Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Peripheral and central mechanisms involved in the control of food intake by dietary amino acids and proteins

  • Gilles Fromentin (a1) (a2), Nicolas Darcel (a2) (a3), Catherine Chaumontet (a1) (a2), Agnes Marsset-Baglieri (a1) (a2), Nachiket Nadkarni (a3) and Daniel Tomé (a1) (a2)...
Abstract

The present review summarises current knowledge and recent findings on the modulation of appetite by dietary protein, via both peripheral and central mechanisms. Of the three macronutrients, proteins are recognised as the strongest inhibitor of food intake. The well-recognised poor palatability of proteins is not the principal mechanism explaining the decrease in high-protein (HP) diet intake. Consumption of a HP diet does not induce conditioned food aversion, but rather experience-enhanced satiety. Amino acid consumption is detected by multiple and redundant mechanisms originating from visceral (during digestion) and metabolic (inter-prandial period) sources, recorded both directly and indirectly (mainly vagus-mediated) by the central nervous system (CNS). Peripherally, the satiating effect of dietary proteins appears to be mediated by anorexigenic gut peptides, principally cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY. In the CNS, HP diets trigger the activation of noradrenergic and adrenergic neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract and melanocortin neurons in the arcuate nucleus. Additionally, there is evidence that circulating leucine levels may modulate food intake. Leucine is associated with neural mechanisms involving mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), energy sensors active in the control of energy intake, at least in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition, HP diets inhibit the activation of opioid and GABAergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens, and thus inhibit food intake by reducing the hedonic response to food, presumably because of their low palatability. Future studies should concentrate on studying the adaptation of different neural circuits following the ingestion of protein diets.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Peripheral and central mechanisms involved in the control of food intake by dietary amino acids and proteins
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Peripheral and central mechanisms involved in the control of food intake by dietary amino acids and proteins
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Peripheral and central mechanisms involved in the control of food intake by dietary amino acids and proteins
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr Gilles Fromentin, fax +33 1 44 08 18 58, email gilles.fromentin@agroparistech.fr
References
Hide All
1Jean, C, Rome, S, Mathe, V, et al. . (2001) Metabolic evidence for adaptation to a high protein diet in rats. J Nutr 131, 9198.
2Poppitt, SD, McCormack, D & Buffenstein, R (1998) Short-term effects of macronutrient preloads on appetite and energy intake in lean women. Physiol Behav 64, 279285.
3Bensaid, A, Tome, D, Gietzen, D, et al. . (2002) Protein is more potent than carbohydrate for reducing appetite in rats. Physiol Behav 75, 577582.
4Latner, JD & Schwartz, M (1999) The effects of a high-carbohydrate, high-protein or balanced lunch upon later food intake and hunger ratings. Appetite 33, 119128.
5Westerterp-Plantenga, MS, Nieuwenhuizen, A, Tome, D, et al. . (2009) Dietary protein, weight loss, and weight maintenance. Annu Rev Nutr 29, 2141.
6Tome, D, Schwarz, J, Darcel, N, et al. . (2009) Protein, amino acids, vagus nerve signaling, and the brain. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 838S843S.
7Schwartz, MW, Woods, SC, Porte, D Jr, et al. . (2000) Central nervous system control of food intake. Nature 404, 661671.
8Berthoud, HR (2011) Metabolic and hedonic drives in the neural control of appetite: who is the boss? Curr Opin Neurobiol 21, 888896.
9Trigazis, L, Orttmann, A & Anderson, GH (1997) Effect of a cholecystokinin-A receptor blocker on protein-induced food intake suppression in rats. Am J Physiol 272, R1826R1833.
10Porrini, M, Santangelo, A, Crovetti, R, et al. . (1997) Weight, protein, fat, and timing of preloads affect food intake. Physiol Behav 62, 563570.
11Marmonier, C, Chapelot, D & Louis-Sylvestre, J (2000) Effects of macronutrient content and energy density of snacks consumed in a satiety state on the onset of the next meal. Appetite 34, 161168.
12Burton-Freeman, B, Gietzen, DW & Schneeman, BO (1997) Meal pattern analysis to investigate the satiating potential of fat, carbohydrate, and protein in rats. Am J Physiol 273, R1916R1922.
13Bertenshaw, EJ, Lluch, A & Yeomans, MR (2008) Satiating effects of protein but not carbohydrate consumed in a between-meal beverage context. Physiol Behav 93, 427436.
14Geliebter, A, Liang, JT & Van Itallie, TB (1984) Effects of repeated isocaloric macronutrient loads on daily food intake of rats. Am J Physiol 247, R387R392.
15Marmonier, C, Chapelot, D, Fantino, M, et al. . (2002) Snacks consumed in a nonhungry state have poor satiating efficiency: influence of snack composition on substrate utilization and hunger. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 518528.
16Raben, A, Agerholm-Larsen, L, Flint, A, et al. . (2003) Meals with similar energy densities but rich in protein, fat, carbohydrate, or alcohol have different effects on energy expenditure and substrate metabolism but not on appetite and energy intake. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 91100.
17Reid, M & Hetherington, M (1997) Relative effects of carbohydrates and protein on satiety – a review of methodology. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 21, 295308.
18Mattes, RD (2006) Fluid energy – where's the problem? J Am Diet Assoc 106, 19561961.
19Leidy, HJ, Bales-Voelker, LI & Harris, CT (2011) A protein-rich beverage consumed as a breakfast meal leads to weaker appetitive and dietary responses v. a protein-rich solid breakfast meal in adolescents. Br J Nutr 106, 3741.
20Martens, MJ, Lemmens, SG, Born, JM, et al. . (2011) A solid high-protein meal evokes stronger hunger suppression than a liquefied high-protein meal. Obesity (Silver Spring) 19, 522527.
21Akhavan, T, Luhovyy, BL & Anderson, GH (2011) Effect of drinking compared with eating sugars or whey protein on short-term appetite and food intake. Int J Obes (Lond) 35, 562569.
22Potier, M, Fromentin, G, Lesdema, A, et al. . (2010) The satiety effect of disguised liquid preloads administered acutely and differing only in their nutrient content tended to be weaker for lipids but did not differ between proteins and carbohydrates in human subjects. Br J Nutr 104, 14061414.
23Fromentin, G, Feurte, S & Nicolaidis, S (1998) Spatial cues are relevant for learned preference/aversion shifts due to amino-acid deficiencies. Appetite 30, 223234.
24Booth, DA, Lee, M & McAleavey, C (1976) Acquired sensory control of satiation in man. Br J Psychol 67, 137147.
25Louis-Sylvestre, J, Tournier, A, Verger, P, et al. . (1989) Learned caloric adjustment of human intake. Appetite 12, 95103.
26Yeomans, MR, Weinberg, L & James, S (2005) Effects of palatability and learned satiety on energy density influences on breakfast intake in humans. Physiol Behav 86, 487499.
27Faipoux, R, Tome, D, Bensaid, A, et al. . (2006) Yeast proteins enhance satiety in rats. J Nutr 136, 23502356.
28Anderson, GH, Tecimer, SN, Shah, D, et al. . (2004) Protein source, quantity, and time of consumption determine the effect of proteins on short-term food intake in young men. J Nutr 134, 30113015.
29Veldhorst, MA, Nieuwenhuizen, AG, Hochstenbach-Waelen, A, et al. . (2009) A breakfast with α-lactalbumin, gelatin, or gelatin + TRP lowers energy intake at lunch compared with a breakfast with casein, soy, whey, or whey-GMP. Clin Nutr 28, 147155.
30Lang, V, Bellisle, F, Alamowitch, C, et al. . (1999) Varying the protein source in mixed meal modifies glucose, insulin and glucagon kinetics in healthy men, has weak effects on subjective satiety and fails to affect food intake. Eur J Clin Nutr 53, 959965.
31Lang, V, Bellisle, F, Oppert, JM, et al. . (1998) Satiating effect of proteins in healthy subjects: a comparison of egg albumin, casein, gelatin, soy protein, pea protein, and wheat gluten. Am J Clin Nutr 67, 11971204.
32Fromentin, G, Feurte, S, Nicolaidis, S, et al. . (2000) Parabrachial lesions disrupt responses of rats to amino acid devoid diets, to protein-free diets, but not to high-protein diets. Physiol Behav 70, 381389.
33Gietzen, DW, Hao, S & Anthony, TG (2007) Mechanisms of food intake repression in indispensable amino acid deficiency. Annu Rev Nutr 27, 6378.
34Harper, AE & Peters, JC (1989) Protein intake, brain amino acid and serotonin concentrations and protein self-selection. J Nutr 119, 677689.
35Tews, JK, Repa, JJ & Harper, AE (1992) Protein selection by rats adapted to high or moderately low levels of dietary protein. Physiol Behav 51, 699712.
36Bensaid, A, Tome, D, L'Heureux-Bourdon, D, et al. . (2003) A high-protein diet enhances satiety without conditioned taste aversion in the rat. Physiol Behav 78, 311320.
37L'Heureux-Bouron, D, Tome, D, Bensaid, A, et al. . (2004) A very high 70 %-protein diet does not induce conditioned taste aversion in rats. J Nutr 134, 15121515.
38Kinzig, KP, Hargrave, SL, Hyun, J, et al. . (2007) Energy balance and hypothalamic effects of a high-protein/low-carbohydrate diet. Physiol Behav 92, 454460.
39Ropelle, ER, Pauli, JR, Fernandes, MF, et al. . (2008) A central role for neuronal AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in high-protein diet-induced weight loss. Diabetes 57, 594605.
40Pichon, L, Potier, M, Tome, D, et al. . (2008) High-protein diets containing different milk protein fractions differently influence energy intake and adiposity in the rat. Br J Nutr 99, 739748.
41Pichon, L (2008) Rôles de la composition en macronutriments et de la nature protéique du régime dans le comportement alimentaire et le métabolisme protéino-énergétique chez le rat (Roles of macronutrient composition and protein nature of the regime in feeding behavior and protein–energy metabolism in rats). Thesis Abies. Paris: Agroparistech.
42Kondoh, T, Mallick, HN & Torii, K (2009) Activation of the gut–brain axis by dietary glutamate and physiologic significance in energy homeostasis. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 832S837S.
43Boutry, C, Bos, C, Matsumoto, H, et al. . (2011) Effects of monosodium glutamate supplementation on glutamine metabolism in adult rats. Front Biosci (Elite Ed) 3, 279290.
44Harper, AE, Benevenga, NJ & Wohlhueter, RM (1970) Effects of ingestion of disproportionate amounts of amino acids. Physiol Rev 50, 428558.
45McArthur, LH, Kelly, WF, Gietzen, DW, et al. . (1993) The role of palatability in the food intake response of rats fed high-protein diets. Appetite 20, 181196.
46L'Heureux-Bouron, D, Tome, D, Bensaid, A, et al. . (2004) Preabsorptive factors are not the main determinants of intake depression induced by a high-protein diet in the rat. Physiol Behav 81, 499504.
47Ashley, JM, St Jeor, ST, Perumean-Chaney, S, et al. . (2001) Meal replacements in weight intervention. Obes Res 9, Suppl. 4, 312S320S.
48Noakes, M, Foster, PR, Keogh, JB, et al. . (2004) Meal replacements are as effective as structured weight-loss diets for treating obesity in adults with features of metabolic syndrome. J Nutr 134, 18941899.
49Sacks, FM, Bray, GA, Carey, VJ, et al. . (2009) Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates. N Engl J Med 360, 859873.
50Gilbert, JA, Bendsen, NT, Tremblay, A, et al. . (2011) Effect of proteins from different sources on body composition. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 21, Suppl. 2, B16B31.
51Treyzon, L, Chen, S, Hong, K, et al. . (2008) A controlled trial of protein enrichment of meal replacements for weight reduction with retention of lean body mass. Nutr J 7, 23.
52Layman, DK, Evans, EM, Erickson, D, et al. . (2009) A moderate-protein diet produces sustained weight loss and long-term changes in body composition and blood lipids in obese adults. J Nutr 139, 514521.
53Chaston, TB, Dixon, JB & O'Brien, PE (2007) Changes in fat-free mass during significant weight loss: a systematic review. Int J Obes (Lond) 31, 743750.
54Weigle, DS, Breen, PA, Matthys, CC, et al. . (2005) A high-protein diet induces sustained reductions in appetite, ad libitum caloric intake, and body weight despite compensatory changes in diurnal plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 4148.
55Beauchamp, GK (2009) Sensory and receptor responses to umami: an overview of pioneering work. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 723S727S.
56Powley, TL & Phillips, RJ (2004) Gastric satiation is volumetric, intestinal satiation is nutritive. Physiol Behav 82, 6974.
57Ma, J, Stevens, JE, Cukier, K, et al. . (2009) Effects of a protein preload on gastric emptying, glycemia, and gut hormones after a carbohydrate meal in diet-controlled type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 32, 16001602.
58Janssen, P, Vanden Berghe, P, Verschueren, S, et al. . (2011) Review Article: the role of gastric motility in the control of food intake. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 33, 880894.
59Raybould, HE, Glatzle, J, Freeman, SL, et al. . (2006) Detection of macronutrients in the intestinal wall. Auton Neurosci 125, 2833.
60Lindemann, B (2001) Receptors and transduction in taste. Nature 413, 219225.
61Liou, AP, Chavez, DI, Espero, E, et al. . (2011) Protein hydrolysate-induced cholecystokinin secretion from enteroendocrine cells is indirectly mediated by the intestinal oligopeptide transporter PepT1. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 300, G895G902.
62Darcel, NP, Liou, AP, Tome, D, et al. . (2005) Activation of vagal afferents in the rat duodenum by protein digests requires PepT1. J Nutr 135, 14911495.
63Conigrave, AD, Quinn, SJ & Brown, EM (2000) l-Amino acid sensing by the extracellular Ca2+-sensing receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97, 48144819.
64Raybould, HE (1991) Capsaicin-sensitive vagal afferents and CCK in inhibition of gastric motor function induced by intestinal nutrients. Peptides 12, 12791283.
65Maljaars, PW, Peters, HP, Mela, DJ, et al. . (2008) Ileal brake: a sensible food target for appetite control. A review. Physiol Behav 95, 271281.
66Meyer, JH, Hlinka, M, Tabrizi, Y, et al. . (1998) Chemical specificities and intestinal distributions of nutrient-driven satiety. Am J Physiol 275, R1293R1307.
67Moran, TH & Dailey, MJ (2011) Intestinal feedback signaling and satiety. Physiol Behav 105, 7781.
68Batterham, RL, Heffron, H, Kapoor, S, et al. . (2006) Critical role for peptide YY in protein-mediated satiation and body-weight regulation. Cell Metab 4, 223233.
69Karhunen, LJ, Juvonen, KR, Huotari, A, et al. . (2008) Effect of protein, fat, carbohydrate and fibre on gastrointestinal peptide release in humans. Regul Pept 149, 7078.
70Blom, WA, Lluch, A, Stafleu, A, et al. . (2006) Effect of a high-protein breakfast on the postprandial ghrelin response. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 211220.
71Bowen, J, Noakes, M & Clifton, PM (2006) Appetite regulatory hormone responses to various dietary proteins differ by body mass index status despite similar reductions in ad libitum energy intake. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91, 29132919.
72Veldhorst, M, Smeets, A, Soenen, S, et al. . (2008) Protein-induced satiety: effects and mechanisms of different proteins. Physiol Behav 94, 300307.
73Smeets, AJ, Soenen, S, Luscombe-Marsh, ND, et al. . (2008) Energy expenditure, satiety, and plasma ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1, and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine concentrations following a single high-protein lunch. J Nutr 138, 698702.
74Hall, WL, Millward, DJ, Long, SJ, et al. . (2003) Casein and whey exert different effects on plasma amino acid profiles, gastrointestinal hormone secretion and appetite. Br J Nutr 89, 239248.
75de Lartigue, G, Lur, G, Dimaline, R, et al. . (2010) EGR1 is a target for cooperative interactions between cholecystokinin and leptin, and inhibition by ghrelin, in vagal afferent neurons. Endocrinology 151, 35893599.
76Rehfeld, JF (2011) Incretin physiology beyond glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide: cholecystokinin and gastrin peptides. Acta Physiol (Oxf) 201, 405411.
77Penhoat, A, Mutel, E, Correig, MA, et al. . (2011) Protein-induced satiety is abolished in the absence of intestinal gluconeogenesis. Physiol Behav 105, 8993.
78Berthoud, HR, Shin, AC & Zheng, H (2011) Obesity surgery and gut–brain communication. Physiol Behav 105, 106119.
79L'Heureux-Bouron, D, Tome, D, Rampin, O, et al. . (2003) Total subdiaphragmatic vagotomy does not suppress high protein diet-induced food intake depression in rats. J Nutr 133, 26392642.
80Brenner, L, Yox, DP & Ritter, RC (1993) Suppression of sham feeding by intraintestinal nutrients is not correlated with plasma cholecystokinin elevation. Am J Physiol 264, R972R976.
81Stepien, M, Gaudichon, C, Azzout-Marniche, D, et al. . (2010) Postprandial nutrient partitioning but not energy expenditure is modified in growing rats during adaptation to a high-protein diet. J Nutr 140, 939945.
82Veldhorst, MA, Westerterp-Plantenga, MS & Westerterp, KR (2009) Gluconeogenesis and energy expenditure after a high-protein, carbohydrate-free diet. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 519526.
83Nuttall, FQ, Ngo, A & Gannon, MC (2008) Regulation of hepatic glucose production and the role of gluconeogenesis in humans: is the rate of gluconeogenesis constant? Diabetes Metab Res Rev 24, 438458.
84Veldhorst, MA, Westerterp, KR & Westerterp-Plantenga, MS (2012) Gluconeogenesis and protein-induced satiety. Br J Nutr 107, 595600.
85Choi, YH, Fletcher, PJ & Anderson, GH (2001) Extracellular amino acid profiles in the paraventricular nucleus of the rat hypothalamus are influenced by diet composition. Brain Res 892, 320328.
86Boirie, Y, Dangin, M, Gachon, P, et al. . (1997) Slow and fast dietary proteins differently modulate postprandial protein accretion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94, 1493014935.
87Mellinkoff, SM, Frankland, M, Boyle, D, et al. . (1956) Relationship between serum amino acid concentration and fluctuations in appetite. J Appl Physiol 8, 535538.
88Blundell, JE & Latham, CJ (1979) Serotonergic influences on food intake: effect of 5-hydroxytryptophan on parameters of feeding behaviour in deprived and free-feeding rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 11, 431437.
89Nieuwenhuizen, AG, Hochstenbach-Waelen, A, Veldhorst, MA, et al. . (2009) Acute effects of breakfasts containing α-lactalbumin, or gelatin with or without added tryptophan, on hunger, ‘satiety’ hormones and amino acid profiles. Br J Nutr 101, 18591866.
90Bassil, MS, Hwalla, N & Obeid, OA (2007) Meal pattern of male rats maintained on histidine-, leucine-, or tyrosine-supplemented diet. Obesity (Silver Spring) 15, 616623.
91Kondoh, T, Tsurugizawa, T & Torii, K (2009) Brain functional changes in rats administered with monosodium l-glutamate in the stomach. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1170, 7781.
92Kasaoka, S, Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, N, Kawahara, Y, et al. . (2004) Histidine supplementation suppresses food intake and fat accumulation in rats. Nutrition 20, 991996.
93Mercer, LP (1997) Histamine and the neuroregulation of food intake. Nutrition 13, 581582.
94Berthoud, HR (2002) Multiple neural systems controlling food intake and body weight. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 26, 393428.
95Darcel, N, Fromentin, G, Raybould, HE, et al. . (2005) Fos-positive neurons are increased in the nucleus of the solitary tract and decreased in the ventromedial hypothalamus and amygdala by a high-protein diet in rats. J Nutr 135, 14861490.
96Phifer, CB & Berthoud, HR (1998) Duodenal nutrient infusions differentially affect sham feeding and Fos expression in rat brain stem. Am J Physiol 274, R1725R1733.
97Faipoux, R, Tome, D, Gougis, S, et al. . (2008) Proteins activate satiety-related neuronal pathways in the brainstem and hypothalamus of rats. J Nutr 138, 11721178.
98Cowley, MA, Smart, JL, Rubinstein, M, et al. . (2001) Leptin activates anorexigenic POMC neurons through a neural network in the arcuate nucleus. Nature 411, 480484.
99Pillot, B, Duraffourd, C, Begeot, M, et al. . (2011) Role of hypothalamic melanocortin system in adaptation of food intake to food protein increase in mice. PLoS One 6, e19107.
100Cota, D, Proulx, K, Smith, KA, et al. . (2006) Hypothalamic mTOR signaling regulates food intake. Science 312, 927930.
101Morrison, CD, Xi, X, White, CL, et al. . (2007) Amino acids inhibit Agrp gene expression via an mTOR-dependent mechanism. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 293, E165E171.
102Kelley, AE (2004) Ventral striatal control of appetitive motivation: role in ingestive behavior and reward-related learning. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 27, 765776.
103Faipoux, R (2007) Caractérisation de l'effet satiétogène des protéines et mécanismes centraux impliqués; cas particulier des protéines de levures (Characterising the satiety effect of proteins and central mechanisms involved; particular case of yeast proteins). Thesis Abies. Paris Agroparistech.
104Kirouac, GJ & Ganguly, PK (1995) Topographical organization in the nucleus accumbens of afferents from the basolateral amygdala and efferents to the lateral hypothalamus. Neuroscience 67, 625630.
105Stratford, TR & Kelley, AE (1999) Evidence of a functional relationship between the nucleus accumbens shell and lateral hypothalamus subserving the control of feeding behavior. J Neurosci 19, 1104011048.
106Zheng, H, Corkern, M, Stoyanova, I, et al. . (2003) Peptides that regulate food intake: appetite-inducing accumbens manipulation activates hypothalamic orexin neurons and inhibits POMC neurons. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 284, R1436R1444.
107Chaumontet, C, Darcel, N, Tomé, D, et al. . (2011) Postprandial activation of accumbens nucleus, brain area involved in hedonism, is decreased by high protein diet. FASEB J 25, 328.1.
108Anderson, GH & Moore, SE (2004) Dietary proteins in the regulation of food intake and body weight in humans. J Nutr 134, 974S979S.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Nutrition Research Reviews
  • ISSN: 0954-4224
  • EISSN: 1475-2700
  • URL: /core/journals/nutrition-research-reviews
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 38
Total number of PDF views: 401 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 728 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th September 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.