Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Parameters controlling the glycaemic response to breads

  • Anthony Fardet (a1), Fanny Leenhardt (a1), Delphine Lioger (a1), Augustin Scalbert (a1) and Christian Rémésy (a1)...
Abstract
Abstract

Bread is one of the most widely consumed staple foods worldwide. White-wheat bread, largely consumed in France, is made from highly refined flour, which leads to a low nutrient density. Due to a highly porous structure and gelatinised starch, it is easily broken down during digestion, leading to a rapid increase of glucose released into the bloodstream. Low glycaemic responses are considered favourable to health, especially against a background of diabetes. Literature reports show that selection of raw material is an essential factor in decreasing the glycaemic index (GI) of white bread. There are two means of decreasing the rate of starch degradation: either (i) slowing gastric emptying rate and/or glucose diffusion–absorption through the intestinal mucosa, which can be achieved by incorporating soluble fibre or organic acid in bread, or (ii) limiting starch accessibility to α-amylase by using high-amylose cereal varieties and/or incorporating intact cereal grains. Studies on cereal products show that preservation of the food structure during digestion seems to be a more important GI-reducing factor than the degree of starch crystallinity or the presence of soluble fibre. Thus, we should look to produce bread with a more compact food structure or higher density, which is the case in leavened wholewheat bread or bread with intact cereal grains. The baking process should also be improved to achieve this goal, by using, for example, a reduced kneading time or less yeast than usual.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Parameters controlling the glycaemic response to breads
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Parameters controlling the glycaemic response to breads
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Parameters controlling the glycaemic response to breads
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr Anthony Fardet, fax +33 47 3 62 46 38, email afardet@clermont.inra.fr
References
Hide All
Adam A (2002) Qualité nutritionnelle et effets métaboliques des farines de blé et du pain (Nutritional quality and metabolic effects of wheat flours and bread). PhD Thesis, Université d'Auvergne et Université Blaise Pascal.
Adam A, Leenhardt F, Lopez HW, Leuillet M & Rémésy C (2003) Les possibilités d'amélioration de la valeur nutritionnelle du pain (Possibilities for improvement of the nutritional value of bread). Cahiers de Nutrition et Diététique 38, 316322.
Akerberg A, Liljeberg H & Bjorck I (1998) Effects of amylose/amylopectin ratio and baking conditions on resistant starch formation and glycaemic indices. Journal of Cereal Science 28, 7180.
Berti C, Riso P, Monti LD & Porrini M (2004) In vitro starch digestibility and in vivo glucose response of gluten-free foods and their gluten counterparts. European Journal of Nutrition 43, 198204.
Björck I & Elmstahl HL (2003) The glycaemic index: importance of dietary fibre and other food properties. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 62, 201206.
Björck I, Liljeberg H & Ostman E (2000) Low glycaemic-index foods. British Journal of Nutrition 83, Suppl. 1, S149–S155.
Bornet FR, Costagliola D, Rizkalla SW, Blayo A, Fontvieille AM, Haardt MJ, Letanoux M, Tchobroutsky G & Slama G (1987) Insulinemic and glycemic indexes of six starch-rich foods taken alone and in a mixed meal by type 2 diabetics. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45, 588595.
Brennan CS, Blake DE, Ellis PR & Schofield JD (1996) Effects of guar galactomannan on wheat bread microstructure and on the in vitro and in vivo digestibility of starch in bread. Journal of Cereal Science 24, 151160.
Cavallero A, Empilli S, Brighenti F & Stanca A (2002) High (1→3, 1→4)-β-glucan barley fractions in bread making and their effects on human glycemic response. Journal of Cereal Science 36, 5966.
Darwiche G, Ostman EM, Liljeberg HG, Kallinen N, Bjorgell O, Björck IM & Almer LO (2001) Measurements of the gastric emptying rate by use of ultrasonography: studies in humans using bread with added sodium propionate. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 74, 254258.
Flourie B, Vidon N, Florent CH & Bernier JJ (1984) Effect of pectin on jejunal glucose absorption and unstirred layer thickness in normal man. Gut 25, 936941.
Food and Agriculture Organization & World Health Organization (1997) Carbohydrates in Human Nutrition, Report of a joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation, Rome, 14–18 April 1997. Rome: FAO/WHO.
Foster-Powell K, Holt SH & Brand-Miller JC (2002) International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2002. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 76, 556.
Glore SR, Van Treeck D, Knehans AW & Guild M (1994) Soluble fiber and serum lipids: a literature review. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 94, 425436.
Granfeldt Y, Björck I & Hagander B (1991) On the importance of processing conditions, product thickness and egg addition for the glycaemic and hormonal responses to pasta: a comparison with bread made from ‘pasta ingredients’. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45, 489499.
Granfeldt Y, Drews A & Björck I (1995 a) Arepas made from high amylose corn flour produce favorably low glucose and insulin responses in healthy humans. Journal of Nutrition 125, 459465.
Granfeldt Y, Hagander B & Björck I (1995 b) Metabolic responses to starch in oat and wheat products. On the importance of food structure, incomplete gelatinization or presence of viscous dietary fibre. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49, 189199.
Hoebler C, Karinthi A, Chiron H, Champ M & Barry JL (1999) Bioavailability of starch in bread rich in amylose: metabolic responses in healthy subjects and starch structure. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53, 360366.
Holm J & Björck I (1992) Bioavailability of starch in various wheat-based bread products: evaluation of metabolic responses in healthy subjects and rate and extent of in vitro starch digestion. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 55, 420429.
Jenkins DJ, Ghafari H, Wolever TM, Taylor RH, Jenkins AL, Barker HM, Fielden H & Bowling AC (1981) Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Diabetologia 34, 362366.
Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM & Jenkins AL (1987) Glycemic index of processed wheat products. Diabetes Care 46, 631635.
Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM, Jenkins AL, Giordano C, Giudici S, Thompson LU, Kalmusky J, Josse RG & Wong GS (1986) Low glycemic response to traditionally processed wheat and rye products: bulgur and pumpernickel bread. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 43, 516520.
Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM, Jenkins AL, Lee R, Wong GS & Josse R (1983) Glycemic response to wheat products: reduced response to pasta but no effect of fiber. Diabetes Care 6, 155159.
Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM, Nineham R, Taylor R, Metz GL, Bacon S & Hockaday TD (1978) Guar crispbread in the diabetic diet. British Medical Journal 2, 17441746.
Johnson IT & Gee JM (1981) Effect of gel-forming gums on the intestinal unstirred layer and sugar transport in vitro. Gut 22, 398403.
Juntunen KS, Niskanen LK, Liukkonen KH, Poutanen KS, Holst JJ & Mykkanen HM (2002) Postprandial glucose, insulin, and incretin responses to grain products in healthy subjects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 75, 254262.
Karinthi (1995) Degradations physiques et chimiques subies par des aliments céréaliers are cours des digestions buccales et gastriques (Chemical and physical degradations undergone by cereal products during buccogastric digestion). PhD Thesis, Institut National Agronomique Paris-Grignon (INAP-G) & institut de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA) de Nantes, France.
Leinonen K, Liukkonen K, Poutanen K, Uusitupa M & Mykkanen H (1999) Rye bread decreases postprandial insulin response but does not alter glucose response in healthy Finnish subjects. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53, 262267.
Liljeberg H & Björck I (1994) Bioavailability of starch in bread products. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy subjects and in vitro resistant starch content. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48, 151163.
Liljeberg H & Björck I (1998) Delayed gastric emptying rate may explain improved glycaemia in healthy subjects to a starchy meal with added vinegar. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52, 368371.
Liljeberg H, Granfeldt Y & Björck I (1992) Metabolic responses to starch in bread containing intact kernels versus milled flour. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 46, 561575.
Liljeberg HG & Björck IM (1996) Delayed gastric emptying rate as a potential mechanism for lowered glycemia after eating sourdough bread: studies in humans and rats using test products with added organic acids or an organic salt. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64, 886893.
Liljeberg HG, Granfeldt YE & Björck IM (1996) Products based on a high fiber barley genotype, but not on common barley or oats, lower postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy humans. Journal of Nutrition 126, 458466.
Liljeberg HG, Lonner CH & Björck IM (1995) Sourdough fermentation or addition of organic acids or corresponding salts to bread improves nutritional properties of starch in healthy humans. Journal of Nutrition 125, 15031511.
Lu ZX, Walker KZ, Muir JG, Mascara T & O'Dea K (2000) Arabinoxylan fiber, a byproduct of wheat flour processing, reduces the postprandial glucose response in normoglycemic subjects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71, 11231128.
Lu ZX, Walker KZ, Muir JG & O'Dea K (2004) Arabinoxylan fibre improves metabolic control in people with type II diabetes. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 58, 621628.
Lund EK, Gee JM, Brown JC, Wood PJ & Johnson IT (1989) Effect of oat gum on the physical properties of the gastrointestinal contents and on the uptake of d -galactose and cholesterol by rat small intestine in vitro. British Journal of Nutrition 62, 91101.
Muir JG, Birkett A, Brown I, Jones G & O'Dea K (1995) Food processing and maize variety affects amounts of starch escaping digestion in the small intestine. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 61, 8289.
Ostman EM, Frid AH, Groop LC & Björck IM (2006) A dietary exchange of common bread for tailored bread of low glycaemic index and rich in dietary fibre improved insulin economy in young women with impaired glucose tolerance. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 60, 334341.
Ostman EM, Liljeberg Elmstahl HG & Björck IM (2002 a) Barley bread containing lactic acid improves glucose tolerance at a subsequent meal in healthy men and women. Journal of Nutrition 132, 11731175.
Ostman EM, Nilsson M, Liljeberg Elmstahl HGM, Molin G & Björck IME (2002 b) On the effect of lactic acid on blood glucose and insulin responses to cereal products: mechanistic studies in healthy subjects and in vitro. Journal of Cereal Science 36, 339346.
Pick ME, Hawrysh ZJ, Gee MI, Toth E, Garg ML & Hardin RT (1996) Oat bran concentrate bread products improve long-term control of diabetes: a pilot study. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 96, 12541261.
Rizkalla SW, Laromiguiere M, Bruzzo F, Boillot J & Slama G (2004) Détermination de l'index glycémique et insulinémique de pains français chez l'homme sain et diabétique (Determination of glycemic and insulinemic indexes of French bread in healthy and diabetic men). Industrie des Céréales 139, 1114.
Wood PJ, Braate JT, Scott FW, Riedel KD, Wolynetz MS & Collin MW (1994) Effect of dose and modification of viscous properties of oat gum on plasma glucose and insulin following an oral glucose load. British Journal of Nutrition 72, 731743.
Würsch P & Pi-Sunyer FX (1997) The role of viscous soluble fiber in the metabolic control of diabetes. A review with special emphasis on cereals rich in beta-glucan. Diabetes Care 20, 17741780.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Nutrition Research Reviews
  • ISSN: 0954-4224
  • EISSN: 1475-2700
  • URL: /core/journals/nutrition-research-reviews
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 308 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 253 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.