Alles, MS, Hartemink, R, Meyboom, S, Harrywan, JL, Van Laere, KMHJ, Nagengast, FM & Hautvast, GAJ (1999) Effect of transgalactooligosaccharides on the composition of the human intestinal microflora and on putative risk markers for colon cancer. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69, 980–991.
Allison, C, McFarlan, C & Macfarlane, GT (1989) Studies on mixed populations of human intestinal bacteria grown in single-stage and multistage continuous culture systems. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 55, 672–678.
Amann, RJ, Ludwig, W & Schleifer, KH (1995) Phylogenetic identification and in situ detection of individual microbial cells without cultivation. Microbiology Reviews 59, 143–169.
Ames, JM, Wynne, AG, Hofmann, A, Plos, S & Gibson, GR (1999) The effect of a model melanoidin mixture in faecal bacterial populations in vitro. British Journal of Nutrition 82, 489–495.
Balsari, A, Ceccarelli, A, Dubini, F, Fesce, E & Poli, G (1982) The fecal microbial population in the irritable bowel syndrome. Microbiologica 5, 185–194.
Barry, J-L, Hoebler, C, Macfarlane, GT, Macfarlane, S, Mathers, JC, Reed, KA, Mortensen, PB, Nordgaard, I, Rowland, IR & Rumney, CJ (1995) Estimation of the fermentability of dietary fibre in vitro: a European interlaboratory study. British Journal of Nutrition 74, 303–322.
Bearne, CA, Mallett, AK, Rowland, IR & Brennan-Craddock, WE (1990) Continuous culture of human faecal bacteria as an in vitro model for the colonic microflora. Toxicology in Vitro 4, 522–525.
Bingham, SA (1996) Epidemiology & mechanisms relating diet to risk of colorectal cancer. Nutrition Research Reviews 9, 197–239.
Bouhnik, Y, Flourie, B, Riottot, M, Bisetti, N, Gailing, M, Guibert, A, Bornet, F & Rambaud, J (1996) Effects of fructo-oligosaccharides ingestion on fecal bifidobacteria and selected metabolic indexes of colon carcinogenesis in healthy humans. Nutrition & Cancer 26, 21–29.
Buddington, RK & Weiher, E (1999) The application of ecological principles and fermentable fibers to manage the gastrointestinal tract ecosystem. Journal of Nutrition 29, 1446S–1450S.
Buddington, RK, Williams, CH, Chen, SC & Witherly, SA (1996) Dietary supplement of neosugar alters the fecal flora and decreases activities of some reductive enzymes in human subjects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63, 709–716.
Butel, MJ, Roland, N, Hibert, A, Popot, F, Favre, A, Tessedre, AC, Bensaada, M, Rimbault, A & Szylit, O (1998) Clostridial pathogenicity in experimental necrotising enterocolitis in gnotobiotic quails and protective role of bifidobacteria. Journal of Medical Microbiology 47, 391–399.
Campbell, H & Jones, I (1996) Promoting breastfeeding: a view of the current position and a proposed agenda for action in Scotland. Journal of Public Health Medicine 18, 406–414.
Carlson, SE (1985) N-acetylneuraminic acid concentrations in human milk oligosaccharides and glycoproteins during lactation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 41, 720–726.
Chadwick, VS & Anderson, RP (1995) The role of intestinal bacteria in etiology and maintenance of inflammatory bowel disease. In Human Colonic Bacteria: Role in Nutrition, Physiology and Pathology, pp. 227–256. [Gibson, GR and Macfarlane, GT, editors]. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Christl, SU, Gibson, GR, Murgatroyd, PR, Sheppach, W & Cummings, JH (1993) Impaired hydrogen metabolism in pneumatosis coli. Gastroenterology 104, 392–397.
Collins, MD & Gibson, GR (1999) Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics: approaches for the nutritional modulation of microbial ecology. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69, 1052S–1057S.
Conway, PL (1995) Microbial ecology of the human large intestine. In Human Colonic Bacteria: Role in Nutrition, Physiology and Pathology, pp.1–18 [Gibson, GR and Macfarlane, GT, editors]. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Coutts, TM, Alldrick, AJ & Rowland, IR (1987) Use of continuous culture to study the gastric microflora of a hypochlorhydric patient. Toxicology in Vitro 1, 17–21.
Dai, D & Walker, WA (1998) Role of bacterial colonization in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis and its prevention. Acta Paediatrica Sinica 39, 357–365.
De Leenheer, L (1996)Production and use of inulin: industrial reality with a promising future. In Carbohydrates as Organic Raw Materials, vol. 3, pp. 67–92.[Van Bekkun, H, Roper, H & Voragen, F, editors]. New York: Weinheim.
Doré, J, Sghir, A, Hannequart-Gramet, G, Corthier, G & Pochart, P (1998) Design and evaluation of a 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probe for specific detection and quantification of human faecal Bacteroides populations. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 21, 65–71.
Drouault, S, Corthier, G, Ehrlich, SD & Renault, P (1999) Survival, physiology, and lysis of Lactococcus lactis in the digestive tract. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65, 4881–4886.
Ducluzeau, R & Bensaada, M (1982) Effet comparé de l'administration unique ou en continu de Saccharomyces boulardii sur l'establissement de diverses souches de Candida dans le tractus digestif de souris garotoxéniques. Annual Review of Microbiology 133, 149–151.
Duval-Iflah, Y, Maisonneuve, S & Ouriet, M-F (1998) Effect of fermented milk intake on plasmid transfer and on the persistence of transconjugants in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic mice. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 73, 95–102.
Edwards, CA, Gibson, G, Champ, M, Jensen, B-B, Mathers, JC, Nagengast, F, Rumney, C & Quehl, A (1996) In vitro method for quantification of the fermentation of starch by human faecal bacteria. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 71, 209–217.
Fooks, LJ, Fuller, R & Gibson, GR (1999) Prebiotics, probiotics and human gut microbiology. International Dairy Journal 9, 53–61.
Franks, AH, Harmsen, HJ, Raangs, GC, Jansen, GJ, Schut, F & Welling, GW (1998) Variations of bacterial populations in human faeces measured by fluorescent in situ hybridization with group-specific 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64, 3336–3345.
Freter, R, Freter, RR & Brickner, H (1983) Experimental and mathematical models of Escherichia coli plasmid transfer in vitro and in vivo. Infection and Immunity 39, 60–84.
Fujiwara, S, Hashibara, H, Hirota, T & Forstner, JF (1997) Proteinaceous factor(s) in culture supernatant fluids of bifidobacteria which prevents the binding of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to gangliotetraosylceramide. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63, 506–512.
Fuller, R (1989) Probiotics in man and animals. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 66, 365–378.
Fuller, R & Gibson, GR (1997) Modification of the intestinal microflora using probiotics and prebiotics. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 32, 28–31.
Gallaher, DD, Stallings, WH, Blessing, LL, Busta, FF & Brady, LJ (1996) Probiotics, cecal|microflora, and aberrant crypts in the rat colon. Journal of Nutrition 26, 1362–1371.
Gautom, RK (1997) Rapid pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocol for typing of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other Gram-negative organisms in 1 day. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 35, 2977–2980.
Gibson, GR (1990) A review-The physiology and ecology of sulphate-reducing bacteria. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 69, 769–797.
Gibson, GR & Beaumont, A (1996) An overview of human colonic bacteriology in health and disease. In Gut Flora and Health-Past, Present and Future, pp. 3–11 [Leeds, AR and Rowland, IR, editors]. London: The Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd.
Gibson, GR, Cummings, JH & Macfarlane, GT (1988) Use of a three-stage continuous culture system to study the effect of mucin on dissimilatory sulfate reduction and methanogenesis by mixed populations of human gut bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 54, 2750–2755.
Gibson, GR, Cummings, JH & Macfarlane, GT (1991) Growth and activities of sulphate-reducing bacteria in gut contents from healthy subjects and patients with ulcerative colitis. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 86, 103–112.
Gibson, GR & McCartney, AL (1998) Modification of gut flora by dietary means. Biochemical Society Transactions 26, 222–228.
Gibson, GR & Macfarlane, GT (1994) Intestinal bacteria and disease. In Human Health-The Contribution of Microorganisms, pp. 53–62 [Gibson, SAW, editor]. London: Springer-Verlag.
Gibson, GR, Ottaway, PB & Rastall, RA (2000) Prebiotics: New Developments in Functional Foods. Oxford: Chandos Publishing Ltd.
Gibson, GR & Roberfroid, MB (1995) Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. Journal of Nutrition 125, 1401–1412.
Gibson, GR & Wang, X (1994) Regulatory effects of bifidobacteria in the growth of other colonic bacteria. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 77, 412–420.
Goldin, BR (1986) In situ bacterial metabolism and colon mutagens. Annual Review of Microbiology 40, 367–393.
Goldin, BR & Gorbach, SL (1984) The effect of milk and lactobacillus feeding on human intestinal bacterial enzyme activity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 39, 756–761.
Grizard, D & Barthomeuf, C (1999) Non-digestible oligosaccharides used as prebiotic agents: mode of protection and beneficial effects on animal and human health. Reproduction Nutrition Developpement 39, 563–588.
Gruzza, M, Fons, M, Ouriet, MF, Duval-Iflah, Y & Ducluzeau, R (1994) Study of gene transfer in vitro and in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic mice from Lactococcus lactis strains to various strains belonging to human intestinal flora. Microbiology Releases 2, 183–189.
Guschin, DY, Mobarry, BK, Proudnikov, D, Stahl, DA, Rittmann, BE & Mirzabekov, AD (1997) Oligonucleotide microchips as genosensors for determinative and environmental studies in microbiology. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63, 2397–2402.
Harmsen, HJM, Gibson, GR, Elfferich, P, Raangs, GC, Wideboer-Veloo, ACM, Argaiz, A, Roberfroid, MB & Welling, GW (2000) Comparison of viable cell counts and fluorescent in situ hybridization using specific rRNA-based probes for the quantification of human fecal bacteria. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 183, 125–129.
Hartemink, R, Wolters, FLH & Rombouts, FM (2000) Azoreductase activity in Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Poster Abstract, VTT Symposium 198, Functional Foods for EU Health in 2000, 4th workshop, FAIR CT 96-1028, PROBDEMO, Rovaniemi, Finland, 25-28 February, pp. 101–102. Available from VTT Information Service, PO Box 2000, FIN-02044 VTT, Finland.
Hayatsu, H & Hayatsu, T (1993) Suppressing effect of Lactobacillus casei administration on the urinary mutagenicity arising from ingestion of fried ground beef in the humans. Cancer Letters 73, 173–179.
Hentges, DJ (1992) Gut flora and disease resistance. In Probiotics: The Scientific Basis, pp. 87–110 [Fuller, R, editor]. London: Chapman and Hall.
Hodson, RE, Dustman, WA, Garg, RP & Moran, MA (1995) In situ PCR for visualization of microscale distribution of specific genes and gene products in Prokaryotic communities. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 61, 4074–4082.
Isolauri, E, Arvilommi, H & Salminen, S (1999 a) Gastrointestinal infections. In Colonic Microbiota, Nutrition and Health, pp. 267–279 [Gibson, GR and Roberfroid, MB, editors]. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Isolauri, E, Salminen, S & Mattila-Sandholm, T (1999) New functional foods in the treatment of food allergy. Annals of Medicine 31, 299–302.
King, TS, Elia, M & Hunter, JO (1998) Abnormal colonic fermentation in irritable bowel syndrome. Lancet 352, 1187–1189.
Kitajima, H, Sumida, Y, Tanaka, R, Yuki, N, Takayama, H & Fujimura, M (1997) Early administration of Bifidobacterium breve to preterm infants: randomised controlled trial. Archives of Disease in Childhood 76, F101–F107.
Kleessen, B, Sykura, B, Zunft, H-J & Blaut, M (1997) Effects of inulin and lactose on fecal microflora, microbial|activity & bowel habit in elderly constipated persons. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65, 1397–1402.
Korpela, R & Saxelin, M (1999) Probiotics and consumer products. In Colonic Microbiota, Nutrition and Health, pp.281–289 [Gibson, GR & Roberfroid, MB, editors]. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Kullen, MJ, Amman, MM, O'Shaughnessy, MJ, O'Sullivan, DJ, Busta, FF & Brady, LJ (1997) Differentiation of ingested and endogenous bifidobacteria by DNA fingerprinting demonstrates survival of an unmodified strain in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Journal of Nutrition 127, 89–94.
Kullen, MJ & Klaemhanner, TR (1999) Genetic modification of intestinal lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. In Probiotics: a Critical Review, pp. 65–83 [Tannock, GW, editor]. Wymondham, UK: Horizon Scientific Press.
Langendijk, PS, Schut, F, Jansen, GJ, Raangs, GW, Kamphuis, GR, Wilkinson, MHF & Welling, GW (1995) Quantitative fluorescent in situ hybridization of Bifidobacterium spp. with genus-specific 16S rRNA-targeted probes and its application in faecal samples. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 61, 3069–3075.
Lawson, PA (1999) Taxonomy and systematics of predominant gut anaerobes.In Colonic Microbiota, Nutrition and Health, pp. 149–166 [Gibson, GR & Roberfroid, MB, editors]. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Lee, Y-K & Salminen, S (1995) The coming of age of probiotics. Trends in Food Science and Technology 6, 241–245.
Levitt, MD, Gibson, GR & Christl, SU (1995) Gas metabolism in the large intestine. In Human Colonic Bacteria: Role in Nutrition, Physiology and Pathology, pp. 131–154 [Gibson, GR & Macfarlane, GT, editors]. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Levy, J (1998) Immunonutrition: the pediatric experience. Nutrition 14, 641–647.
Lidbeck, A, Overvidk, E, Rafter, J, Nord, CE & Gustafasson, J-A (1992) Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus supplements on mutagen excretion of feces and urine in humans. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 5, 59–67.
McCartney, AL & Tannock, GG (1995) Ribotyping of Bifidobacterium strains using cells embedded in agarose plugs and a 16S rDNA probe. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 8, 79–84.
McCartney, AL, Wenzhi, W & Tannock, GW (1996) Molecular analysis of the composition of the Bifidobacterial and Lactobacillus microflora of humans. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62, 4608–4613.
Macfarlane, GT & McBain, AJ (1999) The human colonic microbiota. In Colonic Microbiota, Nutrition and Health, pp. 1–25 [Gibson, GR and Roberfroid, MB, editors]. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Macfarlane, GT, Macfarlane, S & Gibson, GR (1998) Validation of a three-stage compound continuous culture system for investigating the effect of retention time on the ecology and metabolism of bacteria in the human colonic microbiota. Microbial Ecology 35, 180–187.
Macfarlane, S, Cummings, JH & Macfarlane, GT (1999) Bacterial colonisation of surfaces in the large intestine. In Colonic Microbiota, Nutrition and Health, pp. 71–87 [Gibson, GR and Roberfroid, MB, editors]. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Macfarlane, S, Quigley, ME, Hopkins, MJ, Newton, DF & Macfarlane, GT (1998) Polysaccharide degradation by human intestinal bacteria during growth under multi-substrate limiting conditions in a three-stage continuous culture system. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 26, 231–243.
Majamaa, H & Isolauri, E (1997) Probiotics: a novel approach in the management of food allergy. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 99, 179–186.
Manz, W, Amann, R, Ludwig, W, Vancanneyt, M & Schleifer, K-H (1996) Application of a suite of 16S rRNA-specific oligonucleotide probes designed to investigate bacteria of the phylum cytophaga-flavobacter-bacteroides in the natural environment. Microbiology 142, 1097–1106.
Michel, C, Kravtchenko, TP, David, A, Gueneau, S, Kozlowski, F & Cherbut, C (1998) In vitro prebiotic effects of Acacia gums onto the human intestinal microbiota depends on both botanical origin and environmental pH. Anaerobe 4, 257–266.
Miksicek, RJ (1995) Estrogenic flavonoids: structural requirements for biological activity. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 208, 44–50.
Millar, MR, Linton, CJ, Cade, A, Glancy, D, Hall, M & Jalal, H (1996) Application of 16S rRNA gene PCR to study bowel flora of preterm infants with and without necrotizing enterocolitis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 34, 2506–2510.
Miller, TL & Wolin, MJ (1981) Fermentation by the human large intestine microbial community in an in vitro semi-continuous culture system. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 42, 400–407.
Minekus, M & Havenaar, R (1996) In vitro model of an in vivo digestive tract. United States Patent; nr. 5,525,305, dated 11 June 1996.
Modler, HW (1994) Bifidogenic factors-sources, metabolism and applications. International Dairy Journal 4, 383–407.
Molly, K, Vande Woestyne, M, De Smet, I & Vewrstraete, W (1994) Validation of the simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (SHIME) reactor using microorganism-associated activities. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 7, 191–200.
Muyzer, G & Smalla, K (1998) Application of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) in microbial ecology. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 73, 127–141.
Ofek, I & Doyle, RJ (1994) Bacterial Adhesion to Cells and Tissues. New York: Chapman and Hall.
Onderdonk, AB, Franklin, ML & Cisneros, RL (1981) Production of experimental ulcerative colitis in gnotobiotic guinea pigs with simplified microflora. Infection and Immunity 32, 225–231.
O'Sullivan, DJ & Kullen, MJ (1998) Tracking of probiotic bifidobacteria in the intestine. International Dairy Journal 8, 513–525.
Park, SF & Kroll, RG (1993) Expression of listeriolysin and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C is repressed by the plant-derived molecule cellobiose in Listeria monocytogenes. Molecular Microbiology 8, 653–661.
Parker, TJ, Naylor, SJ, Riordan, AM & Hunter, JO (1995) Management of patients with food intolerances in irritable bowel syndrome: the development and use of the exclusion diet. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 8, 159–166.
Peter, CS, Feuerhahn, M, Bohnhorst, B, Schlaud, M, Ziesing, S, Von Der Hardt, H & Poets, CF (1999) Necrotising enterocolitis: is there a relationship to specific pathogens?. Paediatrics 158, 67–70.
Prescott, LM, Harley, JP & Klein, DA (1996) Human diseases caused primarily by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In Microbiology, 3rd ed., pp. 766 [Kane, K, editor]. London: William Brown Publishers.
Rafter, JJ (1995) The role of lactic acid bacteria in colon cancer prevention. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 30, 497–502.
Reddy, BS (1998) Prevention of colon cancer by pre- and probiotics: evidence from laboratory studies. British Journal of Nutrition 88, S219–S233.
Rice, J, Sleigh, MA, Burkill, PH, Tarran, GA, O'Connor, CD & Zubkov, MV (1997) Flow cytometric analysis of characteristics of hybridization of species-specific fluorescent oligonucleotide probes to rRNA of marine nanoflagellates. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63, 938–944.
Roberfroid, MB (1998) Prebotics and synbiotics: concepts and nutritional properties. British Journal of Nutrition 80, S197–S202.
Rowland, IR (1992) Metabolic interactions in the gut. In Probiotics: The Scientific Basis, pp. 29–53 [Fuller, R, editor]. London: Chapman and Hall.
Rowland, IR (1995) Toxicology of the colon: role of the intestinal microflora. In Human Colonic Bacteria: Role in Nutrition, Physiology and Pathology, pp. 155–174 [Gibson, GR and Macfarlane, GT, editors]. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Rowland, IR (1996) Gut microflora and cancer. In Gut Flora and Health-Past, Present and Future. International Congress and Symposium Series no. 219, pp. 19–25 [Leeds, AR and Rowland, IR, editors]. London: Royal Society of Medicine Press Limited.
Rowland, IR & Tanaka, R (1993) The effects of transgalactosylated oligosaccharides on gut flora metabolism in rats associated with a human faecal microflora. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 74, 667–674.
Rowland, IR, Bearne, CA, Fischer, R & Pool-Zobel, BL (1996) The effect of lactulose on DNA damage induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in the colon of human-flora-associated rats. Nutrition and Cancer 26, 37–47.
Rowland, IR, Rumney, CJ, Coutts, JT & Lievense, L (1998) Effect of Bifidobacterium longum and inulin on gut bacterial metabolism and carcinogen induced aberrant crypt foci in rats. Carcinogenesis 2, 281–285.
Rumney, CJ & Rowland, IR (1992) In vivo and in vitro models of the human colonic flora. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Disease 31, 299–331.
Rumney, CJ, Rowland, IR, Coutts, TM, Randerath, K, Reddy, R, Shah, AB, Ellul, A & O'Neill, IK (1993) Effects of risk-associated human dietary macrocomponents on processes related to carcinogenesis in human-flora-associated (HFA) rats. Carcinogenesis 14, 79–84.
Saavedra, JM, Bauman, NA, Oung, I, Perman, JA & Yolken, RH (1994) Feeding of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Streptoccus thermophilus to infants in hospital for prevention of diarrhoea and shedding of rotavirus. Lancet 344, 1046–1049.
Sanders, MA (1993) Summary of conclusions from a consensus panel of experts on health attributes of lactic cultures; significance to fluid milk products containing cultures. Journal of Dairy Science 76, 1819–1828.
Sanders, MA (1998) Overview of functional foods: emphasis on probiotic bacteria. International Dairy Journal 8, 341–347.
Scott, KP, Mercer, DK, Richardson, AJ, Melville, CM, Glover, LA & Flint, HJ (2000) Chromosomal integration of the green fluorescent protein gene in lactic acid bacteria and the survival of marked strains in human gut simulations. FEMS Microbiology Letters 182, 23–27.
Setchell, DR (1998) Phytoestrogen: the biochemistry, physiology, and implications for human health of soy isoflavones. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68, 1333S–1346S.
Sghir, A, Chow, JM & Mackie, RI (1998) Continuous culture selection of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli from human faecal samples using fructooligosaccharide as selective substrate. Journal of Applied Microbiology 85, 769–777.
Sharp, R & Ziemer, CJ (2000) Application of taxonomy and systematics to molecular techniques in intestinal microbiology. In Colonic Microbiota, Nutrition and Health, pp. 167–190 [Gibson, GR and Roberfroid, MB, editors]. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Sheffield, VC, Cox, DR, Lerman, LS & Myers, RM (1989) Attachment of a 40-base-pair G + C rich sequence (GC-clamp) to genomic DNA fragments by the polymerase chain reaction results in improved detection of single-base changes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 86, 232–236.
Stahl, DA, Flesher, B, Mansfield, HR & Montgomery, L (1988) Use of phylogenetically based hybridization probes for studies of ruminal microbial ecology. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 54, 1079–1084.
Stark, PL & Lee, A (1982) The microbial ecology of the large bowel of breast-fed and formula-fed infants during the first year of life. Journal of Medical Microbiology 15, 189.
Suau, A, Bonnet, R, Sutren, M, Godon, J-J, Gibson, GR, Collins, MD & Doré, J (1999) Direct 16S rDNA community analysis reveals many novel molecular species within the human gut. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65, 4799–4807.
Sudo, N, Sawamura, S, Tanaka, K, Aiba, Y, Kubo, C & Koga, Y (1997) The requirement of intestinal bacterial flora for the development of an IgE production system fully susceptible to oral tolerance induction. Journal of Immunology 159, 1739–1745.
Sütas, Y, Soppi, E, Korhonen, H, Syväoja, EL, Saxelin, M & Rokka, T (1996) Suppression of lymphocyte proliferation in vitro by bovine caseins hydrolysed with Lactobacillus GG derived enzymes. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 98, 216–224.
Tani, K, Kurokawa, K & Nasu, M (1998) Development of a direct in situ PCR method for detection of specific bacteria in natural environments. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64, 1536–1540.
Tannock, GW (1999) A fresh look at the intestinal microflora. In Probiotics: A Critical Review, pp. 5–14 [Tannock, GW, editor]. Wymondham: Horizon Scientific Press.
Terada, A, Hara, H, Katoka, M & Mitsuoka, T (1992) Effect of lactulose on the composition and metabolic activity of the human faecal flora. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 5, 43–50.
Tuohy, K (2000) Measurement of DNA transfer in the gut using in vitro and in vivo models. PhD Thesis, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.
Umesaki, Y (1989) Intestinal glycolipids and their possible role in microbial colonisation of mice. Bifid Microflora 8, 13–22.
Vanderhoof, J A & Young, R J (1998) Use of probiotics in childhood gastrointestinal disorders. Journal of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 27, 323–332.
Vaneechoutte, M (1996) DNA fingerprinting techniques for microorganisms. Molecular Biotechnology 6, 115–142.
Van Loo, J, Cummings, J, Delzenne, N, Englyst, H, Franck, A, Hopkins, M, Kok, N, Macfarlane, G, Newton, D, Quigley, M, Roberfroid, M, van Vliet, T and van den Heuvel, E (1999) Functional food properties of non-digestible oligosaccharides: a consensus report from the ENDO (DGXII AIRII-CT94-1095). British Journal of Nutrition 81, 121–132.
Vaughan, EE, Schut, F, Heilig, HGHJ, Zoetendal, EG, de Vos, WM & Akkermans, ADL (2000) A molecular view of the intestinal ecosystem. Current Issues in Intestinal Microbiology 1, 1–12.
Veilleux, BG & Rowland, IR (1981) Simulation of the rat intestinal ecosystem using a two-stage continuous culture system. Journal of General Microbiology 123, 103.
Wallner, G, Erhart, R & Amann, R (1995) Flow cytometric analysis of activated sludge with rRNA-targeted probes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 61, 1859–1866.
Wang, X & Gibson, GR (1993) Effects of the in vitro fermentation of oligofructose and inulin by bacteria growing in the human large intestine. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 75, 373–380.
Watanabe, S & Koessel, S (1993) Colon cancer: an approach from molecular epidemiology. Journal of Epidemiology 2, 47–61.
Wilson, KH (1993) The microecology of Clostridium difficile. Clinical Infectious Diseases 16, S214-S218.
Wilson, KH & Blitchington, RB (1996) Human colonic biota studied by ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62, 2273–2278.
Wintzingerode, FV, Göbel, UB & Stackebrandt, E (1997) Determination of microbial diversity in environmental samples: pitfalls of PCR-based rRNA analysis. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 21, 213–229.
Ziemer, CJ & Gibson, GR (1998) Overview of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics in the functional food concept. International Dairy Journal 8, 473–479.
Zoentendal, EG, Akkermans, ADL & De Vos, WM (1998) Temperature Gradient Gel Electrophoresis analysis of 16S rRNA from human faecal samples reveals stable and host-specific communities of active bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64, 3854–3859.
Zopf, D & Roth, S (1996) Oligosaccharide anti-infective agents. Lancet 347, 1017–1021.
Zottola, EA & Smith, LB (1990) The microbiology of foodborne disease outbreaks: an update. Journal of Food Safety 11, 13–29.