1Koh-Banerjee, P & Rimm, EB (2003) Whole grain consumption and weight gain: a review of the epidemiological evidence, potential mechanisms and opportunities for future research. Proc Nutr Soc 62, 25–29.
2van de Vijver, LPL, van den Bosch, LMC, van den Brandt, PA, et al. . (2009) Whole-grain consumption, dietary fibre intake and body mass index in the Netherlands cohort study. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, 31–38.
3Esmaillzadeh, A, Mirmiran, P & Azizi, F (2005) Whole-grain consumption and the metabolic syndrome: a favorable association in Tehranian adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 353–362.
4Sahyoun, NR, Jacques, PF, Zhang, XL, et al. . (2006) Whole-grain intake is inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome and mortality in older adults. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 124–131.
5de Munter, JS, Hu, FB, Spiegelman, D, et al. . (2007) Whole grain, bran, and germ intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study and systematic review. PLoS Med 4, e261.
6Murtaugh, MA, Jacobs, DR, Jacob, B, et al. . (2007) Epidemiological support for the protection of whole grains against diabetes. Proc Nutr Soc 62, 143–149.
7Mellen, PB, Walsh, TF & Herrington, DM (2008) Whole grain intake and cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 18, 283–290.
8Chan, JM, Wang, F & Holly, EA (2007) Whole grains and risk of pancreatic cancer in a large population-based case–control study in the San Francisco Bay area, California. Am J Epidemiol 166, 1174–1185.
9Chatenoud, L, Tavani, A, La Vecchia, C, et al. . (1998) Whole grain food intake and cancer risk. Int J Cancer 77, 24–28.
10Jacobs, DR Jr, Marquart, L, Slavin, J, et al. . (1998) Whole-grain intake and cancer: an expanded review and meta-analysis. Nutr Cancer 30, 85–96.
11Larsson, SC, Giovannucci, E, Bergkvist, L, et al. . (2005) Whole grain consumption and risk of colorectal cancer: a population-based cohort of 60 000 women. Br J Cancer 92, 1803–1807.
12Schatzkin, A, Park, Y, Leitzmann, MF, et al. . (2008) Prospective study of dietary fiber, whole grain foods, and small intestinal cancer. Gastroenterology 135, 1163–1167.
13Jacobs, DR Jr, Andersen, LF & Blomhoff, R (2007) Whole-grain consumption is associated with a reduced risk of noncardiovascular, noncancer death attributed to inflammatory diseases in the Iowa Women's Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 1606–1614.
14Adom, KK, Sorrells, ME & Liu, RH (2003) Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of wheat varieties. J Agric Food Chem 51, 7825–7834.
15Jacobs, DR, Meyer, HE & Solvoll, K (2001) Reduced mortality among whole grain bread eaters in men and women in the Norwegian County Study. Eur J Clin Nutr 55, 137–143.
16Chatenoud, L, La Vecchia, C, Franceschi, S, et al. . (1999) Refined-cereal intake and risk of selected cancers in Italy. Am J Clin Nutr 70, 1107–1110.
17Jensen, MK, Koh-Banerjee, P, Franz, M, et al. . (2006) Whole grains, bran, and germ in relation to homocysteine and markers of glycemic control, lipids, and inflammation. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 275–283.
18Liu, RH (2007) Whole grain phytochemicals and health. J Cereal Sci 46, 207–219.
19Truswell, AS (2002) Cereal grains and coronary heart disease. Eur J Clin Nutr 56, 1–14.
24Jones, JM (2008) Whole grains – issues and deliberations from the Whole Grain Task Force. Cereal Foods World 53, 260–264.
25Srivastava, AK, Sudha, ML, Baskaran, V, et al. . (2007) Studies on heat stabilized wheat germ and its influence on rheological characteristics of dough. Eur Food Res Technol 224, 365–372.
27Jacobs, DR Jr, Meyer, KA, Kushi, LH, et al. . (1998) Whole-grain intake may reduce the risk of ischemic heart disease death in postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women's Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 68, 248–257.
28Liu, SM, Manson, JE, Stampfer, MJ, et al. . (2000) Whole grain consumption and risk of ischemic stroke in women – a prospective study. JAMA 284, 1534–1540.
29Thane, CW, Jones, AR, Stephen, AM, et al. . (2005) Whole-grain intake of British young people aged 4–18 years. Br J Nutr 94, 825–831.
30Thane, CW, Stephen, AM & Jebb, SA (2009) Whole grains and adiposity: little association among British adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, 229–237.
31Cleveland, LE, Moshfegh, AJ, Albertson, AM, et al. . (2000) Dietary intake of whole grains. J Am Coll Nutr 19, 331S–338S.
32Lang, R & Jebb, SA (2003) Who consumes whole grains, and how much? Proc Nutr Soc 62, 123–127.
33Welsh, S, Shaw, A & Davis, C (1994) Achieving dietary recommendations – whole-grain foods in the food guide pyramid. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 34, 441–451.
34Albertson, AM & Tobelmann, RC (1995) Consumption of grain and whole-grain foods by an American population during the years 1990 to 1992. J Am Diet Assoc 95, 703–704.
35National Council on Nutrition and Physical Activity and the Institute for Nutrition Research (1998) Development of the Norwegian Diet. Oslo: University of Oslo.
36Prättälä, R, Helasoja, V & Mykkänen, H (2007) The consumption of rye bread and white bread as dimensions of health lifestyles in Finland. Public Health Nutr 4, 813–819.
37Adams, JF & Engstrom, A (2000) Helping consumers achieve recommended intakes of whole grain foods. J Am Coll Nutr 19, 339S–344S.
38Jenkins, DJ, Wesson, V, Wolever, TM, et al. . (1988) Wholemeal versus wholegrain breads: proportion of whole or cracked grain and the glycaemic response. BMJ 297, 958–960.
39Jacobs, DR Jr, Pereira, MA, Stumpf, K, et al. . (2002) Whole grain food intake elevates serum enterolactone. Br J Nutr 88, 111–116.
40Lutsey, PL, Jacobs, DR, Kori, S, et al. . (2007) Whole grain intake and its cross-sectional association with obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, diabetes and subclinical CVD: The MESA Study. Br J Nutr 98, 397–405.
41McKeown, NM, Meigs, JB, Liu, S, et al. . (2002) Whole-grain intake is favorably associated with metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the Framingham Offspring Study. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 390–398.
42Newby, P, Maras, J, Bakun, P, et al. . (2007) Intake of whole grains, refined grains, and cereal fiber measured with 7-d diet records and associations with risk factors for chronic disease. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 1745–1753.
43Vanharanta, M, Voutilainen, S, Lakka, TA, et al. . (1999) Risk of acute coronary events according to serum concentrations of enterolactone: a prospective population-based case–control study. Lancet 354, 2112–2115.
44Levi, F, Pasche, C, Lucchini, F, et al. . (2000) Refined and whole grain cereals and the risk of oral, oesophageal and laryngeal cancer. Eur J Clin Nutr 54, 487–489.
45Slavin, JL (2000) Mechanisms for the impact of whole grain foods on cancer risk. J Am Coll Nutr 19, 300S–307S.
46Slavin, JL, Martini, MC, Jacobs, DR Jr, et al. . (1999) Plausible mechanisms for the protectiveness of whole grains. Am J Clin Nutr 70, 459S–463S.
47Haber, GB, Heaton, KW, Murphy, D, et al. . (1977) Depletion and disruption of dietary fibre. Effects on satiety, plasma-glucose, and serum-insulin. Lancet ii, 679–682.
48Read, NW, Welch, IM, Austen, CJ, et al. . (1986) Swallowing food without chewing; a simple way to reduce postprandial glycaemia. Br J Nutr 55, 43–47.
49Fardet, A, Leenhardt, F, Lioger, D, et al. . (2006) Parameters controlling the glycaemic response to breads. Nutr Res Rev 19, 18–25.
50Granfeldt, Y, Hagander, B & Bjorck, I (1995) Metabolic responses to starch in oat and wheat products. On the importance of food structure, incomplete gelatinization or presence of viscous dietary fibre. Eur J Clin Nutr 49, 189–199.
51Liljeberg, H, Granfeldt, Y & Bjorck, I (1992) Metabolic responses to starch in bread containing intact kernels versus milled flour. Eur J Clin Nutr 46, 561–575.
52Nilsson, AC, Ostman, EM, Granfeldt, Y, et al. . (2008) Effect of cereal test breakfasts differing in glycemic index and content of indigestible carbohydrates on daylong glucose tolerance in healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 645–654.
53American Association of Cereal Chemists (2001) The definition of dietary fiber. Cereal Foods World 46, 112–129.
54Nilsson, AC, Ostman, EM, Holst, JJ, et al. . (2008) Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast. J Nutr 138, 732–739.
55Topping, D (2007) Cereal complex carbohydrates and their contribution to human health. J Cereal Sci 46, 220–229.
56Wood, PJ (2007) Cereal β-glucans in diet and health. J Cereal Sci 46, 230–238.
57Koh-Banerjee, P, Franz, M, Sampson, L, et al. . (2004) Changes in whole-grain, bran, and cereal fiber consumption in relation to 8-y weight gain among men. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 1237–1245.
58Slavin, JL (2005) Dietary fiber and body weight. Nutrition 21, 411–418.
59Jenkins, AL, Jenkins, DJ, Zdravkovic, U, et al. . (2002) Depression of the glycemic index by high levels of β-glucan fiber in two functional foods tested in type 2 diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr 56, 622–628.
60Zhang, JX, Hallmans, G, Andersson, H, et al. . (1992) Effect of oat bran on plasma cholesterol and bile acid excretion in nine subjects with ileostomies. Am J Clin Nutr 56, 99–105.
61Lia, A, Hallmans, G, Sandberg, AS, et al. . (1995) Oat β-glucan increases bile acid excretion and a fiber-rich barley fraction increases cholesterol excretion in ileostomy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 62, 1245–1251.
62Scheppach, W, Bartram, HP & Richter, F (1995) Role of short-chain fatty acids in the prevention of colorectal cancer. Eur J Cancer 31, 1077–1080.
63Slavin, J (2003) Why whole grains are protective: biological mechanisms. Proc Nutr Soc 62, 129–134.
64Costabile, A, Klinder, A, Fava, F, et al. . (2008) Whole-grain wheat breakfast cereal has a prebiotic effect on the human gut microbiota: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Br J Nutr 99, 110–120.
65Brouns, F, Kettlitz, B & Arrigoni, E (2002) Resistant starch and ‘the butyrate revolution’. Trends Food Sci Technol 13, 251–261.
66Boffa, LC, Lupton, JR, Mariani, MR, et al. . (1992) Modulation of colonic epithelial cell proliferation, histone acetylation, and luminal short chain fatty acids by variation of dietary fiber (wheat bran) in rats. Cancer Res 52, 5906–5912.
67Higgins, J, Higbee, D, Donahoo, W, et al. . (2004) Resistant starch consumption promotes lipid oxidation. Nutr Metab 1, 8.
68McIntosh, GH, Noakes, M, Royle, PJ, et al. . (2003) Whole-grain rye and wheat foods and markers of bowel health in overweight middle-aged men. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 967–974.
69Ferguson, LR & Harris, PJ (1999) Protection against cancer by wheat bran: role of dietary fibre and phytochemicals. Eur J Cancer Prev 8, 17–25.
70Lopez, HW, Coudray, C, Bellanger, J, et al. . (2000) Resistant starch improves mineral assimilation in rats adapted to a wheat bran diet. Nutr Res 20, 141–155.
71Lopez, HW, Levrat-Verny, MA, Coudray, C, et al. . (2001) Class 2 resistant starches lower plasma and liver lipids and improve mineral retention in rats. J Nutr 131, 1283–1289.
72Coudray, C, Bellanger, J, Castiglia-Delavaud, C, et al. . (1997) Effect of soluble or partly soluble dietary fibres supplementation on absorption and balance of calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc in healthy young men. Eur J Clin Nutr 51, 375–380.
73Lopez, HW, Coudray, C, Levrat-Verny, MA, et al. . (2000) Fructooligosaccharides enhance mineral apparent absorption and counteract the deleterious effects of phytic acid on mineral homeostasis in rats. J Nutr Biochem 11, 500–508.
74Reddy, B, Hamid, R & Rao, C (1997) Effect of dietary oligofructose and inulin on colonic preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci inhibition. Carcinogenesis 18, 1371–1374.
75McIntyre, A, Gibson, PR & Young, GP (1993) Butyrate production from dietary fiber and protection against large bowel cancer in a rat model. Gut 34, 386–391.
76Heerdt, BG, Houston, MA, Anthony, GM, et al. . (1999) Initiation of growth arrest and apoptosis of MCF-7 mammary carcinoma cells by tributyrin, a triglyceride analogue of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, is associated with mitochondrial activity. Cancer Res 59, 1584–1591.
77Ellerhorst, J, Nguyen, T, Cooper, DNW, et al. . (1999) Induction of differentiation and apoptosis in the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP by sodium butyrate and galectin-1. Int J Oncol 14, 225–232.
78Bird, AR, Vuaran, MS, King, RA, et al. . (2008) Wholegrain foods made from a novel high-amylose barley variety (Himalaya 292) improve indices of bowel health in human subjects. Br J Nutr 99, 1032–1040.
79Liljeberg, H & Bjorck, I (1994) Bioavailability of starch in bread products. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy subjects and in vitro resistant starch content. Eur J Clin Nutr 48, 151–163.
80Hara, H, Haga, S, Aoyama, Y, et al. . (1999) Short-chain fatty acids suppress cholesterol synthesis in rat liver and intestine. J Nutr 129, 942–948.
81Jenkins, DJA, Wolever, TMS, Nineham, R, et al. . (1980) Improved glucose tolerance four hours after taking guar with glucose. Diabetologia 19, 21–24.
82Jenkins, D, Wolever, T, Taylor, R, et al. . (1982) Slow release dietary carbohydrate improves second meal tolerance. Am J Clin Nutr 35, 1339–1346.
83Nilsson, A, Granfeldt, Y, Ostman, E, et al. . (2006) Effects of GI and content of indigestible carbohydrates of cereal-based evening meals on glucose tolerance at a subsequent standardised breakfast. Eur J Clin Nutr 60, 1092–1099.
84Cherbut, C (2003) Motor effects of short-chain fatty acids and lactate in the gastrointestinal tract. Proc Nutr Soc 62, 95–99.
85Wolever, T, Spadafora, P & Eshuis, H (1991) Interaction between colonic acetate and propionate in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 53, 681–687.
86Homko, CJ, Cheung, P & Boden, G (2003) Effects of free fatty acids on glucose uptake and utilization in healthy women. Diabetes 52, 487–491.
87Anderson, JW & Bridges, SR (1984) Short-chain fatty acid fermentation products of plant fiber affect glucose metabolism of isolated rat hepatocytes. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 177, 372–376.
88Liu, RH (2004) Potential synergy of phytochemicals in cancer prevention: mechanism of action. J Nutr 134, 3479S–3485S.
89Reddy, BS, Hirose, Y, Cohen, LA, et al. . (2000) Preventive potential of wheat bran fractions against experimental colon carcinogenesis: implications for human colon cancer prevention. Cancer Res 60, 4792–4797.
90Sang, SM, Ju, JY, Lambert, JD, et al. . (2006) Wheat bran oil and its fractions inhibit human colon cancer cell growth and intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(min/+) mice. J Agric Food Chem 54, 9792–9797.
91Bartsch, H & Nair, J (2006) Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress in the genesis and perpetuation of cancer: role of lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, and repair. Langenbecks Arch Surg 391, 499–510.
92Graf, E & Eaton, JW (1985) Dietary suppression of colonic cancer; fiber or phytate? Cancer 56, 717–718.
93Kohlmeier, L, Simonsen, N & Mottus, K (1995) Dietary modifiers of carcinogenesis. Environ Health Perspect 103, Suppl. 8, 177–184.
94Nesaretnam, K, Yew, WW & Wahid, MB (2007) Tocotrienols and cancer: beyond antioxidant activity. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 109, 445–452.
95Shamsuddin, AM (2002) Anti-cancer function of phytic acid. Int J Food Sci Technol 37, 769–782.
96Adlercreutz, H (2002) Phyto-oestrogens and cancer. Lancet Oncol 3, 364–373.
97Adlercreutz, H, Mousavi, Y, Clark, J, et al. . (1992) Dietary phytoestrogens and cancer: in vitro and in vivo studies. J Steroid Biochem Molec Biol 41, 331–337.
98Markaverich, BM, Webb, B, Densmore, CL, et al. . (1995) Effects of coumestrol on estrogen receptor function and uterine growth in ovariectomized rats. Environ Health Perspect 103, 574–581.
99Reddy, BS (1999) Prevention of colon carcinogenesis by components of dietary fiber. Anticancer Res 19, 3681–3683.
100Ullah, A & Shamsuddin, AM (1990) Dose-dependent inhibition of large intestinal cancer by inositol hexaphosphate in F344 rats. Carcinogenesis 11, 2219–2222.
101Vucenik, I, Yang, G & Shamsuddin, AM (1997) Comparison of pure inositol hexaphosphate and high-bran diet in the prevention of DMBA-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis. Nutr Cancer 28, 7–13.
102Hollman, P & Katan, M (1997) Absorption, metabolism and health effects of dietary flavonoids in man. Biomed Pharmacother 51, 305–310.
103Edenharder, R, Rauscher, R & Platt, KL (1997) The inhibition by flavonoids of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline metabolic activation to a mutagen: a structure–activity relationship study. Mutat Res 379, 21–32.
104Barone, E, Calabrese, V & Mancuso, C (2009) Ferulic acid and its therapeutic potential as a hormetin for age-related diseases. Biogerontology 10, 97–108.
105Kawabata, K, Yamamoto, T, Hara, A, et al. . (2000) Modifying effects of ferulic acid on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in F344 rats. Cancer Lett 157, 15–21.
106Alabaster, O, Tang, ZC & Shivapurkar, N (1996) Dietary fiber and the chemopreventive modelation of colon carcinogenesis. Mutat Res 350, 185–197.
107Eastwood, MA & Girdwood, RH (1968) Lignin: a bile-salt sequestrating agent. Lancet ii, 1170–1172.
108Eastwood, MA & Hamilton, D (1968) Studies on the adsorption of bile salts to non-absorbed components of diet. Biochim Biophys Acta 152, 165–173.
109Labaj, J, Slamenova, D, Lazarova, M, et al. . (2004) Lignin-stimulated reduction of oxidative DNA lesions in testicular cells and lymphocytes of Sprague–Dawley rats in vitro and ex vivo. Nutr Cancer 50, 198–205.
110Wattenberg, LW (1985) Chemoprevention of cancer. Cancer Res 45, 1–8.
111Jablonska, E, Gromadzinska, J, Sobala, W, et al. . (2008) Joint effect of GPx1 polymorphism and selenium status on lung cancer risk. Eur J Cancer Suppl 6, 203.
112Stavric, B (1994) Antimutagens and anticarcinogens in foods. Food Chem Toxicol 32, 79–90.
113Harris, PJ & Ferguson, LR (1993) Dietary fiber – its composition and role in protection against colorectal cancer. Mutat Res 290, 97–110.
114Harris, PJ, Roberton, AM, Watson, ME, et al. . (1993) The effects of soluble-fiber polysaccharides on the adsorption of a hydrophobic carcinogen to an insoluble dietary fiber. Nutr Cancer 19, 43–54.
115Morita, T, Tanabe, H, Sugiyama, K, et al. . (2004) Dietary resistant starch alters the characteristics of colonic mucosa and exerts a protective effect on trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 68, 2155–2164.
116Toden, S, Bird, AR, Topping, DL, et al. . (2007) Dose-dependent reduction of dietary protein-induced colonocyte DNA damage by resistant starch in rats correlates more highly with caecal butyrate than with other short chain fatty acids. Cancer Biol Ther 6, 253–258.
117Story, JA & Kritchevsky, D (1994) Denis Parsons Burkitt (1911–1993). J Nutr 124, 1551–1554.
118Bauer-Marinovic, M, Florian, S, Muller-Schmehl, K, et al. . (2006) Dietary resistant starch type 3 prevents tumor induction by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and alters proliferation, apoptosis and dedifferentiation in rat colon. Carcinogenesis 27, 1849–1859.
119Bingham, SA (2007) Mechanisms and experimental and epidemiological evidence relating dietary fibre (non-starch polysaccharides) and starch to protection against large bowel cancer. Proc Nutr Soc 49, 153–171.
120O'Keefe, SJD, Kidd, M, Espitalier-Noel, G, et al. . (1999) Rarity of colon cancer in Africans is associated with low animal product consumption, not fiber. Am J Gastroenterol 94, 1373–1380.
121Cho, E, Willett, WC, Colditz, GA, et al. . (2007) Dietary choline and betaine and the risk of distal colorectal adenoma in women. J Natl Cancer Inst 99, 1224–1231.
122Klaunig, JE, Xu, Y, Isenberg, JS, et al. . (1998) The role of oxidative stress in chemical carcinogenesis. Environ Health Perspect 106, 289–295.
123Harris, PJ & Ferguson, LR (1999) Dietary fibres may protect or enhance carcinogenesis. Mutat Res 443, 95–110.
124Ford, ES, Mokdad, AH, Giles, WH, et al. . (2003) The metabolic syndrome and antioxidant concentrations: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Diabetes 52, 2346–2352.
125Higdon, JV & Frei, B (2003) Obesity and oxidative stress – a direct link to CVD? Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 23, 365–367.
126Keaney, JF, Larson, MG, Vasan, RS, et al. . (2002) Obesity as a source of systemic oxidative stress: clinical correlates of oxidative stress in the Framingham Study. Circulation 106, 467.
127Evans, JL, Goldfine, ID, Maddux, BA, et al. . (2002) Oxidative stress and stress-activated signaling pathways: a unifying hypothesis of type 2 diabetes. Endocr Rev 23, 599–622.
128Maiese, K, Morhan, SD & Chong, ZZ (2007) Oxidative stress biology and cell injury during type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Curr Neurovasc Res 4, 63–71.
129Cai, H & Harrison, DG (2000) Endothelial dysfunction in cardiovascular diseases: the role of oxidant stress. Circ Res 87, 840–844.
130Castelao, JE & Gago-Dominguez, M (2008) Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women: relationship to lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. Med Hypotheses 71, 39–44.
131Martinez-Tome, M, Murcia, MA, Frega, N, et al. . (2004) Evaluation of antioxidant capacity of cereal brans. J Agric Food Chem 52, 4690–4699.
132Miller, HE, Rigelhof, F, Marquart, L, et al. . (2000) Antioxidant content of whole grain breakfast cereals, fruits and vegetables. J Am Coll Nutr 19, 312S–319S.
133Perez-Jimenez, J & Saura-Calixto, F (2005) Literature data may underestimate the actual antioxidant capacity of cereals. J Agric Food Chem 53, 5036–5040.
134Serpen, A, Gökmen, V, Pellegrini, N, et al. . (2008) Direct measurement of the total antioxidant capacity of cereal products. J Cereal Sci 48, 816–820.
135Zielinski, H & Kozlowska, H (2000) Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected cereal grains and their different morphological fractions. J Agric Food Chem 48, 2008–2016.
136Fardet, A, Rock, E & Rémésy, C (2008) Is the in vitro antioxidant potential of whole-grain cereals and cereal products well reflected in vivo? J Cereal Sci 48, 258–276.
137Andersson, A, Tengblad, S, Karlstrom, B, et al. . (2007) Whole-grain foods do not affect insulin sensitivity or markers of lipid peroxidation and inflammation in healthy, moderately overweight subjects. J Nutr 137, 1401–1407.
138Beattie, RK, Lee, AM, Strain, JJ, et al. . (2003) Evaluation of the in vivo antioxidant activity of wheat bran in human subjects. Proc Nutr Soc 62, 17A.
139Bruce, B, Spiller, GA, Klevay, LM, et al. . (2000) A diet high in whole and unrefined foods favorably alters lipids, antioxidant defenses, and colon function. J Am Coll Nutr 19, 61–67.
140Chen, CYO, Milbury, PE, Collins, FW, et al. . (2007) Avenanthramides are bioavailable and have antioxidant activity in humans after acute consumption of an enriched mixture from oats. J Nutr 137, 1375–1382.
141Hamill, LL, Keaveney, EM, Price, RK, et al. . (2007) Assessment of antioxidant biomarkers in human plasma and urine after consumption of wheat bran and aleurone fractions. Proc Nutr Soc 66, 88A.
142Jang, Y, Lee, JH, Kim, OY, et al. . (2001) Consumption of whole grain and legume powder reduces insulin demand, lipid peroxidation, and plasma homocysteine concentrations in patients with coronary artery disease: randomized controlled clinical trial. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 21, 2065–2071.
143Kim, JY, Kim, JH, Lee, DH, et al. . (2008) Meal replacement with mixed rice is more effective than white rice in weight control, while improving antioxidant enzyme activity in obese women. Nutr Res 28, 66–71.
144Lewis, S, Bolton, C & Heaton, K (1996) Lack of influence of intestinal transit on oxidative status in premenopausal women. Eur J Clin Nutr 50, 565–568.
145Maki, KC, Galant, R, Samuel, P, et al. . (2007) Effects of consuming foods containing oat β-glucan on blood pressure, carbohydrate metabolism and biomarkers of oxidative stress in men and women with elevated blood pressure. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, 786–795.
146Price, RK, Welch, RW, Lee-Manion, AM, et al. . (2008) Total phenolics and antioxidant potential in plasma and urine of humans after consumption of wheat bran. Cereal Chem 85, 152–157.
147Wang, Q, Han, PH, Zhang, MW, et al. . (2007) Supplementation of black rice pigment fraction improves antioxidant and anti-inflammatory status in patients with coronary heart disease. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 16, 295–301.
148Graf, E, Empson, KL & Eaton, JW (1987) Phytic acid. A natural antioxidant. J Biol Chem 262, 11647–11650.
149Dizhbite, T, Telysheva, G, Jurkjane, V, et al. . (2004) Characterization of the radical scavenging activity of lignins – natural antioxidants. Bioresour Technol 95, 309–317.
150Vitaglione, P, Napolitano, A & Fogliano, V (2008) Cereal dietary fibre: a natural functional ingredient to deliver phenolic compounds into the gut. Trends Food Sci Technol 19, 451–463.
151Babbs, CF (1990) Free radicals and the etiology of colon cancer. Free Radicic Biol Med 8, 191–200.
152Adam, A, Crespy, V, Levrat-Verny, MA, et al. . (2002) The bioavailability of ferulic acid is governed primarily by the food matrix rather than its metabolism in intestine and liver in rats. J Nutr 132, 1962–1968.
153Mateo Anson, N, van den Berg, R, Havenaar, R, et al. . (2009) Bioavailability of ferulic acid is determined by its bioaccessibility. J Cereal Sci 49, 296–300.
154Rondini, L, Peyrat-Maillard, MN, Marsset-Baglieri, A, et al. . (2004) Bound ferulic acid from bran is more bioavailable than the free compound in rat. J Agric Food Chem 52, 4338–4343.
155Pellegrini, N, Serafini, M, Salvatore, S, et al. . (2006) Total antioxidant capacity of spices, dried fruits, nuts, pulses, cereals and sweets consumed in Italy assessed by three different in vitro assays. Mol Nutr Food Res 50, 1030–1038.
156McCarty, MF (2005) Magnesium may mediate the favorable impact of whole grains on insulin sensitivity by acting as a mild calcium antagonist. Med Hypotheses 64, 619–627.
157Durlach, J & Collery, P (1984) Magnesium and potassium in diabetes and carbohydrate metabolism. Review of the present status and recent results. Magnesium 3, 315–323.
158Paolisso, G, Sgambato, S, Gambardella, A, et al. . (1992) Daily magnesium supplements improve glucose handling in elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 55, 1161–1167.
159Paolisso, G, Sgambato, S, Pizza, G, et al. . (1989) Improved insulin response and action by chronic magnesium administration in aged NIDDM subjects. Diabetes Care 12, 265–269.
160Pereira, MA, Jacobs, DR Jr, Pins, JJ, et al. . (2002) Effect of whole grains on insulin sensitivity in overweight hyperinsulinemic adults. Am J Clin Nutr 75, 848–855.
161Balon, T, Jasman, A, Scott, S, et al. . (1994) Dietary magnesium prevents fructose-induced insulin insensitivity in rats. Hypertension 23, 1036–1039.
162Balon, TW, Gu, JL, Tokuyama, Y, et al. . (1995) Magnesium supplementation reduces development of diabetes in a rat model of spontaneous NIDDM. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 269, E745–E752.
163Gould, MK & Chaudry, IH (1970) The action of insulin on glucose uptake by isolated rat soleus muscle. 1. Effects of cations. Biochim Biophys Acta 215, 249–257.
164Weglicki, WB, Mak, IT, Kramer, JH, et al. . (1996) Role of free radicals and substance P in magnesium deficiency. Cardiovasc Res 31, 677–682.
165Ceriello, A, Bortolotti, N, Crescentini, A, et al. . (1998) Antioxidant defences are reduced during the oral glucose tolerance test in normal and non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects. Eur J Clin Invest 28, 329–333.
166Pereira, EC, Ferderbar, S, Bertolami, MC, et al. . (2008) Biomarkers of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus. Clin Biochem 41, 1454–1460.
167Iseri, LT & French, JH (1984) Magnesium – Nature's physiologic calcium blocker. Am Heart J 108, 188–193.
168Resnick, LM (1992) Cellular calcium and magnesium metabolism in the pathophysiology and treatment of hypertension and related metabolic disorders. Am J Med 93, S11–S20.
169Liao, F, Folsom, AR & Brancati, FL (1998) Is low magnesium concentration a risk factor for coronary heart disease? The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Am Heart J 136, 480–490.
170Shechter, M, Merz, CNB, Paul-Labrador, M, et al. . (1999) Oral magnesium supplementation inhibits platelet-dependent thrombosis in patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 84, 152–156.
171Kawano, Y, Matsuoka, H, Takishita, S, et al. . (1998) Effects of magnesium supplementation in hypertensive patients: assessment by office, home, and ambulatory blood pressures. Hypertension 32, 260–265.
172Al-Mamary, M, Al-Habori, M, Al-Aghbari, A, et al. . (2001) In vivo effects of dietary sorghum tannins on rabbit digestive enzymes and mineral absorption. Nutr Res 21, 1393–1401.
173Thompson, LU (1993) Potential health benefits and problems associated with antinutrients in foods. Food Res Int 26, 131–149.
174Gillooly, M, Bothwell, TH, Charlton, RW, et al. . (1984) Factors affecting the absorption of iron from cereals. Br J Nutr 51, 37–46.
175Tatala, S, Svanberg, U & Mduma, B (1998) Low dietary iron availability is a major cause of anemia: a nutrition survey in the Lindi District of Tanzania. Am J Clin Nutr 68, 171–178.
176Lestienne, I, Besancon, P, Caporiccio, B, et al. . (2005) Iron and zinc in vitro availability in pearl millet flours (Pennisetum glaucum) with varying phytate, tannin, and fiber contents. J Agric Food Chem 53, 3240–3247.
177Hassan, IAG & El Tinay, AH (1995) Effect of fermentation on tannin content and in-vitro protein and starch digestibilities of two sorghum cultivars. Food Chem 53, 149–151.
178Matuschek, E, Towo, E & Svanberg, U (2001) Oxidation of polyphenols in phytate-reduced high-tannin cereals: effect on different phenolic groups and on in vitro accessible iron. J Agric Food Chem 49, 5630–5638.
179Mbithi-Mwikya, S, Van Camp, J, Yiru, Y, et al. . (2000) Nutrient and antinutrient changes in finger millet (Eleusine coracan) during sprouting. Lebensm-Wiss Technol Food Sci Technol 33, 9–14.
180Towo, E, Matuschek, E & Svanberg, U (2006) Fermentation and enzyme treatment of tannin sorghum gruels: effects on phenolic compounds, phytate and in vitro accessible iron. Food Chem 94, 369–376.
181Thompson, LU (1988) Antinutrients and blood glucose. Food Technol 42, 123–132.
182Yoon, J, Thompson, L & Jenkins, D (1983) The effect of phytic acid on in vitro rate of starch digestibility and blood glucose response. Am J Clin Nutr 38, 835–842.
183Manach, C, Williamson, G, Morand, C, et al. . (2005) Bioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans. I. Review of 97 bioavailability studies. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 230S–242S.
184Choi, J-S, Choi, Y-J, Shin, S-Y, et al. . (2008) Dietary flavonoids differentially reduce oxidized LDL-induced apoptosis in human endothelial cells: role of MAPK- and JAK/STAT-signaling. J Nutr 138, 983–990.
185Crespo, I, García-Mediavilla, MV, Gutiérrez, B, et al. . (2008) A comparison of the effects of kaempferol and quercetin on cytokine-induced pro-inflammatory status of cultured human endothelial cells. Br J Nutr 100, 968–976.
186Maggi-Capeyron, MF, Ceballos, P, Cristol, JP, et al. . (2001) Wine phenolic antioxidants inhibit AP-1 transcriptional activity. J Agric Food Chem 49, 5646–5652.
187Yun, K-J, Koh, D-J, Kim, S-H, et al. . (2008) Anti-inflammatory effects of sinapic acid through the suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygase-2, and proinflammatory cytokines expressions via nuclear factor-κB inactivation. J Agric Food Chem 56, 10265–10272.
188Moskaug, JO, Carlsen, H, Myhrstad, MC, et al. . (2005) Polyphenols and glutathione synthesis regulation. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 277S–283S.
189Rahman, I, Biswas, SK & Kirkham, PA (2006) Regulation of inflammation and redox signaling by dietary polyphenols. Biochem Pharmacol 72, 1439–1452.
190Ramos, S (2008) Cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy: dietary polyphenols and signalling pathways. Mol Nutr Food Res 52, 507–526.
191Williams, RJ, Spencer, JPE & Rice-Evans, C (2004) Flavonoids: antioxidants or signalling molecules? Free Radic Biol Med 36, 838–849.
192McCallum, JA & Walker, JRL (1990) Proanthocyanidins in wheat bran. Cereal Chem 67, 282–285.
193Feng, Y & McDonald, CE (1989) Comparison of flavonoids in bran of four classes of wheat. Cereal Chem 66, 516–518.
194Gallardo, C, Jiménez, L & García-Conesa, M-T (2006) Hydroxycinnamic acid composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of selected grain fractions. Food Chem 99, 455–463.
195Myhrstad, MCW, Carlsen, H, Nordstrom, O, et al. . (2002) Flavonoids increase the intracellular glutathione level by transactivation of the γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase catalytical subunit promoter. Free Radic Biol Med 32, 386–393.
196Kern, SM, Bennett, RN, Mellon, FA, et al. . (2003) Absorption of hydroxycinnamates in humans after high-bran cereal consumption. J Agric Food Chem 51, 6050–6055.
197Li, L, Shewry, PR & Ward, JL (2008) Phenolic acids in wheat varieties in the HEALTHGRAIN diversity screen. J Agric Food Chem 56, 9732–9739.
198Métayer, S, Seiliez, I, Collin, A, et al. . (2008) Mechanisms through which sulfur amino acids control protein metabolism and oxidative status. J Nutr Biochem 19, 207–215.
199Tesseraud, S, Métayer Coustard, S, Collin, A, et al. . (2009) Role of sulfur amino acids in controlling nutrient metabolism and cell functions: implications for nutrition. Br J Nutr 101, 1132–1139.
200Morand, C, Rios, L, Moundras, C, et al. . (1997) Influence of methionine availability on glutathione synthesis and delivery by the liver. J Nutr Biochem 8, 246–255.
201Nkabyo, YS, Gu, LH, Jones, DP, et al. . (2006) Thiol/disulfide redox status is oxidized in plasma and small intestinal and colonic mucosa of rats with inadequate sulfur amino acid intake. J Nutr 136, 1242–1248.
202Tateishi, N, Hirasawa, M, Higashi, T, et al. . (1982) The l-methionine-sparing effect of dietary glutathione in rats. J Nutr 112, 2217–2226.
203Flagg, EW, Coates, RJ, Eley, JW, et al. . (1994) Dietary glutathione intake in humans and the relationship between intake and plasma total glutathione level. Nutr Cancer 21, 33–46.
204Martin, A (2001) Apports nutritionnels conseillés pour la population française (Recommended Dietary Allowances for the French Population), 3rd ed.Paris: Editions TEC & DOC.
206Smith, AT, Kuznesof, S, Richardson, DP, et al. . (2003) Behavioural, attitudinal and dietary responses to the consumption of wholegrain foods. Proc Nutr Soc 62, 455–467.
207Hagen, TM, Wierzbicka, GT, Bowman, BB, et al. . (1990) Fate of dietary glutathione: disposition in the gastrointestinal tract. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 259, G530–G535.
208Gmünder, H, Roth, S, Eck, H-P, et al. . (1990) Interleukin-2 mRNA expression, lymphokine production and DNA synthesis in glutathione-depleted T cells. Cell Immunol 130, 520–528.
209Witschi, A, Reddy, S, Stofer, B, et al. . (1992) The systemic availability of oral glutathione. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 43, 667–669.
210Sarwin, R, Walther, C, Laskawy, G, et al. . (1992) Determination of free reduced and total glutathione in wheat flours by an isotope-dilution assay. Z Lebens Unters Forsch 195, 27–32.
211Li, W, Bollecker, SS & Schofield, JD (1995) Glutathione and related thiol compounds. I. Glutathione and related thiol compounds in flour. J Cereal Sci 39, 205–212.
212Weber, F & Grosch, W (1978) Determination of reduced and oxidized glutathione in wheat flours and doughs. Z Lebens Unters Forsch 167, 87–92.
213Lotito, SB & Frei, B (2004) The increase in human plasma antioxidant capacity after apple consumption is due to the metabolic effect of fructose on urate, not apple-derived antioxidant flavonoids. Free Radic Biol Med 37, 251–258.
214Lotito, SB & Frei, B (2006) Consumption of flavonoid-rich foods and increased plasma antioxidant capacity in humans: cause, consequence, or epiphenomenon? Free Radic Biol Med 41, 1727–1746.
215Souci, SW, Fachmann, W & Kraut, H (2000) Food Composition and Nutritional Tables. Stuttgart: Medpharm Scientific Publishers.
216Natella, F, Nardini, M, Giannetti, I, et al. . (2002) Coffee drinking influences plasma antioxidant capacity in humans. J Agric Food Chem 50, 6211–6216.
217Lopez, HW, Leenhardt, F, Coudray, C, et al. . (2002) Minerals and phytic acid interactions: is it a real problem for human nutrition? Int J Food Sci Technol 37, 727–739.
218Graf, E & Eaton, GW (1990) Antioxidant functions of phytic acid. Free Radic Biol Med 8, 61–69.
219Levrat-Verny, MA, Coudray, C, Bellanger, J, et al. . (1999) Wholewheat flour ensures higher mineral absorption and bioavailability than white wheat flour in rats. Br J Nutr 82, 17–21.
220Leenhardt, F, Levrat-Verny, MA, Chanliaud, E, et al. . (2005) Moderate decrease of pH by sourdough fermentation is sufficient to reduce phytate content of whole wheat flour through endogenous phytase activity. J Agric Food Chem 53, 98–102.
221Begum, AN, Nicolle, C, Mila, I, et al. . (2004) Dietary lignins are precursors of mammalian lignans in rats. J Nutr 134, 120–127.
222Kitts, DD, Yuan, YV, Wijewickreme, AN, et al. . (1999) Antioxidant activity of the flaxseed lignan secoisolariciresinol diglycoside and its mammalian lignan metabolites enterodiol and enterolactone. Mol Cell Biochem 202, 91–100.
223Bach Knudsen, KE, Serena, A, Kjaer, AKB, et al. . (2003) Rye bread in the diet of pigs enhances the formation of enterolactone and increases its levels in plasma, urine and feces. J Nutr 133, 1368–1375.
224Labaj, J, Wsolova, L, Lazarova, M, et al. . (2004) Repair of oxidative DNA lesions in blood lymphocytes isolated from Sprague–Dawley rats; the influence of dietary intake of lignin. Neoplasma 51, 450–455.
225Craig, SAS (2004) Betaine in human nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 539–549.
226Zeisel, SH & Blusztajn, JK (1994) Choline and human nutrition. Annu Rev Nutr 14, 269–296.
227Likes, R, Madl, RL, Zeisel, SH, et al. . (2007) The betaine and choline content of a whole wheat flour compared to other mill streams. J Cereal Sci 46, 93–95.
228Cho, S, Johnson, G & Song, WO (2002) Folate content of foods: comparison between databases compiled before and after new FDA fortification requirements. J Food Comp Anal 15, 293–307.
229Bertram, HC, Bach Knudsen, KE, Serena, A, et al. . (2006) NMR-based metabonomic studies reveal changes in the biochemical profile of plasma and urine from pigs fed high-fibre rye bread. Br J Nutr 95, 955–962.
230Fardet, A, Canlet, C, Gottardi, G, et al. . (2007) Whole grain and refined wheat flours show distinct metabolic profiles in rats as assessed by a 1H NMR-based metabonomic approach. J Nutr 4, 923–929.
231Borgschulte, G, Kathirvel, E, Herrera, M, et al. . (2008) Betaine treatment reverses insulin resistance and fatty liver disease without reducing oxidative stress or endoplasmic reticulum stress in an animal model of NAFLD. Gastroenterology 134, A414–A415.
232Brouwer, IA, van Dusseldorp, M, Thomas, CM, et al. . (1999) Low-dose folic acid supplementation decreases plasma homocysteine concentrations: a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 99–104.
233Graham, IM, Daly, LE, Refsum, HM, et al. . (1997) Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. The European Concerted Action Project. JAMA 277, 1775–1781.
234Mills, JL, McPartlin, JM, Kirke, PN, et al. . (1995) Homocysteine metabolism in pregnancies complicated by neural-tube defects. Lancet 345, 149–151.
235Wu, LL & Wu, JT (2002) Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cancer and a new potential tumor marker. Clin Chim Acta 322, 21–28.
236Loscalzo, J (1996) The oxidant stress of hyperhomocyst(e)inemia. J Clin Invest 98, 5–7.
237Tyagi, N, Sedoris, KC, Steed, M, et al. . (2005) Mechanisms of homocysteine-induced oxidative stress. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 289, H2649–H2656.
238Christman, JK, Chen, M-L, Sheikhnejad, G, et al. . (1993) Methyl deficiency, DNA methylation, and cancer: studies on the reversibility of the effects of a lipotrope-deficient diet. J Nutr Biochem 4, 672–680.
239Newberne, PM & Rogers, AE (1986) Labile methyl groups and the promotion of cancer. Annu Rev Nutr 6, 407–432.
240Zeisel, S, Da Costa, K, Franklin, P, et al. . (1991) Choline, an essential nutrient for humans. FASEB J 5, 2093–2098.
241Iqbal, TH, Lewis, KO & Cooper, BT (1994) Phytase activity in the human and rat small intestine. Gut 35, 1233–1236.
242Okazaki, Y, Setoguchi, T & Katayama, T (2006) Effects of dietary myo-inositol, d-chiro-inositol and l-chiro-inositol on hepatic lipids with reference to the hepatic myo-inositol status in rats fed on 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethane. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 70, 2766–2770.
243Horbowicz, M & Obendorf, RL (2005) Fagopyritol accumulation and germination of buckwheat seeds matured at 15, 22, and 30°C. Crop Sci 45, 1264–1270.
244Steadman, KJ, Burgoon, MS, Schuster, RL, et al. . (2000) Fagopyritols, d-chiro-inositol, and other soluble carbohydrates in buckwheat seed milling fractions. J Agric Food Chem 48, 2843–2847.
245Kim, JI, Kim, JC, Joo, HJ, et al. . (2005) Determination of total chiro-inositol content in selected natural materials and evaluation of the antihyperglycemic effect of pinitol isolated from soybean and carob. Food Sci Biotechnol 14, 441–445.
246Becker, R, Wheeler, EL, Lorenz, K, et al. . (1981) A compositional study of amaranth grain. J Food Sci 46, 1175–1180.
247Darbre, A & Norris, FW (1956) Vitamins in germination – determination of free and combined inositol in germinating oats. Biochem J 64, 441–446.
248Koziol, MJ (1992) Chemical composition and nutritional evaluation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). J Food Comp Anal 5, 35–68.
249Horbowicz, M & Obendorf, RL (1994) Seed desiccation tolerance and storability: dependence on flatulence-producing oligosaccharides and cyclitols? – review and survey. Seed Sci Res 4, 385–405.
250Matheson, NK & Strother, S (1969) The utilization of phytate by germinating wheat. Phytochemistry 8, 1349–1356.
251Clements, R Jr & Darnell, B (1980) Myo-inositol content of common foods: development of a high-myo-inositol diet. Am J Clin Nutr 33, 1954–1967.
252Reddy, NR, Sathe, SK & Salunkhe, DK (1982) Phytates in legumes and cereals. Adv Food Res 28, 1–92.
253Ferrel, RE (1978) Distribution of bean and wheat inositol phosphate esters during autolysis and germination. J Food Sci 43, 563–565.
254Nakano, T, Joh, T, Narita, K, et al. . (2000) The pathway of dephosphorylation of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate by phytases from wheat bran of Triticum aestivum L. cv. Nourin #61. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 64, 995–1003.
255Bergman, E-L, Fredlund, K, Reinikainen, P, et al. . (1999) Hydrothermal processing of barley (cv. Blenheim): optimisation of phytate degradation and increase of free myo-inositol. J Cereal Sci 29, 261–272.
256Pak, Y, Huang, L, Lilley, K, et al. . (1992) In vivo conversion of [3H]myoinositol to [3H]chiroinositol in rat tissues. J Biol Chem 267, 16904–16910.
257Reeves, PG, Nielsen, FH & Fahey, GC Jr (1993) AIN-93 purified diets for laboratory rodents: final report of the American Institute of Nutrition ad hoc writing committee on the reformulation of the AIN-76A rodent diet. J Nutr 123, 1939–1951.
258Locker, J, Reddy, TV & Lombardi, B (1986) DNA methylation and hepatocarcinogenesis in rats fed a choline-devoid diet. Carcinogenesis 7, 1309–1312.
259Gama-Sosa, MA, Slagel, VA, Trewyn, RW, et al. . (1983) The 5-methylcytosine content of DNA from human tumors. Nucleic Acids Res 11, 6883–6894.
260Goelz, S, Vogelstein, B, Hamilton, SR, et al. . (1985) Hypomethylation of DNA from benign and malignant human colon neoplasms. Science 228, 187–190.
261Ou, SY & Kwok, KC (2004) Ferulic acid: pharmaceutical functions, preparation and applications in foods. J Sci Food Agric 84, 1261–1269.
262Srinivasan, M, Sudheer, AR & Menon, VP (2007) Ferulic acid: therapeutic potential through its antioxidant property. J Clin Biochem Nutr 40, 92–100.
263Rybka, K, Sitarski, J & Raczynskabojanowska, K (1993) Ferulic acid in rye and wheat-grain and grain dietary fiber. Cereal Chem 70, 55–59.
264Kroon, PA, Faulds, CB, Ryden, P, et al. . (1997) Release of covalently bound ferulic acid from fiber in the human colon. J Agric Food Chem 45, 661–667.
265Akao, Y, Seki, N, Nakagawa, Y, et al. . (2004) A highly bioactive lignophenol derivative from bamboo lignin exhibits a potent activity to suppress apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Bioorg Med Chem 12, 4791–4801.
266Ferguson, LR & Harris, PJ (1996) Studies on the role of specific dietary fibres in protection against colorectal cancer. Mutat Res 350, 173–184.
267Calvert, GD & Yeates, RA (1982) Adsorption of bile salts by soya-bean flour, wheat bran, lucerne (Medicago sativa), sawdust and lignin: the effect of saponins and other plant constituents. Br J Nutr 47, 45–52.
268Chang, MLW & Johnson, MA (1980) Effect of lignin versus cellulose on the absorption of taurocholate and lipid metabolism in rats fed cholesterol diet. Nutr Rep Int 21, 513–518.
269Drasar, B & Jenkins, D (1976) Bacteria, diet, and large bowel cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 29, 1410–1416.
270Anjaneyulu, M & Chopra, K (2004) Nordihydroguairetic acid, a lignin, prevents oxidative stress and the development of diabetic nephropathy in rats. Pharmacology 72, 42–50.
271Fardet, A, Llorach, R, Orsoni, A, et al. . (2008) Metabolomics provide new insight on the metabolism of dietary phytochemicals in rats. J Nutr 138, 1282–1287.
272Hindmarch, I (2002) Beyond the monoamine hypothesis: mechanisms, molecules and methods. Eur Psychiatry 17, 294–299.
273Berry, RJ, Li, Z, Erickson, JD, et al. . (1999) Prevention of neural-tube defects with folic acid in China. N Engl J Med 341, 1485–1490.
274Coppen, A & Bolander-Gouaille, C (2005) Treatment of depression: time to consider folic acid and vitamin B12. J Psychopharmacol 19, 59–65.
275Miller, AL (2008) The methylation, neurotransmitter, and antioxidant connections between folate and depression. Altern Med Rev 13, 216–226.
276Gilbody, S, Lightfoot, T & Sheldon, T (2007) Is low folate a risk factor for depression? A meta-analysis and exploration of heterogeneity. J Epidemiol Community Health 61, 631–637.
277Lioger, D, Leenhardt, F, Demigne, C, et al. . (2007) Sourdough fermentation of wheat fractions rich in fibres before their use in processed food. J Sci Food Agric 87, 1368–1373.
278Ohta, A, Ohtsuki, M, Hosono, A, et al. . (1998) Dietary fructooligosaccharides prevent osteopenia after gastrectomy in rats. J Nutr 128, 106–110.
279Scholz-Ahrens, KE, Ade, P, Marten, B, et al. . (2007) Prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics affect mineral absorption, bone mineral content, and bone structure. J Nutr 137, 838S–846S.
280Scholz-Ahrens, KE & Schrezenmeir, J (2007) Inulin and oligofructose and mineral metabolism: the evidence from animal trials. J Nutr 137, 2513S–2523S.
281Nordbö, H & Rolla, G (1972) Desorption of salivary proteins from hydroxyapatite by phytic acid and glycerophosphate and the plaque-inhibiting effect of the two compounds in vivo. J Dent Res 51, 800–802.
282McClure, FJ (1964) Cariostatic effect of phosphates. Science 144, 1337–1338.
283Osborn, TWB & Noriskin, JN (1937) The relation between diet and caries in the South African Bantu. J Dent Res 16, 431–441.
284Osborn, TWB, Noriskin, JN & Staz, J (1937) A comparison of crude and refined sugar and cereals in their ability to produce in vitro decalcification of teeth. J Dent Res 16, 165–171.
285Osborn, TWB (1941) Further studies on the in vitro decalcification of teeth. J Dent Res 20, 59–69.
286McClure, FJ (1960) The cariostatic effect in white rats of phosphorus and calcium supplements added to the flour of bread formulas and to bread diets. J Nutr 72, 131–136.
287McClure, FJ (1963) Further studies on the cariostatic effect of organic and inorganic phosphates. J Dent Res 42, 693–699.
288McClure, FJ & Muller, A Jr (1959) Further observations on the cariostatic effect of phosphates. J Dent Res 38, 776–781.
289Wynn, W, Haldi, J, Bentley, KD, et al. . (1956) Dental caries in the albino rat in relation to the chemical composition of the teeth and of the diet: II. Variations in the Ca/P ratio of the diet induced by changing the phosphorus content. J Nutr 58, 325–333.
290Magrill, DS (1973) The reduction of the solubility of hydroxyapatite in acid by adsorption of phytate from solution. Arch Oral Biol 18, 591–600.
291Pruitt, KM, Jamieson, AD & Caldwell, RC (1970) Possible basis for the cariostatic effect of inorganic phosphates. Nature 225, 1249.
292Cole, MF & Bowen, WH (1975) Effect of sodium phytate on the chemical and microbial composition of dental plaque in the monkey (Macaca fascicularis). J Dent Res 54, 449–457.
293Adlercreutz, H & Mazur, W (1997) Phyto-oestrogens and Western diseases. Ann Med 29, 95–120.
294Chanvrier, H, Appelqvist, IA, Bird, AR, et al. . (2007) Processing of novel elevated amylose wheats: functional properties and starch digestibility of extruded products. J Agric Food Chem 55, 10248–10257.
295Swennen, K, Courtin, CM & Delcour, JA (2006) Non-digestible oligosaccharides with prebiotic properties. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 46, 459–471.
296Krause, DO, Easter, RA & Mackie, RI (1994) Fermentation of stachyose and raffinose by hind-gut bacteria of the weanling pig. Lett Appl Microbiol 18, 349–352.
297Tortuero, F, Fernández, E, Rupérez, P, et al. . (1997) Raffinose and lactic bacteria influence caecal fermentation and serum cholesterol in rats. Nutr Res 17, 41–49.
298Alessandri, C, Pignatelli, P, Loffredo, L, et al. . (2006) α-Linolenic acid-rich wheat germ oil decreases oxidative stress and CD40 ligand in patients with mild hypercholesterolemia. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 26, 2577–2578.
299Farquhar, JW, Smith, RE & Dempsey, ME (1956) The effect of beta sitosterol on the serum lipids of young men with arteriosclerotic heart disease. Circulation 14, 77–82.
300Jones, PJ, Ntanios, FY, Raeini-Sarjaz, M, et al. . (1999) Cholesterol-lowering efficacy of a sitostanol-containing phytosterol mixture with a prudent diet in hyperlipidemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 1144–1150.
301Kato, S, Karino, K-I, Hasegawa, S, et al. . (1995) Octacosanol affects lipid metabolism in rats fed on a high-fat diet. Br J Nutr 73, 433–441.
302Taylor, JC, Rapport, L & Lockwood, GB (2003) Octacosanol in human health. Nutrition 19, 192–195.
303Gouni-Berthold, I & Berthold, HK (2002) Policosanol: clinical pharmacology and therapeutic significance of a new lipid-lowering agent. Am Heart J 143, 356–365.
304Varady, KA, Wang, Y & Jones, PJH (2003) Role of policosanols in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Nutr Rev 61, 376–383.
305Lin, YG, Rudrum, M, van der Wielen, RPJ, et al. . (2004) Wheat germ policosanol failed to lower plasma cholesterol in subjects with normal to mildly elevated cholesterol concentrations. Metabolism 53, 1309–1314.
306Menendez, R, Arruzazabala, L, Mas, R, et al. . (1997) Cholesterol-lowering effect of policosanol on rabbits with hypercholesterolaemia induced by a wheat starch–casein diet. Br J Nutr 77, 923–932.
307Menendez, R, Fraga, V, Amor, AM, et al. . (1999) Oral administration of policosanol inhibits in vitro copper ion-induced rat lipoprotein peroxidation. Physiol Behav 67, 1–7.
308Hosseinian, FS, Li, W & Beta, T (2008) Measurement of anthocyanins and other phytochemicals in purple wheat. Food Chem 109, 916–924.
309Asayama, K, Yamadera, H, Ito, T, et al. . (2003) Double blind study of melatonin effects on the sleep–wake rhythm, cognitive and non-cognitive functions in Alzheimer type dementia. J Nippon Med Sch 70, 334–341.
310Maurizi, CP (2001) Alzheimer's disease: roles for mitochondrial damage, the hydroxyl radical, and cerebrospinal fluid deficiency of melatonin. Med Hypotheses 57, 156–160.
311Garcia-Navarro, A, Gonzalez-Puga, C, Escames, G, et al. . (2007) Cellular mechanisms involved in the melatonin inhibition of HT-29 human colon cancer cell proliferation in culture. J Pineal Res 43, 195–205.
312Shiu, SYW (2007) Towards rational and evidence-based use of melatonin in prostate cancer prevention and treatment. J Pineal Res 43, 1–9.
313Calhoun, WK, Bechtel, WG & Bradley, WB (1958) The vitamin content of wheat, flour, and bread. Cereal Chem 35, 350–359.
314Calhoun, WK, Hepburn, FN & Bradley, WB (1960) The distribution of the vitamins of wheat in commercial mill products. Cereal Chem 37, 755–761.
315Wang, LH, Huang, WS & Tai, HM (2007) Simultaneous determination of p-aminobenzoic acid and its metabolites in the urine of volunteers, treated with p-aminobenzoic acid sunscreen formulation. J Pharm Biomed Anal 43, 1430–1436.
316Barbieri, B, Papadogiannakis, N, Eneroth, P, et al. . (1995) Arachidonic acid is a preferred acetyl donor among fatty acids in the acetylation of p-aminobenzoic acid by human lymphoid cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 1257, 157–166.
317Failey, RB & Childress, RH (1962) The effect of para-aminobenzoic acid on the serum cholesterol level in man. Am J Clin Nutr 10, 158–162.
318Butcher, NJ, Ilett, KF & Minchin, RF (2000) Inactivation of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 by the hydroxylamine of p-aminobenzoic acid. Biochem Pharmacol 60, 1829–1836.
319Hein, DW, Doll, MA, Gray, K, et al. . (1993) Metabolic activation of N-hydroxy-2-aminofluorene and N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene by monomorphic N-acetyltransferase (NAT1) and polymorphic N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) in colon cytosols of syrian hamsters congenic at the NAT2 locus. Cancer Res 53, 509–514.
320Minchin, RF, Reeves, PT, Teitel, CH, et al. . (1992) N- and O-acetylation of aromatic and heterocyclic amine carcinogens by human monomorphic and polymorphic acetyltransferases expressed in COS-1 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 185, 839–844.
321Barbieri, B, Papadogiannakis, N, Eneroth, P, et al. . (1997) p-Aminobenzoic acid, but not its metabolite p-acetamidobenzoic acid, inhibits thrombin induced thromboxane formation in human platelets in a non NSAID like manner. Thromb Res 86, 127–140.
322Elliott, R, Pico, C, Dommels, Y, et al. . (2007) Nutrigenomic approaches for benefit–risk analysis of foods and food components: defining markers of health. Br J Nutr 98, 1095–1100.
323Steiner, C, Arnould, S, Scalbert, A, et al. . (2008) Isoflavones and the prevention of breast and prostate cancer: new perspectives opened by nutrigenomics. Br J Nutr 99, E Suppl. 1, ES78–ES108.
324Trujillo, E, Davis, C & Milner, J (2006) Nutrigenomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and the practice of dietetics. J Am Diet Assoc 106, 403–413.
325van Ommen, B (2004) Nutrigenomics: exploiting systems biology in the nutrition and health arenas. Nutrition 20, 4–8.
326Zeisel, SH (2007) Nutrigenomics and metabolomics will change clinical nutrition and public health practice: insights from studies on dietary requirements for choline. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 542–548.
327Keun, HC (2006) Metabonomic modeling of drug toxicity. Pharmacol Ther 109, 92–106.
328Rezzi, S, Ramadan, Z, Fay, LB, et al. . (2007) Nutritional metabonomics: applications and perspectives. J Proteome Res 6, 513–525.
329Selman, C, Kerrison, ND, Cooray, A, et al. . (2006) Coordinated multitissue transcriptional and plasma metabonomic profiles following acute caloric restriction in mice. Physiol Genomics 27, 187–200.
330Griffin, JL, Muller, D, Woograsingh, R, et al. . (2002) Vitamin E deficiency and metabolic deficits in neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis described by bioinformatics. Physiol Genomics 11, 195–203.
331Mutch, DM, Grigorov, M, Berger, A, et al. . (2005) An integrative metabolism approach identifies stearoyl-CoA desaturase as a target for an arachidonate-enriched diet. FASEB J 19, 599–619.
332Solanky, KS, Bailey, NJC, Beckwith-Hall, BM, et al. . (2003) Application of biofluid H-1 nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomic techniques for the analysis of the biochemical effects of dietary isoflavones on human plasma profile. Anal Biochem 323, 197–204.
333Wang, Y, Tang, H, Nicholson, JK, et al. . (2005) A metabonomic strategy for the detection of the metabolic effects of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) ingestion. J Agric Food Chem 53, 191–196.
334Van Dorsten, FA, Daykin, CA, Mulder, TPJ, et al. . (2006) Metabonomics approach to determine metabolic differences between green tea and black tea consumption. J Agric Food Chem 54, 6929–6938.
335Solanky, KS, Bailey, NJC, Holmes, E, et al. . (2003) NMR-based metabonomic studies on the biochemical effects of epicatechin in the rat. J Agric Food Chem 51, 4139–4145.
336Fardet, A, Llorach, R, Martin, JF, et al. . (2008) A liquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight (LC-QTOF)-based metabolomic approach reveals new metabolic effects of catechin in rats fed high-fat diets. J Proteome Res 7, 2388–2398.
337Dumas, ME, Barton, RH, Toye, A, et al. . (2006) Metabolic profiling reveals a contribution of gut microbiota to fatty liver phenotype in insulin-resistant mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103, 12511–12516.
338Zhang, S, Nagana Gowda, GA, Asiago, V, et al. . (2008) Correlative and quantitative 1H NMR-based metabolomics reveals specific metabolic pathway disturbances in diabetic rats. Anal Biochem 383, 76–84.
339Britz, SJ, Prasad, PVV, Moreau, RA, et al. . (2007) Influence of growth temperature on the amounts of tocopherols, tocotrienols, and γ-oryzanol in brown rice. J Agric Food Chem 55, 7559–7565.
340Packer, L, Witt, EH & Tritschler, HJ (1995) α-Lipoic acid as a biological antioxidant. Free Radic Biol Med 19, 227–250.
341Roy, S, Sen, CK, Tritschler, HJ, et al. . (1997) Modulation of cellular reducing equivalent homeostasis by α-lipoic acid: mechanisms and implications for diabetes and ischemic injury. Biochem Pharmacol 53, 393–399.
342Maczurek, A, Hager, K, Kenklies, M, et al. . (2008) Lipoic acid as an anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective treatment for Alzheimer's disease. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 60, 1463–1470.
343Wollin, SD & Jones, PJH (2003) α-Lipoic acid and cardiovascular disease. J Nutr 133, 3327–3330.
344Yu, SG, Nehus, ZT, Badger, TM, et al. . (2007) Quantification of vitamin E and γ-oryzanol components in rice germ and bran. J Agric Food Chem 55, 7308–7313.
345Emmons, CL, Peterson, DM & Paul, GL (1999) Antioxidant capacity of oat (Avena sativa L.) extracts. 2. In vitro antioxidant activity and contents of phenolic and tocol antioxidants. J Agric Food Chem 47, 4894–4898.
346Heinemann, T, Kullak-Ublick, G-A, Pietruck, B, et al. . (1991) Mechanisms of action of plant sterols on inhibition of cholesterol absorption. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 40, S59–S63.
347Sen, CK, Khanna, S & Roy, S (2006) Tocotrienols: vitamin E beyond tocopherols. Life Sci 78, 2088–2098.
348Wilson, TA, Nicolosi, RJ, Woolfrey, B, et al. . (2007) Rice bran oil and oryzanol reduce plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol ester accumulation to a greater extent than ferulic acid in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. J Nutr Biochem 18, 105–112.
349Kahlon, TS & Chow, FI (2000) In vitro binding of bile acids by rice bran, oat bran, wheat bran, and corn bran. Cereal Chem 77, 518–521.
350Saulnier, L, Vigouroux, J & Thibault, J-F (1995) Isolation and partial characterization of feruloylated oligosaccharides from maize bran. Carbohydr Res 272, 241–253.
351Saulnier, L, Marot, C, Elgorriaga, M, et al. . (2001) Thermal and enzymatic treatments for the release of free ferulic acid from maize bran. Carbohydr Polym 45, 269–275.
352O'Dell, BL, De Boland, AR & Koityonann, SR (1972) Distribution of phytate and nutritionally important elements among the morphological components of cereals grains. J Agric Food Chem 20, 718–721.
353Miller, A & Engel, KH (2006) Content of γ-oryzanol and composition of steryl ferulates in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) of European origin. J Agric Food Chem 54, 8127–8133.
354Chen, MH & Bergman, CJ (2005) A rapid procedure for analysing rice bran tocopherol, tocotrienol and γ-oryzanol contents. J Food Comp Anal 18, 139–151.
355Schramm, R, Abadie, A, Hua, N, et al. . (2007) Fractionation of the rice bran layer and quantification of vitamin E, oryzanol, protein, and rice bran saccharide. J Biol Eng 1, 9.
356Shin, T-S, Godber, JS, Martin, DE, et al. . (1997) Hydrolytic stability and changes in E vitamers and oryzanol of extruded rice bran during storage. J Food Sci 62, 704–728.
357Juliano, C, Cossu, M, Alamanni, MC, et al. . (2005) Antioxidant activity of γ-oryzanol: mechanism of action and its effect on oxidative stability of pharmaceutical oils. Int J Pharm 299, 146–154.
358Rong, N, Ausman, L & Nicolosi, R (1997) Oryzanol decreases cholesterol absorption and aortic fatty streaks in hamsters. Lipids 32, 303–309.
359Seetharamaiah, GS & Chandrasekhara, N (1993) Comparative hypocholesterolemic activities of oryzanol, curcumin and ferulic acid in rats. J Food Sci Technol Mysore 30, 249–252.
360Suh, MH, Yoo, SH, Chang, PS, et al. . (2005) Antioxidative activity of microencapsulated γ-oryzanol on high cholesterol-fed rats. J Agric Food Chem 53, 9747–9750.
361Cicero, AFG & Gaddi, A (2001) Rice bran oil and γ-oryzanol in the treatment of hyperlipoproteinaemias and other conditions. Phytother Res 15, 277–289.
362Collins, FW (1989) Oat phenolics: avenanthramides, novel substituted N-cinnamoylanthranilate alkaloids from oat groats and hulls. J Agric Food Chem 37, 60–66.
363Shewry, PR, Piironen, V, Lampi, A-M, et al. . (2008) Phytochemical and fiber components in oat varieties in the HEALTHGRAIN diversity screen. J Agric Food Chem 56, 9777–9784.
364Dimberg, LH, Theander, O & Lingnert, H (1993) Avenanthramides – a group of phenolic antioxidants in oats. Cereal Chem 70, 637–641.
365Mattila, P, Pihlava, J-M & Hellstrom, J (2005) Contents of phenolic acids, alkyl- and alkenylresorcinols, and avenanthramides in commercial grain products. J Agric Food Chem 53, 8290–8295.
366Fagerlund, A, Sunnerheim, K & Dimberg, LH (2009) Radical-scavenging and antioxidant activity of avenanthramides. Food Chem 113, 550–556.
367Peterson, DM, Hahn, MJ & Emmons, CL (2002) Oat avenanthramides exhibit antioxidant activities in vitro. Food Chem 79, 473–478.
368Liu, L, Zubik, L, Collins, FW, et al. . (2004) The antiatherogenic potential of oat phenolic compounds. Atherosclerosis 175, 39–49.
369Chen, CY, Milbury, PE, Kwak, HK, et al. . (2004) Avenanthramides and phenolic acids from oats are bioavailable and act synergistically with vitamin C to enhance hamster and human LDL resistance to oxidation. J Nutr 134, 1459–1466.
370Güçlü-Üstündag, Ö & Mazza, G (2007) Saponins: properties, applications and processing. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 47, 231–258.
371Osbourn, AE (2003) Saponins in cereals. Phytochemistry 62, 1–4.
372Önning, G, Asp, N-G & Sivik, B (1993) Saponin content in different oat varieties and in different fractions of oat grain. Food Chem 48, 251–254.
373Price, KR, Johnson, IT & Fenwick, GR (1987) The chemistry and biological significance of saponins in foods and feedingstuffs. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 26, 27–135.
374Matsuura, H (2001) Saponins in garlic as modifiers of the risk of cardiovascular disease. J Nutr 131, 1000S–1005S.
375Barr, IG, Sjölander, A & Cox, JC (1998) ISCOMs and other saponin based adjuvants. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 32, 247–271.
376Sjölander, A, Cox, J & Barr, I (1998) ISCOMs: an adjuvant with multiple functions. J Leukoc Biol 64, 713–723.
377Oakenfull, DG, Fenwick, DE, Hood, RL, et al. . (1979) Effects of saponins on bile acids and plasma lipids in the rat. Br J Nutr 42, 209–216.
378Baik, B-K & Ullrich, SE (2008) Barley for food: characteristics, improvement, and renewed interest. J Cereal Sci 48, 233–242.
379Åman, P & Graham, H (1987) Analysis of total and insoluble mixed-linked (1 → 3),(1 → 4)-β-d-glucans in barley and oats. J Agric Food Chem 35, 704–709.
380Anker-Nilssen, K, Sahlstrøm, S, Knutsen, SH, et al. . (2008) Influence of growth temperature on content, viscosity and relative molecular weight of water-soluble β-glucans in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). J Cereal Sci 48, 670–677.
381Gajdosová, A, Petruláková, Z, Havrlentová, M, et al. . (2007) The content of water-soluble and water-insoluble β-d-glucans in selected oats and barley varieties. Carbohydr Polym 70, 46–52.
382Holtekjølen, AK, Uhlen, AK, Bråthen, E, et al. . (2006) Contents of starch and non-starch polysaccharides in barley varieties of different origin. Food Chem 94, 348–358.
383Izydorczyk, MS & Dexter, JE (2008) Barley β-glucans and arabinoxylans: molecular structure, physicochemical properties, and uses in food products – a review. Food Res Int 41, 850–868.
384Izydorczyk, MS, Macri, LJ & MacGregor, AW (1998) Structure and physicochemical properties of barley non-starch polysaccharides – II. Alkaliextractable β-glucans and arabinoxylans. Carbohydr Polym 35, 259–269.
385Izydorczyk, MS, Storsley, J, Labossiere, D, et al. . (2000) Variation in total and soluble β-glucan content in hulless barley: effects of thermal, physical, and enzymic treatments. J Agric Food Chem 48, 982–989.
386Prentice, N, Babler, S & Faber, S (1980) Enzymic analysis of β-d-glucans in cereal grains. Cereal Chem 57, 198–202.
387Kim, H, Stote, KS, Behall, KM, et al. . (2009) Glucose and insulin responses to whole grain breakfasts varying in soluble fiber, β-glucan: a doase response study in obese women with increased risk for insulin resistance. Eur J Nutr 48, 170–175.
388Butt, MS, Tahir-Nadeem, M, Khan, MKI, et al. . (2008) Oat: unique among the cereals. Eur J Nutr 47, 68–79.
389Kalra, S & Joad, S (2000) Effect of dietary barley β-glucan on cholesterol and lipoprotein fractions in rats. J Cereal Sci 31, 141–145.
390Hlebowicz, J, Darwiche, G, Bjorgell, O, et al. . (2008) Effect of muesli with 4 g oat β-glucan on postprandial blood glucose, gastric emptying and satiety in healthy subjects: a randomized crossover trial. J Am Coll Nutr 27, 470–475.
391Mantovani, MS, Bellini, MF, Angeli, JPF, et al. . (2008) β-Glucans in promoting health: prevention against mutation and cancer. Mutat Res 658, 154–161.
392Ross, AB, Shepherd, MJ, Schupphaus, M, et al. . (2003) Alkylresorcinols in cereals and cereal products. J Agric Food Chem 51, 4111–4118.
393Ross, AB, Kamal-Eldin, A, Lundin, EA, et al. . (2003) Cereal alkylresorcinols are absorbed by humans. J Nutr 133, 2222–2224.
394Landberg, R, Aman, P, Friberg, LE, et al. . (2009) Dose response of whole-grain biomarkers: alkylresorcinols in human plasma and their metabolites in urine in relation to intake. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 290–296.
395Linko-Parvinen, A-M, Landberg, R, Tikkanen, MJ, et al. . (2007) Alkylresorcinols from whole-grain wheat and rye are transported in human plasma lipoproteins. J Nutr 137, 1137–1142.
396Ross, AB, Kamal-Eldin, A & Aman, P (2004) Dietary alkylresorcinols: absorption, bioactivities, and possible use as biomarkers of whole-grain wheat- and rye-rich foods. Nutr Rev 62, 81–95.
397Guyman, LA, Adlercreutz, H, Koskela, A, et al. . (2008) Urinary 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-propanoic acid, an alkylresorcinol metabolite, is a potential biomarker of whole-grain intake in a U.S. population. J Nutr 138, 1957–1962.
398Tsuge, N, Mizokami, M, Imai, S, et al. . (1992) Adipostatin-A and adipostatin-B, new inhibitors of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. J Antibiot 45, 886–891.
399Ross, AB, Chen, Y, Frank, J, et al. . (2004) Cereal alkylresorcinols elevate γ-tocopherol levels in rats and inhibit γ-tocopherol metabolism in vitro. J Nutr 134, 506–510.
400Kozubek, A & Tyman, JHP (1999) Resorcinolic lipids, the natural non-isoprenoid phenolic amphiphiles and their biological activity. Chem Rev 99, 1–25.
401Ross, JA & Kasum, CM (2002) Dietary flavonoids: bioavailability, metabolic effects, and safety. Annu Rev Nutr 22, 19–34.
402Norton, I, Moore, S & Fryer, P (2007) Understanding food structuring and breakdown: engineering approaches to obesity. Obes Rev 8, Suppl. 1, 83–88.
403Parada, J & Aguilera, JM (2007) Food microstructure affects the bioavailability of several nutrients. J Food Sci 72, R21–R32.
404Tedeschi, C, Clement, V, Rouvet, M, et al. . (2009) Dissolution tests as a tool for predicting bioaccessibility of nutrients during digestion. Food Hydrocolloids 23, 1228–1235.
405Englyst, H, Kingman, S & Cummings, J (1992) Classification and measurement of nutritionally important starch fractions. Eur J Clin Nutr 46, S33–S50.
406Lehmann, U & Robin, F (2007) Slowly digestible starch – its structure and health implications: a review. Trends Food Sci Technol 18, 346–355.
407Marangoni, A, Idziak, S & Rush, J (2008) Controlled release of food lipids using monoglyceride gel phases regulates lipid and insulin metabolism in humans. Food Biophys 3, 241–245.
408Remond, D, Machebeuf, M, Yven, C, et al. . (2007) Postprandial whole-body protein metabolism after a meat meal is influenced by chewing efficiency in elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 1286–1292.
409Armand, M, Pasquier, B, Andre, M, et al. . (1999) Digestion and absorption of 2 fat emulsions with different droplet sizes in the human digestive tract. Am J Clin Nutr 70, 1096–1106.
410Giovannucci, E, Rimm, EB, Ascherio, A, et al. . (1995) Alcohol, low-methionine–low-folate diets, and risk of colon cancer in men. J Natl Cancer Inst 87, 265–273.
411Lu, ZX, Walker, KZ, Muir, JG, et al. . (2000) Arabinoxylan fiber, a byproduct of wheat flour processing, reduces the postprandial glucose response in normoglycemic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 1123–1128.
412Moore, MA, Park, CB & Tsuda, H (1998) Soluble and insoluble fiber influences on cancer development. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 27, 229–242.
413Björck, I & Asp, N-G (1994) Controlling the nutritional properties of starch in foods – a challenge to the food industry. Trends Food Sci Technol 5, 213–218.
414Dongowski, G, Jacobasch, G & Schmiedl, D (2005) Structural stability and prebiotic properties of resistant starch type 3 increase bile acid turnover and lower secondary bile acid formation. J Agric Food Chem 53, 9257–9267.
415Topping, DL, Fukushima, M & Bird, AR (2003) Resistant starch as a prebiotic and synbiotic: state of the art. Proc Nutr Soc 62, 171–176.
416Rahman, S, Bird, A, Regina, A, et al. . (2007) Resistant starch in cereals: exploiting genetic engineering and genetic variation. J Cereal Sci 46, 251–260.
417Goddard, MS, Young, G & Marcus, R (1984) The effect of amylose content on insulin and glucose responses to ingested rice. Am J Clin Nutr 39, 388–392.
418Hallfrisch, J & Behall, KM (2000) Mechanisms of the effects of grains on insulin and glucose responses. J Am Coll Nutr 19, 320S–325S.
419Hawkesford, MJ & Zhao, F-J (2007) Strategies for increasing the selenium content of wheat. J Cereal Sci 46, 282–292.
420Singh, BR (1991) Selenium content of wheat as affected by selenate and selenite contained in a Cl- or SO4-based NPK fertilizer. Fertilizer Res 30, 1–7.
421Soliman, MF (1980) Zinc uptake by wheat plants as influenced by nitrogen fertilizers and calcium carbonate. Agric Res Rev 58, 113–121.
422Fallahi, E, Mohtadinia, J & Ali Mahboob, S (2005) Effect of consumption of whole bread baked from cultivated wheat with micronutrient fertilizers on blood indices of iron. J Food Agric Environ 3, 39–42.
423Hanson, AD & Wyse, R (1982) Biosynthesis, translocation, and accumulation of betaine in sugar beet and its progenitors in relation to salinity. Plant Physiol 70, 1191–1198.
424Keles, Y & Öncel, I (2002) Response of antioxidative defence system to temperature and water stress combinations in wheat seedlings. Plant Sci 163, 783–790.
425King, JC (2002) Biotechnology: a solution for improving nutrient bioavailability. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 72, 7–12.
426Cakmak, I, Ozkan, H, Braun, HJ, et al. . (2000) Zinc and iron concentrations in seeds of wild, primitive, and modern wheats. Food Nutr Bull 21, 401–403.
427Ortiz-Monasterio, JI, Palacios-Rojas, N, Meng, E, et al. . (2007) Enhancing the mineral and vitamin content of wheat and maize through plant breeding. J Cereal Sci 46, 293–307.
428Mendoza, C, Viteri, F, Lonnerdal, B, et al. . (1998) Effect of genetically modified, low-phytic acid maize on absorption of iron from tortillas. Am J Clin Nutr 68, 1123–1127.
429Raboy, V (2002) Progress in breeding low phytate crops. J Nutr 132, 503S–505S.
430King, RA, Noakes, M, Bird, AR, et al. . (2008) An extruded breakfast cereal made from a high amylose barley cultivar has a low glycemic index and lower plasma insulin response than one made from a standard barley. J Cereal Sci 48, 526–530.
431Regina, A, Bird, A, Topping, D, et al. . (2006) High-amylose wheat generated by RNA interference improves indices of large-bowel health in rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103, 3546–3551.
432Saulnier, L, Sado, P-E, Branlard, G, et al. . (2007) Wheat arabinoxylans: exploiting variation in amount and composition to develop enhanced varieties. J Cereal Sci 46, 261–281.
433Brinch-Pedersen, H, Borg, S, Tauris, B, et al. . (2007) Molecular genetic approaches to increasing mineral availability and vitamin content of cereals. J Cereal Sci 46, 308–326.
434Hammes, WP, Brandt, MJ, Francis, KL, et al. . (2005) Microbial ecology of cereal fermentations. Trends Food Sci Technol 16, 4–11.
435Nout, MJR (2009) Rich nutrition from the poorest – cereal fermentations in Africa and Asia. Food Microbiology 26, 685–692.
436Napolitano, A, Lanzuise, S, Ruocco, M, et al. . (2006) Treatment of cereal products with a tailored preparation of Trichoderma enzymes increases the amount of soluble dietary fiber. J Agric Food Chem 54, 7863–7869.
437Faulds, CB & Williamson, G (1995) Release of ferulic acid from wheat bran by a ferulic acid esterase (FAE-III) from Aspergillus niger. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 43, 1082–1087.
438Wang, XK, Geng, X, Egashira, Y, et al. . (2005) Release of ferulic acid from wheat bran by an inducible feruloyl esterase from an intestinal bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus. Food Sci Technol Res 11, 241–247.
439Chavan, JK & Kadam, SS (1989) Nutritional improvement of cereals by fermentation. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 28, 349–400.
440Gadaga, TH, Mutukumira, AN, Narvhus, JA, et al. . (1999) A review of traditional fermented foods and beverages of Zimbabwe. Int J Food Microbiol 53, 1–11.
441Lioger, D, Leenhardt, F & Rémésy, C (2006) Intérêt de la fermentation, en milieu très hydraté, des produits céréaliers riches en fibres pour améliorer leur valeur nutritionnelle (Interest of fibre-rich cereal products fermentation in very hydrated environment to improve their nutritional value). Ind Cér 149, 14–22.
442Poutanen, K, Flander, L & Katina, K (2009) Sourdough and cereal fermentation in a nutritional perspective. Food Microbiol 26, 693–699.
443Abd Elmoneim, OE, Schiffler, B & Bernhard, R (2004) Effect of fermentation on the starch digestibility, resistant starch and some physicochemical properties of sorghum flour. Nahrung/Food 48, 91–94.
444Eklund-Jonsson, C, Sandberg, A-S & Larsson Alminger, M (2006) Reduction of phytate content while preserving minerals during whole grain cereal tempe fermentation. J Cereal Sci 44, 154–160.
445El Hag, ME, El Tinay, AH & Yousif, NE (2002) Effect of fermentation and dehulling on starch, total polyphenols, phytic acid content and in vitro protein digestibility of pearl millet. Food Chem 77, 193–196.
446Loponen, J, Kanerva, P, Zhang, C, et al. . (2009) Prolamin hydrolysis and pentosan solubilization in germinated-rye sourdoughs determined by chromatographic and immunological methods. J Agric Food Chem 57, 746–753.
447Mugula, JK, Sorhaug, T & Stepaniak, L (2003) Proteolytic activities in togwa, a Tanzanian fermented food. Int J Food Microbiol 84, 1–12.
448Thiele, C, Grassl, S & Ganzle, M (2004) Gluten hydrolysis and depolymerization during sourdough fermentation. J Agric Food Chem 52, 1307–1314.
449Wedad, HA, El-Tinay, AH, Mustafa, AI, et al. . (2008) Effect of fermentation, malt-pretreatment and cooking on antinutritional factors and protein digestibility of sorghum cultivars. Pak J Nutr 7, 335–341.
450Lopez, HW, Krespine, V, Guy, C, et al. . (2001) Prolonged fermentation of whole wheat sourdough reduces phytate level and increases soluble magnesium. J Agric Food Chem 49, 2657–2662.
451Lopez, HW, Duclos, V, Coudray, C, et al. . (2003) Making bread with sourdough improves mineral bioavailability from reconstituted whole wheat flour in rats. Nutrition 19, 524–530.
452Katina, K, Liukkonen, K-H, Kaukovirta-Norja, A, et al. . (2007) Fermentation-induced changes in the nutritional value of native or germinated rye. J Cereal Sci 46, 348–355.
453Winata, A & Lorenz, K (1997) Effects of fermentation and baking of whole wheat and whole rye sourdough breads on cereal alkylresorcinols. Cereal Chem 74, 284–287.
454Katina, K, Laitila, A, Juvonen, R, et al. . (2007) Bran fermentation as a means to enhance technological properties and bioactivity of rye. Food Microbiol 24, 175–186.
455Moore, J, Luther, M, Cheng, Z, et al. . (2009) Effects of baking conditions, dough fermentation, and bran particle size on antioxidant properties of whole-wheat pizza crusts. J Agric Food Chem 57, 832–839.
456Garcia, AL, Otto, B, Reich, SC, et al. . (2007) Arabinoxylan consumption decreases postprandial serum glucose, serum insulin and plasma total ghrelin response in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, 334–341.
457Lioger, D, Fardet, A, Foassert, P, et al. . (2009) Influence of sourdough prefermentation, of steam cooking suppression and of decreased sucrose content during wheat flakes processing on the plasma glucose and insulin responses and satiety of healthy subjects. J Am Coll Nutr 28, 30–36.
458Liljeberg, H & Bjorck, I (1996) Delayed gastric emptying rate as a potential mechanism for lowered glycemia after eating sourdough bread: studies in humans and rats using test products with added organic acids or an organic salt. Am J Clin Nutr 64, 886–893.
459Liljeberg, HG, Lonner, CH & Bjorck, IM (1995) Sourdough fermentation or addition of organic acids or corresponding salts to bread improves nutritional properties of starch in healthy humans. J Nutr 125, 1503–1511.
460Brennan, CS, Blake, DE, Ellis, PR, et al. . (1996) Effects of guar galactomannan on wheat bread microstructure and on the in vitro and in vivo digestibility of starch in bread. J Cereal Sci 24, 151–160.
461Burton, P & Lightowler, HJ (2006) Influence of bread volume on glycaemic response and satiety. Br J Nutr 96, 877–882.
462Granfeldt, Y, Eliasson, AC & Bjorck, I (2000) An examination of the possibility of lowering the glycemic index of oat and barley flakes by minimal processing. J Nutr 130, 2207–2214.
463Antoine, C, Lullien-Pellerin, V, Abecassis, J, et al. . (2002) Nutritional interest of the wheat seed aleurone layer. Sci Alim 22, 545–556.
464Buri, RC, von Reding, W & Gavin, MH (2004) Description and characterization of wheat aleurone. Cereal Foods World 49, 274–282.
465Harris, PJ, Chavan, RR & Ferguson, LR (2005) Production and characterisation of two wheat-bran fractions: an aleurone-rich and a pericarp-rich fraction. Mol Nutr Food Res 49, 536–545.
466Hemery, Y, Rouau, X, Lullien-Pellerin, V, et al. . (2007) Dry processes to develop wheat fractions and products with enhanced nutritional quality. J Cereal Sci 46, 327–347.
467Fenech, M, Noakes, M, Clifton, P, et al. . (1999) Aleurone flour is a rich source of bioavailable folate in humans. J Nutr 129, 1114–1119.
468Fenech, M, Noakes, M, Clifton, P, et al. . (2005) Aleurone flour increases red-cell folate and lowers plasma homocyst(e)ine substantially in man. Br J Nutr 93, 353–360.
469Cheng, BO, Trimble, RP, Illman, RJ, et al. . (1987) Comparative effects of dietary wheat bran and its morphological components (aleurone and pericarp-seed coat) on volatile fatty acid concentrations in the rat. Br J Nutr 57, 69–76.
470McIntosh, GH, Royle, PJ & Pointing, G (2001) Wheat aleurone flour increases cecal β-glucuronidase activity and butyrate concentration and reduces colon adenoma burden in azoxymethane-treated rats. J Nutr 131, 127–131.
471Amrein, TM, Granicher, P, Arrigoni, E, et al. . (2003) In vitro digestibility and colonic fermentability of aleurone isolated from wheat bran. Lebensm-Wiss Technol Food Sci Technol 36, 451–460.
472Fardet, A, Hoebler, C, Baldwin, PM, et al. . (1998) Involvement of the protein network in the in vitro degradation of starch from spaghetti and lasagne: a microscopic and enzymic study. J Cereal Sci 27, 133–145.
473Chu, FS & Li, GY (1994) Simultaneous occurrence of fumonisin B1 and other mycotoxins in moldy corn collected from the People's Republic of China in regions with high incidences of esophageal cancer. Appl Environ Microbiol 60, 847–852.
474Rheeder, JP, Marasas, WFO, Thiel, PG, et al. . (1992) Fusarium moniliforme and fumonisins in corn in relation to human esophageal cancer in Transkei. Phytopathology 82, 353–357.
475Lebailly, P, Niez, E & Baldi, I (2007) Données épidémiologiques sur le lien entre cancers et pesticides (Epidemiological data on the link between cancer and pesticides). Oncologie 9, 361–369.
476Surget, A & Barron, C (2005) Histologie du grain de blé (Histology of the wheat grain). Ind Cér 145, 3–7.
477Zeisel, SH, Mar, MH, Howe, JC, et al. . (2003) Concentrations of choline-containing compounds and betaine in common foods. J Nutr 133, 1302–1307.
478Poutanen, K, Shepherd, R, Shewry, PR, et al. . (2008) Beyond whole grain: The European HEALTHGRAIN project aims at healthier cereal foods. Cereal Foods World 53, 32–35.
480Archer, MJ (1972) Relationship between free glutathione content and quality assessment parameters of wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.). J Sci Food Agric 23, 485–491.
481Shewry, PR (2007) Improving the protein content and composition of cereal grain. J Cereal Sci 46, 239–250.
482Souci, SW, Fachmann, W & Kraut, H (2008) Food Composition and Nutritional Tables, 7th ed.. Stuttgart, Germany: MedPharm Scientific Publishers.
483Waggle, DH, Lambert, MA, Miller, GD, et al. . (1967) Extensive analyses of flours and millfeeds made from nine different wheat mixes. II. amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and gross energy. Cereal Chem 44, 48–60.
484Colonna, P, Buléon, A, Leloup, V, et al. (1995) Constituants des céréales, des graines, des fruits et de leurs sous-produits (Constituents of grains, seeds, fruits and their by-products). In Nutrition des ruminants domestiques. Ingestion et digestion (Nutrition of domestic ruminants. Ingestion and digestion), [Jarrige, R, Ruckebusch, Y and Demarquilly, C, et al. ., editors]. Paris: INRA.
485Knudsen, KEB (1997) Carbohydrate and lignin contents of plant materials used in animal feeding. Anim Feed Sci Tech 67, 319–338.
486Gebruers, K, Dornez, E, Boros, D, et al. . (2008) Variation in the content of dietary fiber and components thereof in wheats in the HEALTHGRAIN Diversity Screen. J Agric Food Chem 56, 9740–9749.
487Haskå, L, Nyman, M & Andersson, R (2008) Distribution and characterisation of fructan in wheat milling fractions. J Cereal Sci 48, 768–774.
488Hernot, DC, Boileau, TW, Bauer, LL, et al. . (2008) In vitro digestion characteristics of unprocessed and processed whole grains and their components. J Agric Food Chem 56, 10721–10726.
489Nyström, L, Paasonen, A, Lampi, A-M, et al. . (2007) Total plant sterols, steryl ferulates and steryl glycosides in milling fractions of wheat and rye. J Cereal Sci 45, 106–115.
490Picolli da Silva, L & de Lourdes Santorio Ciocca, M (2005) Total, insoluble and soluble dietary fiber values measured by enzymatic-gravimetric method in cereal grains. J Food Comp Anal 18, 113–120.
491Ragaee, SM, Campbell, GL, Scoles, GJ, et al. . (2001) Studies on rye (Secale cereale L.) lines exhibiting a range of extract viscosities. 1. Composition, molecular weight distribution of water extracts, and biochemical characteristics of purified water-extractable arabinoxylan. J Agric Food Chem 49, 2437–2445.
492Ward, JL, Poutanen, K, Gebruers, K, et al. . (2008) The HEALTHGRAIN Cereal Diversity Screen: concept, results, and prospects. J Agric Food Chem 56, 9699–9709.
493Abdel-Aal, E-SM & Hucl, P (1999) A rapid method for quantifying total anthocyanins in blue aleurone and purple pericarp wheats. Cereal Chem 76, 350–354.
494Anderson, J & Bridges, S (1988) Dietary fiber content of selected foods. Am J Clin Nutr 47, 440–447.
495Fretzdorff, B & Welge, N (2003) Fructan and raffinose contents in cereals and pseudo-cereal grains. Getreide, Mehl und Brot 57, 3–8.
496Huynh, BL, Palmer, L, Mather, DE, et al. . (2008) Genotypic variation in wheat grain fructan content revealed by a simplified HPLC method. J Cereal Sci 48, 369–378.
497Huynh, BL, Wallwork, H, Stangoulis, JCR, et al. . (2008) Quantitative trait loci for grain fructan concentration in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Theor Appl Genet 117, 701–709.
498Henry, RJ (1987) Pentosan and (1 → 3),(1 → 4)-β-glucan concentrations in endosperm and wholegrain of wheat, barley, oats and rye. J Cereal Sci 6, 253–258.
499Lempereur, I, Rouau, X & Abecassis, J (1997) Genetic and agronomic variation in arabinoxylan and ferulic acid contents of durum wheat (Triticum durum L.) grain and its milling fractions. J Cereal Sci 25, 103–110.
500Genç, H, Özdemir, M & Demirbas, A (2001) Analysis of mixed-linked (1 → 3), (1 → 4)-β-d-glucans in cereal grains from Turkey. Food Chem 73, 221–224.
501Hemery, Y, Lullien-Pellerin, V, Rouau, X, et al. . (2009) Biochemical markers: efficient tools for the assessment of wheat grain tissue proportions in milling fractions. J Cereal Sci 49, 55–64.
502House, WA & Welch, RM (1987) Bioavailability to rats of iron in 6 varieties of wheat-grain intrinsically labeled with radioiron. J Nutr 117, 476–480.
503Lopez, HW, Krespine, V, Lemaire, A, et al. . (2003) Wheat variety has a major influence on mineral bioavailability; studies in rats. J Cereal Sci 37, 257–266.
504O'Dell, BL, Burpo, CE & Savage, JE (1972) Evaluation of zinc availability in foodstuffs of plant and animal origin. J Nutr 102, 653–660.
505Tabekhia, MM & Donnelly, BJ (1982) Phytic acid in durum-wheat and its milled products. Cereal Chem 59, 105–107.
506Tariq, M, Talat, M, Asia, L, et al. . (2007) Influence of processing and cooking methodologies for reduction of phytic acid content in wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties. J Food Process Preserv 31, 583–594.
507Davis, KR, Peters, LJ, Cain, RF, et al. . (1984) Evaluation of the nutrient composition of wheat. III. Minerals. Cereal Foods World 29, 246–248.
508Frossard, E, Bucher, M, Mächler, F, et al. . (2000) Potential for increasing the content and bioavailability of Fe, Zn and Ca in plants for human nutrition. J Sci Food Agric 80, 861–879.
509Lorenz, K & Loewe, R (1977) Mineral composition of U.S. and Canadian wheats and wheat blends. J Agric Food Chem 25, 806–809.
510Monasterio, I & Graham, RD (2000) Breeding for trace minerals in wheat. Food Nutr Bull 21, 392–396.
511Tang, J, Zou, C, He, Z, et al. . (2008) Mineral element distributions in milling fractions of Chinese wheats. J Cereal Sci 48, 821–828.
512Zook, EG, Greene, FE & Morris, ER (1970) Nutrient composition of selected wheats and wheat products. VI. Distribution of manganese, copper, nickel, zinc, magnesium, lead, tin, cadmium, chromium, and selenium as determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy and colorimetry. Cereal Chem 47, 720–731.
513Welch, RM & Graham, RD (2000) A new paradigm for world agriculture: productive, sustainable, nutritious, healthful food systems. Food Nutr Bull 21, 361–366.
514Fan, MS, Zhao, FJ, Poulton, PR, et al. . (2008) Historical changes in the concentrations of selenium in soil and wheat grain from the Broadbalk experiment over the last 160 years. Sci Total Environ 389, 532–538.
515Zhao, F, McGrath, S, Gray, C, et al. . (2007) Selenium concentrations in UK wheat and biofortification strategies. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 146, Suppl. 1, S246.
516Batifoulier, F, Verny, M-A, Chanliaud, E, et al. . (2005) Effect of different breadmaking methods on thiamine, riboflavin and pyridoxine contents of wheat bread. J Cereal Sci 42, 101–108.
517Davis, KR, Cain, RF, Peters, LJ, et al. . (1981) Evaluation of the nutrient composition of wheat. 2. Proximate analysis, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and pyridoxine. Cereal Chem 58, 116–120.
518Davis, KR, Peters, LJ & Letourneau, D (1984) Variability of the vitamin content in wheat. Cereal Foods World 29, 364–370.
519Ranhotra, G, Gelroth, J, Novak, F, et al. . (1985) Bioavailability for rats of thiamin in whole wheat and thiamin-restored white bread. J Nutr 115, 601–606.
520Gujska, E & Kuncewicz, A (2005) Determination of folate in some cereals and commercial cereal-grain products consumed in Poland using trienzyme extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography methods. Eur Food Res Technol 221, 208–213.
521Perloff, BP & Butrum, RR (1977) Folacin in selected foods. J Am Diet Assoc 70, 161–172.
522Piironen, V, Edelmann, M, Kariluoto, S, et al. . (2008) Folate in wheat genotypes in the HEALTHGRAIN Diversity Screen. J Agric Food Chem 56, 9726–9731.
523Lampi, A-M, Nurmi, T, Ollilainen, V, et al. . (2008) Tocopherols and tocotrienols in wheat genotypes in the HEALTHGRAIN Diversity Screen. J Agric Food Chem 56, 9716–9721.
524Nielsen, MM & Hansen, A (2008) Stability of vitamin E in wheat flour and whole wheat flour during storage. Cereal Chem 85, 716–720.
525Nielsen, MM & Hansen, A (2008) Rapid high-performance liquid chromatography determination of tocopherols and tocotrienols in cereals. Cereal Chem 85, 248–251.
526Panfili, G, Fratianni, A & Irano, M (2003) Normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of tocopherols and tocotrienols in cereals. J Agric Food Chem 51, 3940–3944.
527Moore, J, Hao, Z, Zhou, K, et al. . (2005) Carotenoid, tocopherol, phenolic acid, and antioxidant properties of Maryland-grown soft wheat. J Agric Food Chem 53, 6649–6657.
528Konopka, I, Kozirok, W & Rotkiewicz, D (2004) Lipids and carotenoids of wheat grain and flour and attempt of correlating them with digital image analysis of kernel surface and cross-sections. Food Res Int 37, 429–438.
529Leenhardt, F, Lyan, B, Rock, E, et al. . (2006) Genetic variability of carotenoid concentration, and lipoxygenase and peroxidase activities among cultivated wheat species and bread wheat varieties. Eur J Agron 25, 170–176.
530Panfili, G, Fratianni, A & Irano, M (2004) Improved normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography procedure for the determination of carotenoids in cereals. J Agric Food Chem 52, 6373–6377.
531Roose, M, Kahl, J & Ploeger, A (2009) Influence of the farming system on the xanthophyll content of soft and hard wheat. J Agric Food Chem 57, 182–188.
532Adom, KK & Liu, RH (2002) Antioxidant activity of grains. J Agric Food Chem 50, 6182–6187.
533Barron, C, Surget, A & Rouau, X (2007) Relative amounts of tissues in mature wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain and their carbohydrate and phenolic acid composition. J Cereal Sci 45, 88–96.
534Lempereur, I, Surget, A & Rouau, X (1998) Variability in dehydrodiferulic acid composition of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) and distribution in milling fractions. J Cereal Sci 28, 251–258.
535Mpofu, A, Sapirstein, HD & Beta, T (2006) Genotype and environmental variation in phenolic content, phenolic acid composition, and antioxidant activity of hard spring wheat. J Agric Food Chem 54, 1265–1270.
536Abdel-Aal, ESM & Hucl, P (2003) Composition and stability of anthocyanins in blue-grained wheat. J Agric Food Chem 51, 2174–2180.
537Abdel-Aal, E-SM, Abou-Arab, AA, Gamel, TH, et al. . (2008) Fractionation of blue wheat anthocyanin compounds and their contribution to antioxidant properties. J Agric Food Chem 56, 11171–11177.
538Liggins, J, Mulligan, A, Runswick, S, et al. . (2002) Daidzein and genistein content of cereals. Eur J Clin Nutr 56, 961–966.
539Dinelli, G, Marotti, I, Bosi, S, et al. . (2007) Lignan profile in seeds of modern and old Italian soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars as revealed by CE-MS analyses. Electrophoresis 28, 4212–4219.
540Milder, IEJ, Feskens, EJM, Arts, ICW, et al. . (2005) Intake of the plant lignans secoisolariciresinol, matairesinol, lariciresinol, and pinoresinol in Dutch men and women. J Nutr 135, 1202–1207.
541Andersson, AAM, Kamal-Eldin, A, Fraś, A, et al. . (2008) Alkylresorcinols in wheat varieties in the HEALTHGRAIN Diversity Screen. J Agric Food Chem 56, 9722–9725.
543Hakala, P, Lampi, A-M, Ollilainen, V, et al. . (2002) Steryl phenolic acid esters in cereals and their milling fractions. J Agric Food Chem 50, 5300–5307.
544Iafelice, G, Verardo, V, Marconi, E, et al. . (2009) Characterization of total, free and esterified phytosterols in tetraploid and hexaploid wheats. J Agric Food Chem 57, 2267–2273.
545Nurmi, T, Nyström, L, Edelmann, M, et al. . (2008) Phytosterols in wheat genotypes in the HEALTHGRAIN Diversity Screen. J Agric Food Chem 56, 9710–9715.
546Piironen, V, Toivo, J & Lampi, AM (2002) Plant sterols in cereals and cereal products. Cereal Chem 79, 148–154.
547Irmak, S & Dunford, NT (2005) Policosanol contents and compositions of wheat varieties. J Agric Food Chem 53, 5583–5586.
548Trautwein, EA (2001) n-3 Fatty acids – physiological and technical aspects for their use in food. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 103, 45–55.
549Every, D, Morrison, SC, Simmons, LD, et al. . (2006) Distribution of glutathione in millstreams and relationships to chemical and baking properties of flour. Cereal Chem 83, 57–61.
550Fraser, JR & Holmes, DC (1959) Proximate analysis of wheat flour carbohydrates. IV. – analysis of wholemeal flour and some of its fractions. J Sci Food Agric 10, 506–512.
551Saunders, RM & Walker, HG (1969) Sugars of wheat bran. Cereal Chem 46, 85.
552Chen, H, Haack, V, Janecky, C, et al. . (1998) Mechanisms by which wheat bran and oat bran increase stool weight in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 68, 711–719.
553Lehrfeld, J & Wu, YV (1991) Distribution of phytic acid in milled fractions of Scout-66 hard red winter-wheat. J Agric Food Chem 39, 1820–1824.
554Maes, C, Vangeneugden, B & Delcour, JA (2004) Relative activity of two endoxylanases towards water-unextractable arabinoxylans in wheat bran. J Cereal Sci 39, 181–186.
555Esposito, F, Arlotti, G, Bonifati, AM, et al. . (2005) Antioxidant activity and dietary fibre in durum wheat bran by-products. Food Res Int 38, 1167–1173.
556Gordon, DT & Chao, LS (1984) Relationship of components in wheat bran and spinach to iron bioavailability in the anemic rat. J Nutr 114, 526–535.
557Morris, ER & Ellis, R (1980) Bioavailability to rats of iron and zinc in wheat bran – response to low-phytate bran and effect of the phytate-zinc molar ratio. J Nutr 110, 2000–2010.
558Anderson, NE & Clydesdale, FM (1980) An analysis of the dietary fiber content of a standard wheat bran. J Food Sci 45, 336–340.
559Bagheri, SM & Gueguen, L (1982) Bioavailability to rats of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and zinc in wheat bran diets containing equal amounts of these minerals. Nutr Rep Int 25, 583–589.
560Falcao-e-Cunha, L, Peres, H, Freire, JPB, et al. . (2004) Effects of alfalfa, wheat bran or beet pulp, with or without sunflower oil, on caecal fermentation and on digestibility in the rabbit. Anim Feed Sci Tech 117, 131–149.
561Heller, S, Hackler, L, Rivers, J, et al. . (1980) Dietary fiber: the effect of particle size of wheat bran on colonic function in young adult men. Am J Clin Nutr 33, 1734–1744.
562Maes, C & Delcour, JA (2002) Structural characterisation of water-extractable and water-unextractable arabinoxylans in wheat bran. J Cereal Sci 35, 315–326.
563Dornez, E, Gebruers, K, Wiame, S, et al. . (2006) Insight into the distribution of arabinoxylans, endoxylanases, and endoxylanase inhibitors in industrial wheat roller mill streams. J Agric Food Chem 54, 8521–8529.
564Camire, AL & Clydesdale, FM (1982) Analysis of phytic acid in foods by HPLC. J Food Sci 47, 575–578.
565Fretzdorff, B (1989) Phytic acid in wheat bran and germ products – how to remove phytic acid from these products. Z Lebens Unters Forsch 189, 110–112.
566Jenab, M & Thompson, LU (2000) Phytic acid in wheat bran affects colon morphology, cell differentiation and apoptosis. Carcinogenesis 21, 1547–1552.
567Liu, ZH, Wang, HY, Wang, XE, et al. . (2008) Effect of wheat pearling on flour phytase activity, phytic acid, iron, and zinc content. LWT Food Sci Technol 41, 521–527.
568Bagheri, S & Guéguen, L (1985) Effect of wheat bran and pectin on the absorption and retention of phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and zinc by the growing-pig. Reprod Nutr Dev 25, 705–716.
569Shils, ME, Olson, JA & Shike, M (editors) (1994) Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 8th ed.Philadelphia, PA: Lea and Febiger.
570Mullin, WJ & Jui, PY (1986) Folate content of bran from different wheat classes. Cereal Chem 63, 516–518.
571Zhou, K, Su, L & Yu, LL (2004) Phytochemicals and antioxidant properties in wheat bran. J Agric Food Chem 52, 6108–6114.
572Zhou, KQ, Yin, JJ & Yu, LL (2005) Phenolic acid, tocopherol and carotenoid compositions, and antioxidant functions of hard red winter wheat bran. J Agric Food Chem 53, 3916–3922.
573Robertson, JA, Faulds, CB, Smith, AC, et al. . (2008) Peroxidase-mediated oxidative cross-linking and its potential to modify mechanical properties in water-soluble polysaccharide extracts and cereal grain residues. J Agric Food Chem 56, 1720–1726.
574Irmak, S, Jonnala, RS & MacRitchie, F (2008) Effect of genetic variation on phenolic acid and policosanol contents of Pegaso wheat lines. J Cereal Sci 48, 20–26.
575Kim, KH, Tsao, R, Yang, R, et al. . (2006) Phenolic acid profiles and antioxidant activities of wheat bran extracts and the effect of hydrolysis conditions. Food Chem 95, 466–473.
576Siebenhandl, S, Grausgruber, H, Pellegrini, N, et al. . (2007) Phytochemical profile of main antioxidants in different fractions of purple and blue wheat, and black barley. J Agric Food Chem 55, 8541–8547.
577Apak, R, Güçlü, K, Ozyürek, M, et al. . (2005) Total antioxidant capacity assay of human serum using copper(II)-neocuproine as chromogenic oxidant: the CUPRAC method. Free Radic Res 39, 949–961.
578Moore, J, Liu, JG, Zhou, KQ, et al. . (2006) Effects of genotype and environment on the antioxidant properties of hard winter wheat bran. J Agric Food Chem 54, 5313–5322.
579Zhou, K & Yu, L (2004) Antioxidant properties of bran extracts from Trego wheat grown at different locations. J Agric Food Chem 52, 1112–1117.
580Iqbal, S, Bhanger, MI & Anwar, F (2007) Antioxidant properties and components of bran extracts from selected wheat varieties commercially available in Pakistan. LWT Food Sci Technol 40, 361–367.
581Smeds, AI, Eklund, PC, Sjoholm, RE, et al. . (2007) Quantification of a broad spectrum of lignans in cereals, oilseeds, and nuts. J Agric Food Chem 55, 1337–1346.
582Kulawinek, M, Jaromin, A, Kozubek, A, et al. . (2008) Alkylresorcinols in selected Polish rye and wheat cereals and whole-grain cereal products. J Agric Food Chem 56, 7236–7242.
583Graham, SF, Hollis, JH, Migaud, M, et al. . (2009) Analysis of betaine and choline contents of aleurone, bran, and flour fractions of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. J Agric Food Chem 57, 1948–1951.
584Slow, S, Donaggio, M, Cressey, PJ, et al. . (2005) The betaine content of New Zealand foods and estimated intake in the New Zealand diet. J Food Comp Anal 18, 473–485.
585Nyström, L, Lampi, AM, Rita, H, et al. . (2007) Effects of processing on availability of total plant sterols, steryl ferulates and steryl glycosides from wheat and rye bran. J Agric Food Chem 55, 9059–9065.
586Irmak, S, Dunford, NT & Milligan, J (2006) Policosanol contents of beeswax, sugar cane and wheat extracts. Food Chem 95, 312–318.
587Moruzzi, G, Viviani, R, Sechi, AM, et al. . (1969) Studies on compounds and individual lipids of wheat germ. J Food Sci 34, 581–584.
588Dubois, M, Geddes, WF & Smith, F (1960) The carbohydrates of the Gramineae. X. A quantitative study of the carbohydrates of wheat germ. Cereal Chem 37, 557–567.
589Garcia, WJ, Gardner, HW, Cavins, JF, et al. . (1972) Composition of air-classified defatted corn and wheat germ flours. Cereal Chem 49, 499–507.
590Linko, P, Cheng, Y-Y & Milner, M (1960) Changes in the soluble carbohydrates during browning of wheat embryos. Cereal Chem 37, 548–556.
591Leenhardt, F, Fardet, A, Lyan, B, et al. . (2008) Wheat germ supplementation of a low vitamin E diet in rats affords effective antioxidant protection in tissues. J Am Coll Nutr 27, 222–228.
592Shurpalekar, SR & Rao, PH (1977) Wheat germ. Adv Food Res 23, 187–304.
593Bilgicli, N & Ibanoglu, S (2007) Effect of wheat germ and wheat bran on the fermentation activity, phytic acid content and colour of tarhana, a wheat flour–yoghurt mixture. J Food Eng 78, 681–686.
594Garcia, WJ, Inglett, GE & Blessin, CW (1972) Mineral constituents in corn and wheat-germ by atomic-absorption spectroscopy. Cereal Chem 49, 158–167.
595Zhu, KX, Zhou, HM & Qian, HF (2006) Comparative study of chemical composition and physicochemical properties of defatted wheat germ flour and its protein isolate. J Food Biochem 30, 329–341.
596Dodin, S, Lemay, A, Jacques, H, et al. . (2005) The effects of flaxseed dietary supplement on lipid profile, bone mineral density, and symptoms in menopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, wheat germ placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90, 1390–1397.
597Ostlund, RE Jr, Racette, SB & Stenson, WF (2003) Inhibition of cholesterol absorption by phytosterol-replete wheat germ compared with phytosterol-depleted wheat germ. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 1385–1389.
598Mühlum, A, Ingwersen, M, Schünemann, C, et al. . (1989) Precaecal and postileal digestion of sucrose, lactose, stachyose and raffinose. Adv Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 19, 31–43.
599Van Dokkum, W, Pikaar, NA & Thissen, JT (1983) Physiological effects of fibre-rich types of bread. 2. Dietary fibre from bread: digestibility by the intestinal microflora and water-holding capacity in the colon of human subjects. Br J Nutr 50, 61–74.
600McCance, RA & Widdowson, EM (1935) Phytin in human nutrition. Biochem J 29, 2694–2699.
601Sakamoto, K, Vucenik, I & Shamsuddin, AM (1993) [3H]Phytic acid (inositol hexaphosphate) is absorbed and distributed to various tissues in rats. J Nutr 123, 713–720.
602McCance, RA & Widdowson, EM (1942) Mineral metabolism of healthy adults on white and brown bread dietaries. J Physiol 101, 44–85.
603Institute of Medicine (1997) Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
604Walti, MK, Zimmermann, MB, Walczyk, T, et al. . (2003) Measurement of magnesium absorption and retention in type 2 diabetic patients with the use of stable isotopes. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 448–453.
605Sandstrom, B, Arvidsson, B, Cederblad, A, et al. . (1980) Zinc absorption from composite meals. 1. The significance of wheat extraction rate, zinc, calcium, and protein-content in meals based on bread. Am J Clin Nutr 33, 739–745.
606Sundkvist, G, Dahlin, LB, Nilsson, H, et al. . (2000) Sorbitol and myo-inositol levels and morphology of sural nerve in relation to peripheral nerve function and clinical neuropathy in men with diabetic, impaired, and normal glucose tolerance. Diabet Med 17, 259–268.
607Saha, PR, Weaver, CM & Mason, AC (1994) Mineral bioavailability in rats from intrinsically labeled whole wheat-flour of various phytate levels. J Agric Food Chem 42, 2531–2535.
608Fox, TE, Fairweather-Tait, SJ, Eagles, J, et al. . (1994) Assessment of zinc bioavailability – studies in rats on zinc absorption from wheat using radio-isotopes and stable-isotopes. Br J Nutr 71, 95–101.
609Welch, RM, House, WA, Ortiz-Monasterio, I, et al. . (2005) Potential for improving bioavailable zinc in wheat grain (Triticum species) through plant breeding. J Agric Food Chem 53, 2176–2180.
610Ahmed, A, Anjum, F, Ur Rehman, S, et al. . (2008) Bioavailability of calcium, iron and zinc fortified whole wheat flour chapatti. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 63, 7–13.
611Johnson, PE & Lykken, GI (1988) Copper-65 absorption by men fed intrinsically and extrinsically labeled whole wheat bread. J Agric Food Chem 36, 537–540.
612Mutanen, M, Koivistoinen, P, Morris, VC, et al. . (2007) Relative nutritional availability to rats of selenium in Finnish spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) fertilized or sprayed with sodium selenate and in an American winter bread wheat naturally high in Se. Br J Nutr 57, 319–329.
613Alexander, AR, Whanger, PD & Miller, LT (1983) Bioavailability to rats of selenium in various tuna and wheat products. J Nutr 113, 196–204.
614Weaver, CM, Heaney, RP, Martin, BR, et al. . (1991) Human calcium absorption from whole-wheat products. J Nutr 121, 1769–1775.
615Zempleni, J, Galloway, J & McCormick, D (1996) Pharmacokinetics of orally and intravenously administered riboflavin in healthy humans. Am J Clin Nutr 63, 54–66.
616Tarr, J, Tamura, T & Stokstad, E (1981) Availability of vitamin B6 and pantothenate in an average American diet in man. Am J Clin Nutr 34, 1328–1337.
617Kayden, H & Traber, M (1993) Absorption, lipoprotein transport, and regulation of plasma concentrations of vitamin E in humans. J Lipid Res 34, 343–358.
618Andreasen, MF, Kroon, PA, Williamson, G, et al. . (2001) Esterase activity able to hydrolyze dietary antioxidant hydroxycinnamates is distributed along the intestine of mammals. J Agric Food Chem 49, 5679–5684.
619Ross, AB, Shepherd, MJ, Knudsen, KEB, et al. . (2003) Absorption of dietary alkylresorcinols in ileal-cannulated pigs and rats. Br J Nutr 90, 787–794.
620Nissinen, M, Gylling, H, Vuoristo, M, et al. . (2002) Micellar distribution of cholesterol and phytosterols after duodenal plant stanol ester infusion. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 282, G1009–G1015.
621Nestler, JE, Jakubowicz, DJ, Reamer, P, et al. . (1999) Ovulatory and metabolic effects of d-chiro-inositol in the polycystic ovary syndrome. N Engl J Med 340, 1314–1320.
622Campbell, WW, Haub, MD, Fluckey, JD, et al. . (2004) Pinitol supplementation does not affect insulin-mediated glucose metabolism and muscle insulin receptor content and phosphorylation in older humans. J Nutr 134, 2998–3003.
623Nyman, M, Asp, N-G, Cummings, J, et al. . (1986) Fermentation of dietary fibre in the intestinal tract: comparison between man and rat. Br J Nutr 55, 487–496.
624Kahlon, TS, Chow, FI, Hoefer, JL, et al. . (2001) Effect of wheat bran fiber and bran particle size on fat and fiber digestibility and gastrointestinal tract measurements in the rat. Cereal Chem 78, 481–484.
625Hansen, I, Knudsen, KEB & Eggum, BO (2007) Gastrointestinal implications in the rat of wheat bran, oat bran and pea fibre. Br J Nutr 68, 451–462.
626Ehle, FR, Jeraci, JL, Robertson, JB, et al. . (1982) The influence of dietary fiber on digestibility, rate of passage and gastrointestinal fermentation in pigs. J Anim Sci 55, 1071–1081.
627Robertson, JA, Murison, SD & Chesson, A (1992) Particle-size distribution and solubility of dietary fiber in swede-bran (Brassica napus) based and wheat-bran-based diets during gastrointestinal transit in the pig. J Sci Food Agric 58, 197–205.
628Nyman, M & Asp, N-G (1985) Dietary fibre fermentation in the rat intestinal tract: effect of adaptation period, protein and fibre levels, and particle size. Br J Nutr 54, 635–643.
629Sandberg, AS & Andersson, H (1988) Effect of dietary phytase on the digestion of phytate in the stomach and small intestine of humans. J Nutr 118, 469–473.
630Sandberg, A-S, Andersson, H, Carlsson, N-G, et al. . (1987) Degradation products of bran phytate formed during digestion in the human small intestine: effect of extrusion cooking on digestibility. J Nutr 117, 2061–2065.
631Brune, M, Rossander-Hulten, L, Hallberg, L, et al. . (1992) Iron absorption from bread in humans: inhibiting effects of cereal fiber, phytate and inositol phosphates with different numbers of phosphate groups. J Nutr 122, 442–449.
632Reddy, M & Cook, J (1991) Assessment of dietary determinants of nonheme-iron absorption in humans and rats. Am J Clin Nutr 54, 723–728.
633Reeves, PG, Gregoire, BR, Garvin, DF, et al. . (2007) Determination of selenium bioavailability from wheat mill fractions in rats by using the slope-ratio assay and a modified Torula yeast-based diet. J Agric Food Chem 55, 516–522.
634Carter, EGA & Carpenter, KJ (1982) The bioavailability for humans of bound niacin from wheat bran. Am J Clin Nutr 36, 855–861.
635Kies, C, Kan, S & Fox, HM (1984) Vitamin B6 availability from wheat, rice and corn brans for humans. Nutr Rep Int 30, 483–491.
636Kahlon, TS, Chow, FI, Hoefer, JL, et al. . (1986) Bioavailability of vitamin A and vitamin E as influenced by wheat bran and bran particle size. Cereal Chem 63, 490–493.
637Andreasen, MF, Kroon, PA, Williamson, G, et al. . (2001) Intestinal release and uptake of phenolic antioxidant diferulic acids. Free Radic Biol Med 31, 304–314.
638Connor, WE (2000) Importance of n-3 fatty acids in health and disease. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 171S–175S.
639Brouwer, IA, Katan, MB & Zock, PL (2004) Dietary α-linolenic acid is associated with reduced risk of fatal coronary heart disease, but increased prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis. J Nutr 134, 919–922.
640Hu, FB, Stampfer, MJ, Manson, JE, et al. . (1999) Dietary intake of α-linolenic acid and risk of fatal ischemic heart disease among women. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 890–897.
641Kang, JX & Leaf, A (1996) Antiarrhythmic effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids: recent studies. Circulation 94, 1774–1780.
642Edwards, R, Peet, M, Shay, J, et al. . (1998) Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in the diet and in red blood cell membranes of depressed patients. J Affect Disord 48, 149–155.
643Yehuda, S, Rabinovitz, S & Mostofsky, DI (2005) Mixture of essential fatty acids lowers test anxiety. Nutr Neurosci 8, 265–267.
644Djousse, L, Folsom, AR, Province, MA, et al. . (2003) Dietary linolenic acid and carotid atherosclerosis: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 819–825.
645Narisawa, T, Fukaura, Y, Yazawa, K, et al. . (1994) Colon cancer prevention with a small amount of dietary perilla oil high in α-linolenic acid in an animal model. Cancer 73, 2069–2075.
646Klein, V, Chajes, V, Germain, E, et al. . (2000) Low α-linolenic acid content of adipose breast tissue is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Eur J Cancer 36, 335–340.
647Hwang, DH, Boudreau, M & Chanmugam, P (1988) Dietary linolenic acid and longer-chain n-3 fatty acids: comparison of effects on arachidonic acid metabolism in rats. J Nutr 118, 427–437.
648Chapkin, RS, McMurray, DN, Davidson, LA, et al. . (2008) Bioactive dietary long-chain fatty acids: emerging mechanisms of action. Br J Nutr 100, 1152–1157.
649Enke, U, Seyfarth, L, Schleussner, E, et al. . (2008) Impact of PUFA on early immune and fetal development. Br J Nutr 100, 1158–1168.
650Townsend, DM, Tew, KD & Tapiero, H (2003) The importance of glutathione in human disease. Biomed Pharmacother 57, 145–155.
651Higashi, T, Tateishi, N, Naruse, A, et al. . (1977) A novel physiological role of liver glutathione as a reservoir of l-cysteine. J Biochem 82, 117–124.
652Bilzer, M & Lauterburg, BH (1991) Effects of hypochlorous acid and chloramines on vascular resistance, cell integrity, and biliary glutathione disulfide in the perfused rat-liver – modulation by glutathione. J Hepatol 13, 84–89.
653Troen, AM, Chao, W-H, Crivello, NA, et al. . (2008) Cognitive impairment in folate-deficient rats corresponds to depleted brain phosphatidylcholine and is prevented by dietary methionine without lowering plasma homocysteine. J Nutr 138, 2502–2509.
654Essien, FB & Wannberg, SL (1993) Methionine but not folinic acid or vitamin B-12 alters the frequency of neural tube defects in axd mutant mice. J Nutr 123, 27–34.
655Caylak, E, Aytekin, M & Halifeoglu, I (2008) Antioxidant effects of methionine, α-lipoic acid, N-acetylcysteine and homocysteine on lead-induced oxidative stress to erythrocytes in rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol 60, 289–294.
656Khumalo, N, Dawber, R & Ferguson, D (2005) Apparent fragility of African hair is unrelated to the cystine-rich protein distribution: a cytochemical electron microscopic study. Exp Dermatol 14, 311–314.
657Sass, J, Skladal, D, Zelger, B, et al. . (2004) Trichothiodystrophy: quantification of cysteine in human hair and nails by application of sodium azide-dependent oxidation to cysteic acid. Arch Dermatol Res 296, 188–191.
658Droge, W & Holm, E (1997) Role of cysteine and glutathione in HIV infection and other diseases associated with muscle wasting and immunological dysfunction. FASEB J 11, 1077–1089.
659Netto, LES, de Oliveira, MA, Monteiro, G, et al. . (2007) Reactive cysteine in proteins: protein folding, antioxidant defense, redox signaling and more. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 146, 180–193.
660Marlett, JA, McBurney, MI & Slavin, JL (2002) Position of the American Dietetic Association: health implications of dietary fiber. J Am Diet Assoc 102, 993–1000.
661Tucker, LA & Thomas, KS (2009) Increasing total fiber intake reduces risk of weight and fat gains in women. J Nutr 139, 576–581.
662Salmeron, J, Ascherio, A, Rimm, EB, et al. . (1997) Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. Diabetes Care 277, 472–477.
663Slavin, JL, Jacobs, D, Marquart, L, et al. . (2001) The role of whole grains in disease prevention. J Am Diet Assoc 101, 780–785.
664Glei, M, Hofmann, T, Kuster, K, et al. . (2006) Both wheat (Triticum aestivum) bran arabinoxylans and gut flora-mediated fermentation products protect human colon cells from genotoxic activities of 4-hydroxynonenal and hydrogen peroxide. J Agric Food Chem 54, 2088–2095.
665Eastwood, M & Mowbray, L (1976) The binding of the components of mixed micelle to dietary fiber. Am J Clin Nutr 29, 1461–1467.
666Pomare, EW & Heaton, KW (1973) Alteration of bile salt metabolism by dietary fibre (bran). Gut 14, 826.
667Eastwood, MA (1975) Vegetable dietary fiber – potent pith. J R Soc Health 95, 188–190.
668Kaur, N & Gupta, AK (2002) Applications of inulin and oligofructose in health and nutrition. J Biosci 27, 703–714.
669Roberfroid, MB & Delzenne, NM (1998) Dietary fructans. Annu Rev Nutr 18, 117–143.
670Rozan, P, Nejdi, A, Hidalgo, S, et al. . (2008) Effects of lifelong intervention with an oligofructose-enriched inulin in rats on general health and lifespan. Br J Nutr 100, 1192–1199.
671Gibson, GR, Beatty, ER, Wang, X, et al. . (1995) Selective stimulation of bifidobacteria in the human colon by oligofructose and inulin. Gastroenterology 108, 975–982.
672Femia, AP, Luceri, C, Dolara, P, et al. . (2002) Antitumorigenic activity of the prebiotic inulin enriched with oligofructose in combination with the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Carcinogenesis 23, 1953–1960.
673Archer, SY, Meng, S, Shei, A, et al. . (1998) p21WAF1 is required for butyrate-mediated growth inhibition of human colon cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95, 6791–6796.
674Avivi-Green, C, Polak-Charcon, S, Madar, Z, et al. . (2002) Different molecular events account for butyrate-induced apoptosis in two human colon cancer cell lines. J Nutr 132, 1812–1818.
675Brighenti, F, Casiraghi, MC, Canzi, E, et al. . (1999) Effect of consumption of a ready-to-eat breakfast cereal containing inulin on the intestinal milieu and blood lipids in healthy male volunteers. Eur J Clin Nutr 53, 726–733.
676Williams, CM (1999) Effects of inulin on lipid parameters in humans. J Nutr 129, 1471S–1473S.
677Beylot, M (2005) Effects of inulin-type fructans on lipid metabolism in man and in animal models. Br J Nutr 93, S163–S168.
678Pai, R, Tarnawski, AS & Tran, T (2004) Deoxycholic acid activates β-catenin signaling pathway and increases colon cell cancer growth and invasiveness. Mol Biol Cell 15, 2156–2163.
679McMillan, L, Butcher, S, Wallis, Y, et al. . (2000) Bile acids reduce the apoptosis-inducing effects of sodium butyrate on human colon adenoma (AA/C1) cells: implications for colon carcinogenesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 273, 45–49.
680Braaten, JT, Wood, PJ, Scott, FW, et al. . (1991) Oat gum lowers glucose and insulin after an oral glucose load. Am J Clin Nutr 53, 1425–1430.
681Ostman, E, Rossi, E, Larsson, H, et al. . (2006) Glucose and insulin responses in healthy men to barley bread with different levels of (1 → 3;1 → 4)-β-glucans; predictions using fluidity measurements of in vitro enzyme digests. J Cereal Sci 43, 230–235.
682Tappy, L, Gugolz, E & Wursch, P (1996) Effects of breakfast cereals containing various amounts of β-glucan fibers on plasma glucose and insulin responses in NIDDM subjects. Diabetes Care 19, 831–834.
683Maki, KC, Shinnick, F, Seeley, MA, et al. . (2003) Food products containing free tall oil-based phytosterols and oat β-glucan lower serum total and LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic adults. J Nutr 133, 808–813.
684Wright, RS, Anderson, JW & Bridges, SR (1990) Propionate inhibits hepatocyte lipid synthesis. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 195, 26–29.
685Demir, G, Klein, HO, Mandel-Molinas, N, et al. . (2007) β Glucan induces proliferation and activation of monocytes in peripheral blood of patients with advanced breast cancer. Int Immunopharmacol 7, 113–116.
686Vucenik, I & Shamsuddin, AM (2003) Cancer inhibition by inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) and inositol: from laboratory to clinic. J Nutr 133, 3778S–3784S.
687Muraoka, S & Miura, T (2004) Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by phytic acid and its antioxidative action. Life Sci 74, 1691–1700.
688Lee, SH, Park, HJ, Chun, HK, et al. . (2006) Dietary phytic acid lowers the blood glucose level in diabetic KK mice. Nutr Res 26, 474–479.
689Lee, S-H, Park, H-J, Chun, H-K, et al. . (2007) Dietary phytic acid improves serum and hepatic lipid levels in aged ICR mice fed a high-cholesterol diet. Nutr Res 27, 505–510.
690Onomi, S, Okazaki, Y & Katayama, T (2004) Effect of dietary level of phytic acid on hepatic and serum lipid status in rats fed a high-sucrose diet. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 68, 1379–1381.
691Lee, SH, Park, HJ, Cho, SY, et al. . (2005) Effects of dietary phytic acid on serum and hepatic lipid levels in diabetic KK mice. Nutr Res 25, 869–876.
692Singh, A, Prakash Singh, S & Bamezai, R (1997) Modulatory influence of arecoline on the phytic acid-altered hepatic biotransformation system enzymes, sulfhydryl content and lipid peroxidation in a murine system. Cancer Lett 117, 1–6.
693Grases, F, Simonet, BM, March, JG, et al. . (2000) Inositol hexakisphosphate in urine: the relationship between oral intake and urinary excretion. BJU Int 85, 138–142.
694Grases, F, Sanchis, P, Perello, J, et al. . (2008) Phytate reduces age-related cardiovascular calcification. Front Biosci 13, 7115–7122.
695Shen, XT, Xiao, H, Ranallo, R, et al. . (2003) Modulation of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes by inositol polyphosphates. Science 299, 112–114.
696Steger, DJ, Haswell, ES, Miller, AL, et al. . (2003) Regulation of chromatin remodeling by inositol polyphosphates. Science 299, 114–116.
697Sajilata, MG, Singhal, RS & Kulkarni, PR (2006) Resistant starch: a review. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 5, 1–17.
698Malhotra, SL (1968) Epidemiological study of cholelithiasis among railroad workers in India with special reference to causation. Gut 9, 290–295.
699Beard, JL & Connor, JR (2003) Iron status and neural functioning. Annu Rev Nutr 23, 41–58.
700Institute of Medicine (2001) Dietary Reference Intake for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Baron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
701Uehara, M, Chiba, H, Mogi, H, et al. . (1997) Induction of increased phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide by an iron-deficient diet in rats. J Nutr Biochem 8, 385–391.
702Rosenzweig, P & Volpe, S (1999) Iron, thermoregulation, and metabolic rate. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 39, 131–148.
703Oexle, H, Gnaiger, E & Weiss, G (1999) Iron-dependent changes in cellular energy metabolism: influence on citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Biochim Biophys Acta 1413, 99–107.
704Ramdath, DD & Golden, MHN (1989) Non-haematological aspects of iron nutrition. Nutr Res Rev 2, 29–49.
705Lozoff, B, Jimenez, E, Hagen, J, et al. . (2000) Poorer behavioral and developmental outcome more than 10 years after treatment for iron deficiency in infancy. Pediatrics 105, E51.
706Oski, FA, Honig, AS, Helu, B, et al. . (1983) Effect of iron therapy on behavior performance in nonanemic, iron-deficient infants. Pediatrics 71, 877–880.
707Prockop, DJ (1971) Role of iron in synthesis of collagen in connective tissue. Fed Proc 30, 984–990.
708Katsumata, S, Katsumata-Tsuboi, R, Uehara, M, et al. . (2009) Severe iron deficiency decreases both bone formation and bone resorption in rats. J Nutr 139, 238–243.
709Willis, WT, Dallman, PR & Brooks, GA (1988) Physiological and biochemical correlates of increased work in trained iron-deficient rats. J Appl Physiol 65, 256–263.
710Cook, J & Lynch, S (1986) The liabilities of iron deficiency. Blood 68, 803–809.
711Rosales, FJ, Jang, J-T, Pinero, DJ, et al. . (1999) Iron deficiency in young rats alters the distribution of vitamin A between plasma and liver and between hepatic retinol and retinyl esters. J Nutr 129, 1223–1228.
712McClung, JP & Karl, JP (2009) Iron deficiency and obesity: the contribution of inflammation and diminished iron absorption. Nutr Rev 67, 100–104.
713Clancaglini, P, Plzauro, JM, Curti, C, et al. . (1990) Effect of membrane moiety and magnesium ions on the inhibition of matrix-induced alkaline phosphatase by zinc ions. Int J Biochem 22, 747–751.
714Bussiere, FI, Gueux, E, Rock, E, et al. . (2002) Increased phagocytosis and production of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils during magnesium deficiency in rats and inhibition by high magnesium concentration. Br J Nutr 87, 107–113.
715Olatunji, LA & Soladoye, AO (2007) Increased magnesium intake prevents hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance and reduces lipid peroxidation in fructose-fed rats. Pathophysiology 14, 11–15.
716Kisters, K, Spieker, C, Tepel, M, et al. . (1993) New data about the effects of oral physiological magnesium supplementation on several cardiovascular risk factors (lipids and blood pressure). Magnes Res 6, 355–360.
717Barbagallo, M & Dominguez, LJ (2007) Magnesium metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. Arch Biochem Biophys 458, 40–47.
718Colditz, G, Manson, J, Stampfer, M, et al. . (1992) Diet and risk of clinical diabetes in women. Am J Clin Nutr 55, 1018–1023.
719Nadler, JL, Balon, TW & Rude, R (1997) Fiber intake and risk of developing non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. JAMA 277, 1761–1762.
720Paolisso, G, Scheen, A, D'Onofrio, F, et al. . (1990) Magnesium and glucose homeostasis. Diabetologia 33, 511–514.
721Schulze, MB, Schulz, M, Heidemann, C, et al. . (