Skip to main content
×
Home

Milk kefir: nutritional, microbiological and health benefits

  • Damiana D. Rosa (a1), Manoela M. S. Dias (a1), Łukasz M. Grześkowiak (a1), Sandra A. Reis (a1), Lisiane L. Conceição (a1) and Maria do Carmo G. Peluzio (a1)...
Abstract
Abstract

Kefir is fermented milk produced from grains that comprise a specific and complex mixture of bacteria and yeasts that live in a symbiotic association. The nutritional composition of kefir varies according to the milk composition, the microbiological composition of the grains used, the time/temperature of fermentation and storage conditions. Kefir originates from the Caucasus and Tibet. Recently, kefir has raised interest in the scientific community due to its numerous beneficial effects on health. Currently, several scientific studies have supported the health benefits of kefir, as reported historically as a probiotic drink with great potential in health promotion, as well as being a safe and inexpensive food, easily produced at home. Regular consumption of kefir has been associated with improved digestion and tolerance to lactose, antibacterial effect, hypocholesterolaemic effect, control of plasma glucose, anti-hypertensive effect, anti-inflammatory effect, antioxidant activity, anti-carcinogenic activity, anti-allergenic activity and healing effects. A large proportion of the studies that support these findings were conducted in vitro or in animal models. However, there is a need for systematic clinical trials to better understand the effects of regular use of kefir as part of a diet, and for their effect on preventing diseases. Thus, the present review focuses on the nutritional and microbiological composition of kefir and presents relevant findings associated with the beneficial effects of kefir on human and animal health.

Copyright
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: Damiana D. Rosa, fax +55 31 3899 2545, email ddinizrosa@gmail.com
References
Hide All
1. Farnworth E (2005) Kefir – a complex probiotic. Food Sci Technol (N Y) 2, 117.
2. Lopitz-Otsoa F, Rementeria A, Elguezabal N, et al. (2006) Kefir: a symbiotic yeasts–bacteria community with alleged healthy capabilities. Rev Iberoam Micol 23, 6774.
3. Pogačić T, Šinko S, Zamberlin Š, et al. (2013) Microbiota of kefir grains. Mljekarstvo 63, 314.
4. Codex Alimentarius Commission (2011) Milk and Milk Products (CODEX STAN 243-2003), vol. 2 edition, pp. 616. Rome, Italy: World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).
5. Golowczyc MA, Gugliada MJ, Hollmann A, et al. (2008) Characterization of homofermentative lactobacilli isolated from kefir grains: potential use as probiotic. J Dairy Res 75, 211217.
6. Silva KR, Rodrigues SA, Filho LX, et al. (2009) Antimicrobial activity of broth fermented with kefir grains. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 152, 316325.
7. Xie N, Zhou T & Li B (2012) Kefir yeasts enhance probiotic potentials of Lactobacillus paracasei H9: the positive effects of coaggregation between the two strains. Food Res Int 45, 394401.
8. Hertzler SR & Clancy SM (2003) Kefir improves lactose digestion and tolerance in adults with lactose maldigestion. J Am Diet Assoc 103, 582587.
9. Rodrigues KL, Caputo LRG, Carvalho JCT, et al. (2005) Antimicrobial and healing activity of kefir and kefiran extract. Int J Antimicrob Agents 25, 404408.
10. Taylor GRJ & Williams CM (1998) Effects of probiotics and prebiotics on blood lipids. Br Food J 80, S225S230.
11. Hadisaputro S, Djokomoeljanto RR, Judiono , et al. (2012) The effects of oral plain kefir supplementation on proinflammatory cytokine properties of the hyperglycemia Wistar rats induced by streptozotocin. Acta Med Indones 44, 100104.
12. Maeda H, Zhu X, Omura K, et al. (2004) Effects of an exopolysaccharide (kefiran) on lipids, blood pressure, blood glucose, and constipation. Biofactors 22, 197200.
13. Lee M, Ahn K, Kwon O, et al. (2007) Anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects of kefir in a mouse asthma model. Immunobiology 212, 647654.
14. Guzel-Seydim ZB, Seydim AC & Greene AK (2003) Comparison of amino acid profiles of milk, yoghurt and Turkish kefir . Milchwissenschaft 58, 158160.
15. Gao J, Gu F, Ruan H, et al. (2013) Induction of apoptosis of gastric cancer cells SGC7901 in vitro by a cell-free fraction of Tibetan kefir . Int Dairy J 30, 1418.
16. Garrote GL, Abraham AG & de Antoni GL (2010) Microbial interactions in kefir: a natural probiotic drink. In Biotechnology of Lactic Acid Bacteria: Novel Applications, vol. 1, pp. 327340 [F Mozzi, RR Raya and GM Vignolo, editors]. Ames, IO: Blackwell Publishing.
17. Gaware V, Kotade R & Dolas K (2011) The magic of kefir: a review history of kefir . Pharmacology 1, 376386.
18. Marshall V & Cole W (1985) Methods for making kefir and fermented milks based on kefir . J Dairy Res 52, 451456.
19. Lin C, Chen H & Liu J (1999) Identification and characterization of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts isolated from kefir grains in Taiwan. Aust J Dairy Technol 54, 1418.
20. Otles S & Cagindi O (2003) Kefir: a probiotic dairy-composition, nutritional and therapeutic aspects. Pakistan J Nutr 2, 5459.
21. Wszolek M, Kupiec-Teahan B, Skov Guldager H, et al. (2006) Production of kefir, koumiss and other related products. In Fermented Milks, pp. 174216 [AY Tamime, editor]. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
22. Garrote GL, Abraham AG & de Antoni GL (1997) Preservation of kefir grains, a comparative study. Lebensm-Wiss Technol 30, 7784.
23. Sarkar S (2008) Biotechnological innovations in kefir production: a review. Br Food J 110, 283295.
24. Santos JPV (2008) Avaliação da microbiota e efeito antagonista de kefir (Evaluation of the microbiota and antagonistic effect of kefir). Mestrado (Masters Thesis), Universidade Federal de Viçosa.
25. Güven A, Güven A & Gülmez M (2003) The effect of kefir on the activities of GSH-Px, GST, CAT, GSH and LPO levels in carbon tetrachloride-induced mice tissues. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 50, 412416.
26. Simova E, Beshkova D, Angelov A, et al. (2002) Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in kefir grains and kefir made from them. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 28, 16.
27. Urdaneta E, Barrenetxe J, Aranguren P, et al. (2007) Intestinal beneficial effects of kefir-supplemented diet in rats. Nutr Res 27, 653658.
28. Arslan S (2014) A review: chemical, microbiological and nutritional characteristics of kefir . CyTA J Food 13, 340345.
29. Ferreira C (2010) Quefir como alimento funcional. In Alimentos Funcionais – Componentes Bioativos e Efeitos Fisiológicos (Quefir as a functional food. In Functional Foods – Bioactive Components and Physiological Effects), vol. 1, pp. 111122 [NMB Costa and CO Rosa, editors]. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Rubio LTDA.
30. Liut Kevičius A & Šarkinas A (2004) Studies on the growth conditions and composition of kefir grains – as a food and forage biomass. Dairy Sci Abs 66, 903.
31. Liutkevičius A & Šarkinas A (2004) Studies on the growth conditions and composition of kefir grains – as a food and forage biomass. Vet Zootec 25, 6470.
32. Saloff Coste C (1996) Kefir, nutritional and health benefits of yogurt and fermented milks. Danone World Newsletter 11, 17.
33. Altay F, Karbancioglu-Guler F, Daskaya-Dikmen C, et al. (2013) A review on traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages: microbiota, fermentation process and quality characteristics. Int J Food Microbiol 167, 4456.
34. Takahashi K & Kohno H (2016) Different polar metabolites and protein profiles between high- and low-quality Japanese ginjo sake . PLOS ONE 11, e0150524.
35. Özdestan Ö & Üren A (2010) Biogenic amine content of kefir: a fermented dairy product. Eur Food Res Technol 231, 101107.
36. Ahmed Z, Wang Y, Ahmad A, et al. (2013) Kefir and health: a contemporary perspective. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 53, 422434.
37. Garbers IM, Britz TJ & Witthuhn RC (2004) PCR-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoretictypification and identification of the microbial consortium present in kefir grains. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 20, 687693.
38. Chen TH, Wang SY, Chen KN, et al. (2009) Microbiological and chemical properties of kefir manufactured by entrapped microorganisms isolated from kefir grains. J Dairy Sci 92, 30023013.
39. Ercolini D (2013) High-throughput sequencing and metagenomics: moving forward in the culture-independent analysis of food microbial ecology. Appl Environ Microbiol 79, 31483155.
40. Gao J, Gu F, He J, et al. (2013) Metagenome analysis of bacterial diversity in Tibetan kefir . Eur Food Res Technol 236, 549556.
41. Nielsen B, Gürakan GC & Ünlü G (2014) Kefir: a multifaceted fermented dairy product. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 6, 123135.
42. Witthuhn RC, Cilliers A & Britz TJ (2005) Evaluation of different techniques on the storage potential of kefir grains. J Dairy Res 72, 125128.
43. Irigoyen A, Arana I, Castiella M, et al. (2005) Microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of kefir during storage. Food Chem 90, 613620.
44. Hallé C, Leroi F, Dousset X, et al. (1994) Les kéfirs: des associations bactéries lactiques- levures. In Bactéries lactiques: Aspects fondamentaux et technologiques (Kefirs: combinations of lactic acid bacteria and yeast. In Lactic Bacteria: Basic and Technological Aspects), vol. 2, pp. 169182 [H Roissart and F Luquet, editors]. Uriage: Lorica.
45. Leite AM, Mayo B, Rachid CT, et al. (2012) Assessment of the microbial diversity of Brazilian kefir grains by PCR-DGGE and pyrosequencing analysis. Food Microbiol 31, 215221.
46. Wang SY, Chen HC, Liu JR, et al. (2008) Identification of yeasts and evaluation of their distribution in Taiwanese kefir and viili starters. J Dairy Sci 91, 37983805.
47. Figler M, Mosik G, Schaffer B, et al. (2006) Effect of special Hungarian probiotic kefir on fecal microflora. World J Gastroenterol 21, 11291132.
48. de Oliveira Leite AM, Miguel MA, Peixoto RS, et al. (2013) Microbiological, technological and therapeutic properties of kefir: a natural probiotic beverage. Braz J Microbiol 44, 341349.
49. de Vrese M & Marteau PR (2007) Probiotics and prebiotics: effects on diarrhea. J Nutr 137, 803S811S.
50. Alm L (1982) Effect of fermentation on lactose, glucose, and galactose content in milk and suitability of fermented milk products for lactose intolerant individuals. J Dairy Sci 65, 346352.
51. Powell JE (2006) Bacteriocins and bacteriocin producers present in kefir and kefir grains. MSc Food Science, University of Stellenbosch.
52. Czamanski RT, Greco DP & Wiest JM (2004) Evaluation of antibacterial activity in filtrates of traditional kefir . Rev Hig Alim 18, 7577.
53. Schneedorf J & Anfiteatro D (2004) Quefir, um probiotico produzido por microorganismos encapsulados e inflamaçao. In Fitoterapicos Anti-inflamatorios (Kefir, a probiotic produced by encapsulated microorganisms and inflammation. In Anti-inflammatory Phytotherapy), pp. 443462 [J Carvalho, editor]. São Paulo: Tecmedd.
54. Oh Y, Osato MS, Han X, et al. (2002) Folk yoghurt kills Helicobacter pylori . J Appl Microbiol 93, 10831088.
55. Kwon CS, Park MY, Cho JS, et al. (2003) Identification of effective microorganisms from kefir fermented milk. Food Sci Biotechnol 12, 476479.
56. Ulusoy B, Colak H, Hampikyan H, et al. (2007) An in vitro study on the antibacterial effect of kefir against some food-borne pathogens. Turk Soc Clin Microbiol 37, 103107.
57. Liu JR, Wang SY, Lin YY, et al. (2002) Antitumor activity of milk kefir and soy milk kefir in tumor-bearing mice. Nutr Cancer 44, 183187.
58. Brialy C, Rivalland P, Coiffard L, et al. (1995) Microbiological study of lyophilized dairy kefir . Folia Microbiol 40, 198200.
59. Ismaiel AA, Ghaly MF & El-Naggar AK (2011) Milk kefir: ultrastructure, antimicrobial activity and efficacy on aflatoxin b1 production by Aspergillus flavus . Curr Microbiol 62, 16021609.
60. Westby A, Reilly PJA & Bainbridge ZA (1997) Review of the effect of fermentation on naturally occurring toxins. Food Control 8, 329339.
61. Marquina D, Santos A, Corpas I, et al. (2002) Dietary influence of kefir on microbial activities in the mouse bowel. Lett Appl Microbiol 35, 136140.
62. Liu J-R, Wang S-Y, Chen M-J, et al. (2006) The anti-allergenic properties of milk kefir and soymilk kefir and their beneficial effects on the intestinal microflora. J Sci Food Agric 86, 25272533.
63. Guo Z, Liu XM, Zhang QX, et al. (2011) Influence of consumption of probiotics on the plasma lipid profile: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 21, 844850.
64. Hosono A & Tanako T (1995) Binding of cholesterol with lactic acid bacterial cells. Milchwissenschaft 50, 556560.
65. Vujičić IF, Vulić M & Könyves T (1992) Assimilation of cholesterol in milk by kefir cultures. Biotechnol Lett 14, 847850.
66. Arora T, Sharma R & Frost G (2011) Propionate. Anti-obesity and satiety enhancing factor? Appetite 56, 511515.
67. Lecerf JM & de Lorgeril M (2011) Dietary cholesterol: from physiology to cardiovascular risk. Br J Nutr 106, 614.
68. Xiao JZ, Kondo S, Takahashi N, et al. (2003) Effects of milk products fermented by Bifidobacterium longum on blood lipids in rats and healthy adult male volunteers. J Dairy Sci 86, 24522461.
69. Liu J-R, Wang S-Y, Chen M-J, et al. (2006) Hypocholesterolaemic effects of milk-kefir and soyamilk-kefir in cholesterol-fed hamsters. Br J Nutr 95, 939946.
70. Wang Y, Xu N, Xi A, et al. (2009) Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum MA2 isolated from Tibet kefir on lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora of rats fed on high-cholesterol diet. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 84, 341347.
71. Uchida M, Ishii I, Inoue C, et al. (2010) Kefiran reduces atherosclerosis in rabbits fed a high cholesterol diet. J Atheroscler Thomb 17, 980988.
72. St-Onge M-P, Farnworth ER, Savard T, et al. (2002) Kefir consumption does not alter plasma lipid levels or cholesterol fractional synthesis rates relative to milk in hyperlipidemic men: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Complement Altern Med 2, 1.
73. Ostadrahimi A, Taghizadeh A, Mobasseri M, et al. (2015) Effect of probiotic fermented milk (kefir) on glycemic control and lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Iran J Public Health 44, 228237.
74. Gomes AC, Bueno AA, de Souza RGM, et al. (2014) Gut microbiota, probiotics and diabetes. Nutr J 13, 60.
75. Parvez S, Malik K, Kang S, et al. (2006) Probiotics and their fermented food products are beneficial for health. J Appl Microbiol 100, 11711185.
76. Quirós A, Hernández-Ledesma B, Ramos M, et al. (2005) Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of peptides derived from caprine kefir . J Dairy Sci 88, 34803487.
77. Hernández-Ledesma B, Contreras MM & Recio I (2011) Antihypertensive peptides: production, bioavailability and incorporation into foods. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 165, 2335.
78. Arthur JC & Jobin C (2013) The complex interplay between inflammation, the microbiota and colorectal cancer. Gut Microbes 4, 253258.
79. Zhou J, Liu X, Jiang H, et al. (2009) Analysis of the microflora in Tibetan kefir grains using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Food Microbiol 26, 770775.
80. Adiloǧlu AK, Gönülateş N, Işler M, et al. (2013) The effect of kefir consumption on human immune system: a cytokine study. Bir Sitokin Çalişmasi 47, 273281.
81. Vinderola C, Duarte J, Thangavel D, et al. (2005) Immunomodulating capacity of kefir . J Dairy Res 72, 195202.
82. Ozcan A, Kaya N, Atakisi O, et al. (2009) Effect of kefir on the oxidative stress due to lead in rats. J Appl Anim Res 35, 9193.
83. Liu J, Lin Y, Chen M, et al. (2005) Antioxidative activities of kefir . Anglais 18, 7.
84. Grishina A, Kulikova I, Alieva L, et al. (2011) Antigenotoxic effect of kefir and ayran supernatants on fecal water-induced DNA damage in human colon cells. Nutr Cancer 63, 7379.
85. Hosono A, Tanabe T & Otani H (1990) Binding properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from kefir milk with mutagenic amino acid pyrolyzates. Milchwissenschaft 45, 647651.
86. Khoury N, El-Hayek S, Tarras O, et al. (2014) Kefir exhibits antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects on colon adenocarcinoma cells with no significant effects on cell migration and invasion. Int J Oncol 45, 21172127.
87. de Moreno de LeBlanc A, Matar C, Farnworth E, et al. (2007) Study of immune cells involved in the antitumor effect of kefir in a murine breast cancer model. J Dairy Sci 90, 19201928.
88. Guzel-Seydim ZB, Seydim AC, Greene AK, et al. (2006) Determination of antimutagenic properties of some fermented milks ıncluding changes in the total fatty acid profiles including conjugated linoleic acids. Int J Dairy Technol 59, 209215.
89. Teruya K, Myojin-Maekawa Y, Shimamoto F, et al. (2013) Protective effects of the fermented milk kefir on X-ray irradiation-induced intestinal damage in B6C3F1 mice. Biol Pharm Bull 36, 352359.
90. Matsuu M, Shichijo K, Okaichi K, et al. (2003) The protective effect of fermented milk kefir on radiation-induced apoptosis in colonic crypt cells of rats. J Radiat Res 44, 111115.
91. Lew LC & Liong MT (2013) Bioactives from probiotics for dermal health: functions and benefits. J Appl Microbiol 114, 12411253.
92. Huseini HF, Rahimzadeh G, Fazeli MR, et al. (2012) Evaluation of wound healing activities of kefir products. Burns 38, 719723.
93. Santos A, San Mauro M, Sanchez A, et al. (2003) The antimicrobial properties of different strains of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from kefir . Syst Appl Microbiol 26, 434437.
94. Taş TK, Ekinci FY & Guzel-Seydim ZB (2012) Identification of microbial flora in kefir grains produced in Turkey using PCR. Int J Dairy Technol 65, 126131.
95. Mobili P, Londero A, Maria TMR, et al. (2009) Characterization of S-layer proteins of Lactobacillus by FTIR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Vib Spectrosc 50, 6877.
96. Yuksekdag Z, Beyatli Y, Aslim B, et al. (2004) Determination of some characteristics coccoid forms of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Turkish kefirs with natural probiotic. J Food Sci Technol 37, 663667.
97. Magalhães KT, de Melo Pereira GV, Campos CR, et al. (2011) Brazilian kefir: structure, microbial communities and chemical composition. Braz J Microbiol 42, 693702.
98. Angulo L, Lopez E & Lema C (1993) Microflora present in kefir grains of the Galician region (north-west of Spain). J Dairy Res 60, 263267.
99. Witthuhn RC, Schoeman T & Britz TJ (2005) Characterisation of the microbial population at different stages of kefir production and kefir grain mass cultivation. Int Dairy J 15, 383389.
100. Delfederico L, Hollmann A, Martinez M, et al. (2006) Molecular identification and typing of lactobacilli isolated from kefir grains. J Dairy Res 73, 2027.
101. Valasaki K, Staikou A, Theodorou LG, et al. (2008) Purification and kinetics of two novel thermophilic extracellular proteases from Lactobacillus helveticus, from kefir with possible biotechnological interest. Bioresour Technol 99, 58045813.
102. Yoshida T & Toyoshima K (1994) Lactic acid bacteria and yeast from kefir . J Japan Soc Nutr Food Sci 47, 5559.
103. Takizawa S, Kojima S, Tamura S, et al. (1994) Lactobacillus kefirgranum sp. nov. and Lactobacillus parakefir sp. nov., two new species from kefir grains. Int J Syst Bacteriol 44, 435439.
104. Garrote G, Abraham A & De Antoni G (2001) Chemical and microbiological characterisation of kefir grains. J Dairy Res 68, 639652.
105. Ergullu E & Ucuncu M (1983) Studies on kefir microflora (in Turkish). Food 8, 310.
106. Koroleva NS (1991) Products prepared with lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. In Properties of Fermented Milks, pp. 159179. [RK Robinson, editor]. London: Elsevier Applied Science.
107. Miguel MGCP, Cardoso PG, Lago LA, et al. (2010) Diversity of bacteria present in milk kefir grains using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Food Res Int 43, 15231528.
108. Sabir F, Beyatli Y, Cokmus C, et al. (2010) Assessment of potential probiotic properties of Lactobacillus spp., Lactococcus spp., and Pediococcus spp. strains isolated from kefir . J Food Sci 75, M568M573.
109. Wyder MT & Puhan Z (1997) A rapid method for identification of yeasts from kefyr at species level. Milchwissenschaft 52, 327330.
110. Kumura H, Tanoue Y, Tsukahara M, et al. (2004) Screening of dairy yeast strains for probiotic applications. J Dairy Res 87, 40504056.
111. Wyder M (2001) Yeast in dairy products. FAM Swiss Fed Dairy Res Station 425, 121.
112. Ottogalli G, Galli A, Resmini P, et al. (1973) Composizione microbiologica, chimica ed ultrastruttura dei granuli di kefir (Microbiological composition, chemical and ultrastructure of kefir grains). Ann Microbiol Enzim 23, 109121.
113. Dousset X & Caillet F (1993) Aspects microbiologiques et biochimiques de la fermentation du kefir (Microbiological and biochemical aspects of kefir fermentation). Microbiol Alim Nutr 11, 463470.
114. Loretan T, Mostert JF & Viljeon BC (2003) Microbial flora associated with South African household kefir . S Afr J Sci 99, 9294.
115. Latorre-García L, del Castillo-Agudo L & Polaina J (2007) Taxonomical classification of yeasts isolated from kefir based on the sequence of their ribosomal RNA genes. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 23, 785791.
116. Pintado ME, Lopes Da Silva JA, Fernandes PB, et al. (1996) Microbiological and rheological studies on Portuguese kefir grains. Int J Food Sci Technol 31, 1526.
117. Motaghi M, Mazaheri M, Moazami N, et al. (1997) Short communication: Kefir production in Iran. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 13, 579581.
118. Carasi P, Racedo SM, Jacquot C, et al. (2015) Impact of kefir derived Lactobacillus kefiri on the mucosal immune response and gut microbiota. J Immunol Res 2015, 361604.
119. Fahmy HA & Ismail AFM (2015) Gastroprotective effect of kefir on ulcer induced in irradiated rats. J Photochem Photobiol B 144, 8593.
120. Yener AU, Sehitoglu MH, Ozkan MT, et al. (2015) Effects of kefir on ischemia–reperfusion injury. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 19, 887896.
121. Chen HL, Tung YT, Chuang CH, et al. (2015) Kefir improves bone mass and microarchitecture in an ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 26, 589599.
122. Punaro GR, Maciel FR, Rodrigues AM, et al. (2014) Kefir administration reduced progression of renal injury in STZ-diabetic rats by lowering oxidative stress. Nitric Oxide 37, 5360.
123. Noori N, Bangash MY, Motaghinejad M, et al. (2014) Kefir protective effects against nicotine cessation-induced anxiety and cognition impairments in rats. Adv Biomed Res 3, 251.
124. Kanbak G, Uzuner K, Kuşat Ol K, et al. (2014) Effect of kefir and low-dose aspirin on arterial blood pressure measurements and renal apoptosis in unhypertensive rats with 4 weeks salt diet. Clin Exp Hypertens 36, 18.
125. Chen HL, Tung YT, Tsai CL, et al. (2014) Kefir improves fatty liver syndrome by inhibiting the lipogenesis pathway in leptin-deficient ob/ob knockout mice. Int J Obes (Lond) 38, 11721179.
126. Huang Y, Wang X, Wang J, et al. (2013) Lactobacillus plantarum strains as potential probiotic cultures with cholesterol-lowering activity. J Dairy Sci 96, 27462753.
127. Huang Y, Wu F, Wang X, et al. (2013) Characterization of Lactobacillus plantarum Lp27 isolated from Tibetan kefir grains: a potential probiotic bacterium with cholesterol-lowering effects. J Dairy Sci 96, 28162825.
128. Zheng Y, Lu Y, Wang J, et al. (2013) Probiotic properties of lactobacillus strains isolated from Tibetan kefir grains. PLOS ONE 8, e69868.
129. Chen Y-P & Chen M-J (2013) Effects of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 isolated from kefir grains on germ-free mice. PLOS ONE 8, e78789.
130. Chen YP, Lee TY, Hong WS, et al. (2013) Effects of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 isolated from kefir grains on enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection using mouse and intestinal cell models. J Dairy Sci 96, 74677477.
131. Franco MC, Golowczyc MA, De Antoni GL, et al. (2013) Administration of kefir-fermented milk protects mice against Giardia intestinalis infection. J Med Microbiol 62, 18151822.
132. Chen YP, Hsiao PJ, Hong WS, et al. (2012) Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 isolated from milk kefir grains ameliorates experimental colitis in vitro and in vivo . J Dairy Sci 95, 6374.
133. Lee J-I, Song K-Y, Chon J-W, et al. (2011) Effects of oral administering kefir on blood glucose levels in diabetic mice. Korean J Food Nutr 24, 7984.
134. Medrano M, Racedo SM, Rolny IS, et al. (2011) Oral administration of kefiran induces changes in the balance of immune cells in a murine model. J Agric Food Chem 59, 52995304.
135. Vinderola G, Perdigon G, Duarte J, et al. (2006) Effects of kefir fractions on innate immunity. Immunobiology 211, 149156.
136. Fathi Y, Faghih S, Zibaeenezhad MJ, et al. (2016) Kefir drink leads to a similar weight loss, compared with milk, in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Nutr 55, 295304.
137. Turan I, Dedeli O, Bor S, et al. (2014) Effects of a kefir supplement on symptoms, colonic transit, and bowel satisfaction score in patients with chronic constipation: a pilot study. Turk J Gastroenterol 25, 650656.
138. Ghasempour M, Sefdgar SA, Moghadamnia AA, et al. (2014) Comparative study of kefir yogurt-drink and sodium fluoride mouth rinse on salivary mutans streptococci. J Contemp Dent Pract 15, 214217.
139. Bekar O, Yilmaz Y & Gulten M (2011) Kefir improves the efficacy and tolerability of triple therapy in eradicating Helicobacter pylori . J Med Food 14, 344347.
140. Merenstein DJ, Foster J & D’Amico F (2009) A randomized clinical trial measuring the influence of kefir on antibiotic-associated diarrhea: the Measuring the Influence of Kefir (MILK) Study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 163, 750754.
141. Topuz E, Derin D, Can G, et al. (2008) Effect of oral administration of kefir on serum proinflammatory cytokines on 5-FU induced oral mucositis in patients with colorectal cancer. Invest New Drugs 26, 567572.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Nutrition Research Reviews
  • ISSN: 0954-4224
  • EISSN: 1475-2700
  • URL: /core/journals/nutrition-research-reviews
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 78
Total number of PDF views: 488 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 5327 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 22nd February 2017 - 23rd November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.