued monitoring and storage of information concerning the nutritional properties of these food items. We expect that this framework will advance our understanding of the behavioural control of nutrient intake by explaining how new food items are identified in the environment, and how individuals are able to monitor changes in the nutritional content of their food resource.

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Corresponding author
Address to which all correspondence should be sent: Dr. J. E. L. Day, Consumer Sciences Department, Institute of Food Research, Reading Laboratory, Earley Gate, Reading, RG6 6BZ. Telephone: 0118 935 7000 Facsimile: 0118 926 7917 E-mail:
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