Skip to main content Accessibility help

Similarities and interactions between the ageing process and high chronic intake of added sugars

  • Eva Gatineau (a1) (a2), Sergio Polakof (a1) (a2), Dominique Dardevet (a1) (a2) and Laurent Mosoni (a1) (a2)


In our societies, the proportions of elderly people and of obese individuals are increasing. Both factors are associated with high health-related costs. During obesity, many authors suggest that it is a high chronic intake of added sugars (HCIAS) that triggers the shift towards pathology. However, the majority of studies were performed in young subjects and only a few were interested in the interaction with the ageing process. Our purpose was to discuss the metabolic effects of HCIAS, compare with the effects of ageing, and evaluate how deleterious the combined action of HCIAS and ageing could be. This effect of HCIAS seems mediated by fructose, targeting the liver first, which may lead to all subsequent metabolic alterations. The first basic alterations induced by fructose are increased oxidative stress, protein glycation, inflammation, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance. These alterations are also present during the ageing process, and are closely related to each other, one leading to the other. These basic alterations are also involved in more complex syndromes, which are also favoured by HCIAS, and present during ageing. These include non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, hypertension, neurodegenerative diseases, sarcopenia and osteoporosis. Cumulative effects of ageing and HCIAS have been seldom tested and may not always be strictly additive. Data also suggest that some of the metabolic alterations that are more prevalent during ageing could be related more with nutritional habits than to intrinsic ageing. In conclusion, it is clear that HCIAS interacts with the ageing process, accelerates the accumulation of metabolic alterations, and that it should be avoided.


Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: Laurent Mosoni, fax +33 4 73 62 47 55, email


Hide All
1. United Nations World Population Ageing (2013) UN World Population Ageing. (accessed May 2016).
2. NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-Risc) (2016) Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19·2 million participants. Lancet 387, 13771396.
3. López-Otín, C, Blasco, MA, Partridge, L, et al. (2013) The hallmarks of aging. Cell 153, 11941217.
4. Crimmins, EM, Preston, SH & Cohen, B (2011) Explaining Divergent Levels of Longevity in High-Income Countries. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
5. Lustig, RH (2013) Fructose: it’s “alcohol without the buzz”. Adv Nutr 4, 226235.
6. Mayes, PA (1993) Intermediary metabolism of fructose. Am J Clin Nutr 58, 754S765S.
7. Johnson, RJ, Perez-Pozo, SE, Sautin, YY, et al. (2009) Hypothesis: could excessive fructose intake and uric acid cause type 2 diabetes? Endocr Rev 30, 96116.
8. Koo, H-Y, Wallig, MA, Chung, BH, et al. (2008) Dietary fructose induces a wide range of genes with distinct shift in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in fed and fasted rat liver. Biochim Biophys Acta 1782, 341348.
9. Coleman, RA & Lee, DP (2004) Enzymes of triacylglycerol synthesis and their regulation. Prog Lipid Res 43, 134176.
10. Koo, H-Y, Miyashita, M, Cho, BH, et al. (2009) Replacing dietary glucose with fructose increases ChREBP activity and SREBP-1 protein in rat liver nucleus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 390, 285289.
11. Tappy, L & , K-A (2010) Metabolic effects of fructose and the worldwide increase in obesity. Physiol Rev 90, 2346.
12. Capel, F, Buffière, C, Patureau Mirand, P, et al. (2004) Differential variation of mitochondrial H2O2 release during aging in oxidative and glycolytic muscles in rats. Mech Ageing Dev 125, 367373.
13. Hagen, TM, Yowe, DL, Bartholomew, JC, et al. (1997) Mitochondrial decay in hepatocytes from old rats: membrane potential declines, heterogeneity and oxidants increase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94, 30643069.
14. Kuka, S, Tatarkova, Z, Racay, P, et al. (2013) Effect of aging on formation of reactive oxygen species by mitochondria of rat heart. Gen Physiol Biophys 32, 415420.
15. Sohal, RS, Arnold, LA & Sohal, BH (1990) Age-related changes in antioxidant enzymes and prooxidant generation in tissues of the rat with special reference to parameters in two insect species. Free Radic Biol Med 9, 495500.
16. Zhang, H, Davies, KJA & Forman, HJ (2015) Oxidative stress response and Nrf2 signaling in aging. Free Radic Biol Med 88, 314336.
17. Pansarasa, O, Bertorelli, L, Vecchiet, J, et al. (1999) Age-dependent changes of antioxidant activities and markers of free radical damage in human skeletal muscle. Free Radic Biol Med 27, 617622.
18. Stojkovski, V, Hadzi-Petrushev, N, Ilieski, V, et al. (2013) Age and heat exposure-dependent changes in antioxidant enzymes activities in rat’s liver and brain mitochondria: role of α-tocopherol. Physiol Res 62, 503510.
19. Zhang, HJ, Xu, L, Drake, VJ, et al. (2003) Heat-induced liver injury in old rats is associated with exaggerated oxidative stress and altered transcription factor activation. FASEB J 17, 22932295.
20. Cummings, BP, Stanhope, KL, Graham, JL, et al. (2010) Dietary fructose accelerates the development of diabetes in UCD-T2DM rats: amelioration by the antioxidant, α-lipoic acid. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 298, R1343R1350.
21. Girard, A, Madani, S, Boukortt, F, et al. (2006) Fructose-enriched diet modifies antioxidant status and lipid metabolism in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Nutrition 22, 758766.
22. Ruiz-Ramírez, A, Chávez-Salgado, M, Peñeda-Flores, JA, et al. (2011) High-sucrose diet increases ROS generation, FFA accumulation, UCP2 level, and proton leak in liver mitochondria. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 301, E1198E1207.
23. Francini, F, Castro, MC, Schinella, G, et al. (2010) Changes induced by a fructose-rich diet on hepatic metabolism and the antioxidant system. Life Sci 86, 965971.
24. Thirunavukkarasu, V, Anitha Nandhini, AT & Anuradha, CV (2004) Cardiac lipids and antioxidant status in high fructose rats and the effect of α-lipoic acid. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 14, 351357.
25. Busserolles, J, Rock, E, Gueux, E, et al. (2002) Short-term consumption of a high-sucrose diet has a pro-oxidant effect in rats. Br J Nutr 87, 337342.
26. Jaiswal, N, Maurya, CK, Pandey, J, et al. (2015) Fructose-induced ROS generation impairs glucose utilization in L6 skeletal muscle cells. Free Radic Res 49, 10551068.
27. Almenara, CCP, Mill, JG, Vassallo, DV, et al. (2015) In vitro fructose exposure overactivates NADPH oxidase and causes oxidative stress in the isolated rat aorta. Toxicol In Vitro 29, 20302037.
28. Sanders, YY, Liu, H, Liu, G, et al. (2015) Epigenetic mechanisms regulate NADPH oxidase-4 expression in cellular senescence. Free Radic Biol Med 79, 197205.
29. Cannizzo, B, Luján, A, Estrella, N, et al. (2012) Insulin resistance promotes early atherosclerosis via increased proinflammatory proteins and oxidative stress in fructose-fed ApoE-KO mice. Exp Diabetes Res 2012, e941304.
30. Semba, RD, Nicklett, EJ & Ferrucci, L (2010) Does accumulation of advanced glycation end products contribute to the aging phenotype? J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 65A, 963975.
31. Haus, JM, Carrithers, JA, Trappe, SW, et al. (2007) Collagen, cross-linking, and advanced glycation end products in aging human skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol 103, 20682076.
32. Kimur, T, Takamatsu, J, Ikeda, K, et al. (1996) Accumulation of advanced glycation end products of the Maillard reaction with age in human hippocampal neurons. Neurosci Lett 208, 5356.
33. Odetti, P, Rossi, S, Monacelli, F, et al. (2005) Advanced glycation end products and bone loss during aging. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1043, 710717.
34. Sitte, N, Merker, K & Grune, T (1998) Proteasome-dependent degradation of oxidized proteins in MRC-5 fibroblasts. FEBS Lett 440, 399402.
35. McPherson, JD, Shilton, BH & Walton, DJ (1988) Role of fructose in glycation and cross-linking of proteins. Biochemistry (Mosc) 27, 19011907.
36. Suárez, G, Rajaram, R, Oronsky, AL, et al. (1989) Nonenzymatic glycation of bovine serum albumin by fructose (fructation). Comparison with the Maillard reaction initiated by glucose. J Biol Chem 264, 36743679.
37. Semchyshyn, HM, Lozinska, LM, Miedzobrodzki, J, et al. (2011) Fructose and glucose differentially affect aging and carbonyl/oxidative stress parameters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Carbohydr Res 346, 933938.
38. Luevano-Contreras, C & Chapman-Novakofski, K (2010) Dietary advanced glycation end products and aging. Nutrients 2, 12471265.
39. Ott, C, Jacobs, K, Haucke, E, et al. (2014) Role of advanced glycation end products in cellular signaling. Redox Biol 2, 411429.
40. Levi, B & Werman, MJ (1998) Long-term fructose consumption accelerates glycation and several age-related variables in male rats. J Nutr 128, 14421449.
41. Mastrocola, R, Collino, M, Rogazzo, M , et al. (2013) Advanced glycation end products promote hepatosteatosis by interfering with SCAP-SREBP pathway in fructose-drinking mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 305, G398G407.
42. Ballou, SP, Lozanski, GB, Hodder, S, et al. (1996) Quantitative and qualitative alterations of acute-phase proteins in healthy elderly persons. Age Ageing 25, 224230.
43. Bruunsgaard, H, Andersen-Ranberg, K, Jeune, B, et al. (1999) A high plasma concentration of TNF-α is associated with dementia in centenarians. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 54, M357M364.
44. Roubenoff, R, Harris, TB, Abad, LW, et al. (1998) Monocyte cytokine production in an elderly population: effect of age and inflammation. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 53A, M20M26.
45. Wei, J, Xu, H, Davies, JL, et al. (1992) Increase of plasma IL-6 concentration with age in healthy subjects. Life Sci 51, 19531956.
46. Franceschi, C, Bonafè, M, Valensin, S, et al. (2000) Inflamm-aging. An evolutionary perspective on immunosenescence. Ann N Y Acad Sci 908, 244254.
47. Franceschi, C & Campisi, J (2014) Chronic inflammation (inflammaging) and its potential contribution to age-associated diseases. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 69, S4S9.
48. Salvioli, S, Monti, D, Lanzarini, C, et al. (2013) Immune system, cell senescence, aging and longevity – inflamm-aging reappraised. Curr Pharm Des 19, 16751679.
49. Singh, T & Newman, AB (2011) Inflammatory markers in population studies of aging. Ageing Res Rev 10, 319329.
50. Roglans, N, Vilà, L, Farré, M, et al. (2007) Impairment of hepatic Stat-3 activation and reduction of PPARα activity in fructose-fed rats. Hepatology 45, 778788.
51. Hu, Q-H, Zhang, X, Pan, Y, et al. (2012) Allopurinol, quercetin and rutin ameliorate renal NLRP3 inflammasome activation and lipid accumulation in fructose-fed rats. Biochem Pharmacol 84, 113125.
52. Kawamura, T, Yoshida, K, Sugawara, A, et al. (2002) Impact of exercise and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition on tumor necrosis factor-α and leptin in fructose-fed hypertensive rats. Hypertens Res 25, 919926.
53. Vasiljević, A, Bursać, B, Djordjevic, A, et al. (2014) Hepatic inflammation induced by high-fructose diet is associated with altered 11βHSD1 expression in the liver of Wistar rats. Eur J Nutr 53, 13931402.
54. Jameel, F, Phang, M, Wood, LG, et al. (2014) Acute effects of feeding fructose, glucose and sucrose on blood lipid levels and systemic inflammation. Lipids Health Dis 13, 195.
55. Aeberli, I, Gerber, PA, Hochuli, M, et al. (2011) Low to moderate sugar-sweetened beverage consumption impairs glucose and lipid metabolism and promotes inflammation in healthy young men: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 94, 479485.
56. Liu, S, Manson, JE, Buring, JE, et al. (2002) Relation between a diet with a high glycemic load and plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr 75, 492498.
57. Chavakis, T, Bierhaus, A & Nawroth, PP (2004) RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products): a central player in the inflammatory response. Microbes Infect 6, 12191225.
58. Gaens, KHJ, Niessen, PMG, Rensen, SS, et al. (2012) Endogenous formation of N ε-(carboxymethyl)lysine is increased in fatty livers and induces inflammatory markers in an in vitro model of hepatic steatosis. J Hepatol 56, 647655.
59. Ferrara, A, Barrett-Connor, E & Shan, J (1997) Total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol decrease with age in older men and women. The Rancho Bernardo Study 1984–1994. Circulation 96, 3743.
60. Park, Y-MM, Sui, X, Liu, J, et al. (2015) The effect of cardiorespiratory fitness on age-related lipids and lipoproteins. J Am Coll Cardiol 65, 20912100.
61. Vaarhorst, AAM, Beekman, M, Suchiman, EHD, et al. (2011) Lipid metabolism in long-lived families: the Leiden Longevity Study. Age 33, 219227.
62. Al-Rasheed, N, Al-Rasheed, N, Bassiouni, Y, et al. (2014) Potential protective effects of Nigella sativa and Allium sativum against fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in rats. J Oleo Sci 63, 839848.
63. Kazumi, T, Odaka, H, Hozumi, T, et al. (1997) Effects of dietary fructose or glucose on triglyceride production and lipogenic enzyme activities in the liver of Wistar fatty rats, an animal model of NIDDM. Endocr J 44, 239245.
64. Catena, C, Giacchetti, G, Novello, M, et al. (2003) Cellular mechanisms of insulin resistance in rats with fructose-induced hypertension. Am J Hypertens 16, 973978.
65. D’Alessandro, ME, Chicco, A & Lombardo, YB (2013) Fish oil reverses the altered glucose transporter, phosphorylation, insulin receptor substrate-1 protein level and lipid contents in the skeletal muscle of sucrose-rich diet fed rats. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 88, 171177.
66. Schultz, A, Neil, D, Aguila, MB, et al. (2013) Hepatic adverse effects of fructose consumption independent of overweight/obesity. Int J Mol Sci 14, 2187321886.
67. Bantle, JP, Raatz, SK, Thomas, W, et al. (2000) Effects of dietary fructose on plasma lipids in healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 11281134.
68. Teff, KL, Elliott, SS, Tschöp, M, et al. (2004) Dietary fructose reduces circulating insulin and leptin, attenuates postprandial suppression of ghrelin, and increases triglycerides in women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89, 29632972.
69. Maersk, M, Belza, A, Stødkilde-Jørgensen, H, et al. (2012) Sucrose-sweetened beverages increase fat storage in the liver, muscle, and visceral fat depot: a 6-mo randomized intervention study. Am J Clin Nutr 95, 283289.
70. Oliveira, LSC, Santos, DA, Barbosa-da-Silva, S, et al. (2014) The inflammatory profile and liver damage of a sucrose-rich diet in mice. J Nutr Biochem 25, 193200.
71. Yang, M-H, Wang, C-H & Chen, H-L (2001) Green, oolong and black tea extracts modulate lipid metabolism in hyperlipidemia rats fed high-sucrose diet. J Nutr Biochem 12, 1420.
72. Lowndes, J, Sinnett, S, Yu, Z, et al. (2014) The effects of fructose-containing sugars on weight, body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors when consumed at up to the 90th percentile population consumption level for fructose. Nutrients 6, 31533168.
73. Fink, RI, Kolterman, OG, Griffin, J, et al. (1983) Mechanisms of insulin resistance in aging. J Clin Invest 71, 15231535.
74. Rowe, JW, Minaker, KL, Pallotta, JA, et al. (1983) Characterization of the insulin resistance of aging. J Clin Invest 71, 15811587.
75. Seo, E, Kim, S, Lee, SJ, et al. (2015) Ginseng berry extract supplementation improves age-related decline of insulin signaling in mice. Nutrients 7, 30383053.
76. Houmard, JA, Weidner, MD, Dolan, PL, et al. (1995) Skeletal muscle GLUT4 protein concentration and aging in humans. Diabetes 44, 555560.
77. Amati, F, Dubé, JJ, Coen, PM, et al. (2009) Physical inactivity and obesity underlie the insulin resistance of aging. Diabetes Care 32, 15471549.
78. Nishimura, H, Kuzuya, H, Okamoto, M, et al. (1988) Change of insulin action with aging in conscious rats determined by euglycaemic clamp. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 254, E92E98.
79. Soriguer, F, Colomo, N, Valdés, S, et al. (2014) Modifications of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index with age. Acta Diabetol 51, 917925.
80. Geloneze, B, de Oliveira M da, S, Vasques, ACJ, et al. (2014) Impaired incretin secretion and pancreatic dysfunction with older age and diabetes. Metabolism 63, 922929.
81. Ihm, S-H, Matsumoto, I, Sawada, T, et al. (2006) Effect of donor age on function of isolated human islets. Diabetes 55, 13611368.
82. Szoke, E, Shrayyef, MZ, Messing, S, et al. (2008) Effect of aging on glucose homeostasis accelerated deterioration of β-cell function in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetes Care 31, 539543.
83. Cohen, AM & Teitelbaum, A (1964) Effect of dietary sucrose and starch on oral glucose tolerance and insulin-like activity. Am J Physiol 206, 105108.
84. Gibson, S, Gunn, P, Wittekind, A, et al. (2013) The effects of sucrose on metabolic health: a systematic review of human intervention studies in healthy adults. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 53, 591614.
85. Faeh, D, Minehira, K, Schwarz, J-M, et al. (2005) Effect of fructose overfeeding and fish oil administration on hepatic de novo lipogenesis and insulin sensitivity in healthy men. Diabetes 54, 19071913.
86. Black, RNA, Spence, M, McMahon, RO, et al. (2006) Effect of eucaloric high- and low-sucrose diets with identical macronutrient profile on insulin resistance and vascular risk: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes 55, 35663572.
87. Thorburn, AW, Storlien, LH, Jenkins, AB, et al. (1989) Fructose-induced in vivo insulin resistance and elevated plasma triglyceride levels in rats. Am J Clin Nutr 49, 11551163.
88. Martinez, FJ, Rizza, RA & Romero, JC (1994) High-fructose feeding elicits insulin resistance, hyperinsulinism, and hypertension in normal mongrel dogs. Hypertension 23, 456463.
89. Pamies-Andreu, E, Fiksen-Olsen, M, Rizza, RA, et al. (1995) High-fructose feeding elicits insulin resistance without hypertension in normal mongrel dogs. Am J Hypertens 8, 732738.
90. Stanhope, KL, Schwarz, JM, Keim, NL, et al. (2009) Consuming fructose-sweetened, not glucose-sweetened, beverages increases visceral adiposity and lipids and decreases insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese humans. J Clin Invest 119, 13221334.
91. Teff, KL, Elliott, SS, Tschöp, M, et al. (2004) Dietary fructose reduces circulating insulin and leptin, attenuates postprandial suppression of ghrelin, and increases triglycerides in women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89, 29632972.
92. Storlien, LH, Kraegen, EW, Jenkins, AB, et al. (1988) Effects of sucrose vs starch diets on in vivo insulin action, thermogenesis, and obesity in rats. Am J Clin Nutr 47, 420427.
93. Tobey, TA, Mondon, CE, Zavaroni, I, et al. (1982) Mechanism of insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats. Metabolism 31, 608612.
94. Chun, M-R, Lee, YJ, Kim, K-H, et al. (2010) Differential effects of high-carbohydrate and high-fat diet composition on muscle insulin resistance in rats. J Korean Med Sci 25, 10531059.
95. Pagliassotti, MJ & Prach, PA (1995) Quantity of sucrose alters the tissue pattern and time course of insulin resistance in young rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 269, R641R646.
96. Pagliassotti, MJ, Shahrokhi, KA & Moscarello, M (1994) Involvement of liver and skeletal muscle in sucrose-induced insulin resistance: dose–response studies. Am J Physiol 266, R1637R1644.
97. Vrána, A & Kazdová, L (1970) Insulin sensitivity of rat adipose tissue and of diaphragm in vitro: effect of the type of dietary carbohydrate (starch-sucrose). Life Sci 9, 257265.
98. Oudot, A, Behr-Roussel, D, Compagnie, S, et al. (2009) Endothelial dysfunction in insulin-resistant rats is associated with oxidative stress and COX pathway dysregulation. Physiol Res 58, 499509.
99. Khanal, RC, Howard, LR, Wilkes, SE, et al. (2010) Cranberry pomace partially ameliorates metabolic factors associated with high fructose feeding in growing Sprague–Dawley rats. J Funct Foods 2, 284291.
100. Shimomura, I, Matsuda, M, Hammer, RE, et al. (2000) Decreased IRS-2 and increased SREBP-1c lead to mixed insulin resistance and sensitivity in livers of lipodystrophic and ob/ob mice. Mol Cell 6, 7786.
101. Pan, DA, Lillioja, S, Kriketos, AD, et al. (1997) Skeletal muscle triglyceride levels are inversely related to insulin action. Diabetes 46, 983988.
102. Seppälä-Lindroos, A, Vehkavaara, S, Häkkinen, A-M, et al. (2002) Fat accumulation in the liver is associated with defects in insulin suppression of glucose production and serum free fatty acids independent of obesity in normal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87, 30233028.
103. Morino, K, Petersen, KF & Shulman, GI (2006) Molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance in humans and their potential links with mitochondrial dysfunction. Diabetes 55, S9S15.
104. Monetti, M, Levin, MC, Watt, MJ, et al. (2007) Dissociation of hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in mice overexpressing DGAT in the liver. Cell Metab 6, 6978.
105. Sun, Z & Lazar, MA (2013) Dissociating fatty liver and diabetes. Trends Endocrinol Metab 24, 412.
106. Takeuchi, M, Takino, J-I, Sakasai-Sakai, A, et al. (2014) Involvement of the TAGE-RAGE system in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: novel treatment strategies. World J Hepatol 6, 880893.
107. Aguirre, V, Werner, ED, Giraud, J, et al. (2002) Phosphorylation of Ser307 in insulin receptor substrate-1 blocks interactions with the insulin receptor and inhibits insulin action. J Biol Chem 277, 15311537.
108. Paz, K, Hemi, R, LeRoith, D, et al. (1997) A molecular basis for insulin resistance elevated serine/threonine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and IRS-2 inhibits their binding to the juxtamembrane region of the insulin receptor and impairs their ability to undergo insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation. J Biol Chem 272, 2991129918.
109. Aguirre, V, Uchida, T, Yenush, L, et al. (2000) The c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase promotes insulin resistance during association with insulin receptor substrate-1 and phosphorylation of Ser307 . J Biol Chem 275, 90479054.
110. Wei, Y & Pagliassotti, MJ (2004) Hepatospecific effects of fructose on c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase: implications for hepatic insulin resistance. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 287, E926E933.
111. Zhu, Y, Hu, Y, Huang, T, et al. (2014) High uric acid directly inhibits insulin signalling and induces insulin resistance. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 447, 707714.
112. Sheedfar, F, Biase, SD, Koonen, D, et al. (2013) Liver diseases and aging: friends or foes? Aging Cell 12, 950954.
113. Bertolotti, M, Lonardo, A, Mussi, C, et al. (2014) Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and aging: epidemiology to management. World J Gastroenterol 20, 1418514204.
114. Softic, S, Cohen, DE & Kahn, CR (2016) Role of dietary fructose and hepatic de novo lipogenesis in fatty liver disease. Dig Dis Sci 61, 12821293.
115. Abdelmalek, MF, Suzuki, A, Guy, C, et al. (2010) Increased fructose consumption is associated with fibrosis severity in patients with NAFLD. Hepatology 51, 19611971.
116. Ouyang, X, Cirillo, P, Sautin, Y, et al. (2008) Fructose consumption as a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. J Hepatol 48, 993999.
117. Thuy, S, Ladurner, R, Volynets, V, et al. (2008) Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in humans is associated with increased plasma endotoxin and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 concentrations and with fructose intake. J Nutr 138, 14521455.
118. , K-A, Ith, M, Kreis, R, et al. (2009) Fructose overconsumption causes dyslipidemia and ectopic lipid deposition in healthy subjects with and without a family history of type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 17601765.
119. Ishimoto, T, Lanaspa, MA, Rivard, CJ, et al. (2013) High fat and high sucrose (Western) diet induce steatohepatitis that is dependent on fructokinase. Hepatology 58, 16321643.
120. Lanaspa, MA, Sanchez-Lozada, LG, Choi, Y-J, et al. (2012) Uric acid induces hepatic steatosis by generation of mitochondrial oxidative stress: potential role in fructose-dependent and -independent fatty liver. J Biol Chem 287, 4073240744.
121. Lanaspa, MA, Sanchez-Lozada, LG, Cicerchi, C, et al. (2012) Uric acid stimulates fructokinase and accelerates fructose metabolism in the development of fatty liver. PLOS ONE 7, e47948.
122. Leung, C, Herath, CB, Jia, Z, et al. (2014) Dietary glycotoxins exacerbate progression of experimental fatty liver disease. J Hepatol 60, 832838.
123. Mastrocola, R, Nigro, D, Chiazza, F, et al. (2016) Fructose-derived advanced glycation end-products drive lipogenesis and skeletal muscle reprogramming via SREBP-1c dysregulation in mice. Free Radic Biol Med 91, 224235.
124. Tilg, H & Moschen, AR (2008) Insulin resistance, inflammation, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Trends Endocrinol Metab 19, 371379.
125. Pagliassotti, MJ, Prach, PA, Koppenhafer, TA, et al. (1996) Changes in insulin action, triglycerides, and lipid composition during sucrose feeding in rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 271, R1319R1326.
126. Aparicio-Vergara, M, Hommelberg, PPH, Schreurs, M, et al. (2013) Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 gain-of-function mutation aggravates nonalcoholic fatty liver disease but does not cause insulin resistance in a murine model. Hepatology 57, 566576.
127. Lírio, LM, Forechi, L, Zanardo, TC, et al. (2016) Chronic fructose intake accelerates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the presence of essential hypertension. J Diabetes Complications 30, 8592.
128. Vasan, RS, Beiser, A, Seshadri, S, et al. (2002) Residual lifetime risk for developing hypertension in middle-aged women and men: the Framingham Heart Study. JAMA 287, 10031010.
129. Buford, TW (2016) Hypertension and aging. Ageing Res Rev 26, 96111.
130. Kaess, BM, Rong, J, Larson, MG, et al. (2012) Aortic stiffness, blood pressure progression, and incident hypertension. JAMA 308, 875881.
131. Sell, DR & Monnier, VM (2012) Molecular basis of arterial stiffening: role of glycation – a mini-review. Gerontology 58, 227237.
132. Xu, B, Chibber, R, Ruggiero, D, et al. (2003) Impairment of vascular endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity by advanced glycation end products. FASEB J 17, 12891291.
133. Rojas, A, Romay, S, González, D, et al. (2000) Regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression by albumin-derived advanced glycosylation end products. Circ Res 86, e50e54.
134. Linden, E, Cai, W, He, JC, et al. (2008) Endothelial dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney disease results from advanced glycation end products (AGE)-mediated inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase through RAGE activation. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 3, 691698.
135. Soro-Paavonen, A, Zhang, W-Z, Venardos, K, et al. (2010) Advanced glycation end-products induce vascular dysfunction via resistance to nitric oxide and suppression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. J Hypertens 28, 780788.
136. Hwang, IS, Ho, H, Hoffman, BB, et al. (1987) Fructose-induced insulin resistance and hypertension in rats. Hypertension 10, 512516.
137. D’Angelo, G, Elmarakby, AA, Pollock, DM, et al. (2005) Fructose feeding increases insulin resistance but not blood pressure in Sprague–Dawley rats. Hypertension 46, 806811.
138. Park, SK & Meyer, TW (1992) The effects of fructose feeding on glomerular structure in the rat. J Am Soc Nephrol 3, 13301332.
139. Takagawa, Y, Berger, ME, Hori, MT, et al. (2001) Long-term fructose feeding impairs vascular relaxation in rat mesenteric arteries. Am J Hypertens 14, 811817.
140. Jalal, DI, Smits, G, Johnson, RJ, et al. (2010) Increased fructose associates with elevated blood pressure. J Am Soc Nephrol 21, 15431549.
141. Soleimani, M (2011) Dietary fructose, salt absorption and hypertension in metabolic syndrome: towards a new paradigm. Acta Physiol 201, 5562.
142. Bhanot, S, McNeill, JH & Bryer-Ash, M (1994) Vanadyl sulfate prevents fructose-induced hyperinsulinemia and hypertension in rats. Hypertension 23, 308312.
143. Ikeda, T, Gomi, T, Hirawa, N, et al. (1996) Improvement of insulin sensitivity contributes to blood pressure reduction after weight loss in hypertensive subjects with obesity. Hypertension 27, 11801186.
144. Verma, S, Yao, L, Dumont, AS, et al. (2000) Metformin treatment corrects vascular insulin resistance in hypertension. J Hypertens 18, 14451450.
145. Xing, W, Li, Y, Zhang, H, et al. (2013) Improvement of vascular insulin sensitivity by downregulation of GRK2 mediates exercise-induced alleviation of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 305, H1111H1119.
146. Tran, LT, Yuen, VG & McNeill, JH (2009) The fructose-fed rat: a review on the mechanisms of fructose-induced insulin resistance and hypertension. Mol Cell Biochem 332, 145159.
147. Li, L-X, Dong, X-H, Li, M-F, et al. (2015) Serum uric acid levels are associated with hypertension and metabolic syndrome but not atherosclerosis in Chinese inpatients with type 2 diabetes. J Hypertens 33, 482490.
148. Mellen, PB, Bleyer, AJ, Erlinger, TP, et al. (2006) Serum uric acid predicts incident hypertension in a biethnic cohort the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Hypertension 48, 10371042.
149. Perlstein, TS, Gumieniak, O, Williams, GH, et al. (2006) Uric acid and the development of hypertension: The Normative Aging Study. Hypertension 48, 10311036.
150. Khosla, UM, Zharikov, S, Finch, JL, et al. (2005) Hyperuricemia induces endothelial dysfunction. Kidney Int 67, 17391742.
151. Nakagawa, T, Hu, H, Zharikov, S, et al. (2006) A causal role for uric acid in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 290, F625F631.
152. Park, DC & Reuter-Lorenz, P (2009) The adaptive brain: aging and neurocognitive scaffolding. Annu Rev Psychol 60, 173196.
153. Aagaard, P, Suetta, C, Caserotti, P, et al. (2010) Role of the nervous system in sarcopenia and muscle atrophy with aging: strength training as a countermeasure. Scand J Med Sci Sports 20, 4964.
154. Harada, CN, Natelson Love, MC & Triebel, K (2013) Normal cognitive aging. Clin Geriatr Med 29, 737752.
155. Dickstein, DL, Kabaso, D, Rocher, AB, et al. (2007) Changes in the structural complexity of the aged brain. Aging Cell 6, 275284.
156. Resnick, SM, Pham, DL, Kraut, MA, et al. (2003) Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging studies of older adults: a shrinking brain. J Neurosci 23, 32953301.
157. Crouch, PJ, Harding, S-ME, White, AR, et al. (2008) Mechanisms of Aβ mediated neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 40, 181198.
158. Madden, DJ, Spaniol, J, Costello, MC, et al. (2009) Cerebral white matter integrity mediates adult age differences in cognitive performance. J Cogn Neurosci 21, 289302.
159. Rogalski, E, Stebbins, GT, Barnes, CA, et al. (2012) Age-related changes in parahippocampal white matter integrity: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Neuropsychologia 50, 17591765.
160. Ye, X, Gao, X, Scott, T, et al. (2011) Habitual sugar intake and cognitive function among middle-aged and older Puerto Ricans without diabetes. Br J Nutr 106, 14231432.
161. Ross, AP, Bartness, TJ, Mielke, JG, et al. (2009) A high fructose diet impairs spatial memory in male rats. Neurobiol Learn Mem 92, 410416.
162. Cisternas, P, Salazar, P, Serrano, FG, et al. (2015) Fructose consumption reduces hippocampal synaptic plasticity underlying cognitive performance. Biochim Biophys Acta 1852, 23792390.
163. Jurdak, N, Lichtenstein, AH & Kanarek, RB (2008) Diet-induced obesity and spatial cognition in young male rats. Nutr Neurosci 11, 4854.
164. Jurdak, N & Kanarek, RB (2009) Sucrose-induced obesity impairs novel object recognition learning in young rats. Physiol Behav 96, 15.
165. Meng, Q, Ying, Z, Noble, E, et al. (2016) Systems nutrigenomics reveals brain gene networks linking metabolic and brain disorders. EBioMedicine 7, 157166.
166. Mielke, JG, Taghibiglou, C, Liu, L, et al. (2005) A biochemical and functional characterization of diet-induced brain insulin resistance. J Neurochem 93, 15681578.
167. Agrawal, R & Gomez-Pinilla, F (2012) “Metabolic syndrome” in the brain: deficiency in omega-3 fatty acid exacerbates dysfunctions in insulin receptor signalling and cognition. J Physiol 590, 24852499.
168. Noble, W, Planel, E, Zehr, C, et al. (2005) Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 by lithium correlates with reduced tauopathy and degeneration in vivo . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102, 69906995.
169. Schubert, M, Gautam, D, Surjo, D, et al. (2004) Role for neuronal insulin resistance in neurodegenerative diseases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 31003105.
170. Ho, L, Qin, W, Pompl, PN, et al. (2004) Diet-induced insulin resistance promotes amyloidosis in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. FASEB J 18, 902904.
171. Carvalho, C, Cardoso, S, Correia, SC, et al. (2012) Metabolic alterations induced by sucrose intake and Alzheimer’s disease promote similar brain mitochondrial abnormalities. Diabetes 61, 12341242.
172. Hsu, TM, Konanur, VR, Taing, L, et al. (2015) Effects of sucrose and high fructose corn syrup consumption on spatial memory function and hippocampal neuroinflammation in adolescent rats. Hippocampus 25, 227239.
173. Beilharz, JE, Maniam, J & Morris, MJ (2014) Short exposure to a diet rich in both fat and sugar or sugar alone impairs place, but not object recognition memory in rats. Brain Behav Immun 37, 134141.
174. Erbaş, O, Solmaz, V, Aksoya, D, et al. (2014) Cholecalciferol (vitamin D 3) improves cognitive dysfunction and reduces inflammation in a rat fatty liver model of metabolic syndrome. Life Sci 103, 6872.
175. Engelhart, MJ, Geerlings, MI, Meijer, J, et al. (2004) Inflammatory proteins in plasma and the risk of dementia: The Rotterdam Study. Arch Neurol 61, 668672.
176. Teunissen, CE, van Boxtel, MPJ, Bosma, H, et al. (2003) Inflammation markers in relation to cognition in a healthy aging population. J Neuroimmunol 134, 142150.
177. Weaver, JD, Huang, M-H, Albert, M, et al. (2002) Interleukin-6 and risk of cognitive decline: MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging. Neurology 59, 371378.
178. Yaffe, K, Lindquist, K, Penninx, BW, et al. (2003) Inflammatory markers and cognition in well-functioning African-American and white elders. Neurology 61, 7680.
179. Erbaş, O, Akseki, HS, Aktuğ, H, et al. (2015) Low-grade chronic inflammation induces behavioral stereotypy in rats. Metab Brain Dis 30, 739746.
180. López, M, Varela, L, Vázquez, MJ, et al. (2010) Hypothalamic AMPK and fatty acid metabolism mediate thyroid regulation of energy balance. Nat Med 16, 10011008.
181. Li, J-M, Ge, C-X, Xu, M-X, et al. (2015) Betaine recovers hypothalamic neural injury by inhibiting astrogliosis and inflammation in fructose-fed rats. Mol Nutr Food Res 59, 189202.
182. Li, J, O, W, Li, W, et al. (2013) Oxidative stress and neurodegenerative disorders. Int J Mol Sci 14, 2443824475.
183. Coma, M, Guix, FX, Ill-Raga, G, et al. (2008) Oxidative stress triggers the amyloidogenic pathway in human vascular smooth muscle cells. Neurobiol Aging 29, 969980.
184. Su, B, Wang, X, Lee, H, et al. (2010) Chronic oxidative stress causes increased tau phosphorylation in M17 neuroblastoma cells. Neurosci Lett 468, 267271.
185. Smith, MA, Taneda, S, Richey, PL, et al. (1994) Advanced Maillard reaction end products are associated with Alzheimer disease pathology. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91, 57105714.
186. Castellani, R, Smith, MA, Richey, GL, et al. (1996) Glycoxidation and oxidative stress in Parkinson disease and diffuse Lewy body disease. Brain Res 737, 195200.
187. Lüth, H-J, Ogunlade, V, Kuhla, B, et al. (2005) Age- and stage-dependent accumulation of advanced glycation end products in intracellular deposits in normal and Alzheimer’s disease. Brains Cereb Cortex 15, 211220.
188. Padmaraju, V, Bhaskar, JJ, Prasada Rao, UJS, et al. (2011) Role of advanced glycation on aggregation and DNA binding properties of α-synuclein. J Alzheimers Dis 24, Suppl. 2, 211221.
189. Vitek, MP, Bhattacharya, K, Glendening, JM, et al. (1994) Advanced glycation end products contribute to amyloidosis in Alzheimer disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91, 47664770.
190. Ko, S-Y, Lin, Y-P, Lin, Y-S, et al. (2010) Advanced glycation end products enhance amyloid precursor protein expression by inducing reactive oxygen species. Free Radic Biol Med 49, 474480.
191. Von Haehling, S, Morley, JE & Anker, SD (2010) An overview of sarcopenia: facts and numbers on prevalence and clinical impact. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 1, 129133.
192. Beaudart, C, Reginster, JY, Slomian, J, et al. (2015) Estimation of sarcopenia prevalence using various assessment tools. Exp Gerontol 61, 3137.
193. Dardevet, D, Rémond, D, Peyron, M-A, et al. (2012) Muscle wasting and resistance of muscle anabolism: the ‘anabolic threshold concept’ for adapted nutritional strategies during sarcopenia. Sci World J 2012, 269531.
194. Mosoni, L, Valluy, MC, Serrurier, B, et al. (1995) Altered response of protein synthesis to nutritional state and endurance training in old rats. Am J Physiol 268, E328E335.
195. Mitchell, WK, Wilkinson, DJ, Phillips, BE, et al. (2016) Human skeletal muscle protein metabolism responses to amino acid nutrition. Adv Nutr 7, 828S838S.
196. Dardevet, D, Sornet, C, Balage, M, et al. (2000) Stimulation of in vitro rat muscle protein synthesis by leucine decreases with age. J Nutr 130, 26302635.
197. Katsanos, CS, Kobayashi, H, Sheffield-Moore, M, et al. (2005) Aging is associated with diminished accretion of muscle proteins after the ingestion of a small bolus of essential amino acids. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 10651073.
198. Timmerman, KL, Lee, JL, Dreyer, HC, et al. (2010) Insulin stimulates human skeletal muscle protein synthesis via an indirect mechanism involving endothelial-dependent vasodilation and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95, 38483857.
199. Rasmussen, BB, Fujita, S, Wolfe, RR, et al. (2006) Insulin resistance of muscle protein metabolism in aging. FASEB J 20, 768769.
200. Lee, CG, Boyko, EJ, Strotmeyer, ES, et al. (2011) Association between insulin resistance and lean mass loss and fat mass gain in older men without diabetes mellitus. J Am Geriatr Soc 59, 12171224.
201. Lee, CG, Boyko, EJ, Barrett-Connor, E, et al. (2011) Insulin sensitizers may attenuate lean mass loss in older men with diabetes. Diabetes Care 34, 23812386.
202. Marzani, B, Balage, M, Vénien, A, et al. (2008) Antioxidant supplementation restores defective leucine stimulation of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle from old rats. J Nutr 138, 22052211.
203. Balage, M, Averous, J, Rémond, D, et al. (2010) Presence of low-grade inflammation impaired postprandial stimulation of muscle protein synthesis in old rats. J Nutr Biochem 21, 325331.
204. Rieu, I, Magne, H, Savary-Auzeloux, I, et al. (2009) Reduction of low grade inflammation restores blunting of postprandial muscle anabolism and limits sarcopenia in old rats. J Physiol 587, 54835492.
205. Gatineau, E, Savary-Auzeloux, I, Migné, C, et al. (2015) Chronic intake of sucrose accelerates sarcopenia in older male rats through alterations in insulin sensitivity and muscle protein synthesis. J Nutr 145, 923930.
206. Jaiswal, N, Maurya, CK, Arha, D, et al. (2015) Fructose induces mitochondrial dysfunction and triggers apoptosis in skeletal muscle cells by provoking oxidative stress. Apoptosis 20, 930947.
207. Phuwamongkolwiwat, P, Suzuki, T, Hira, T, et al. (2014) Fructooligosaccharide augments benefits of quercetin-3-O-β-glucoside on insulin sensitivity and plasma total cholesterol with promotion of flavonoid absorption in sucrose-fed rats. Eur J Nutr 53, 457468.
208. NIH Consensus Development Panel on Osteoporosis Prevention, Diagnosis, and Therapy (2001) Osteoporosis prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. JAMA 285, 785795.
209. National Osteoporosis Foundation (2002) America’s Bone Health: The State of Osteoporosis and Low Bone Mass in Our Nation. Washington, DC: National Osteoporosis Foundation.
210. Pfeilschifter, J (2003) Role of cytokines in postmenopausal bone loss. Curr Osteoporos Rep 1, 5358.
211. McLean, RR (2009) Proinflammatory cytokines and osteoporosis. Curr Osteoporos Rep 7, 134139.
212. Dahl, K, Ahmed, LA, Joakimsen, RM, et al. (2015) High-sensitivity C-reactive protein is an independent risk factor for non-vertebral fractures in women and men: The Tromsø Study. Bone 72, 6570.
213. Liang, B & Feng, Y (2011) The association of low bone mineral density with systemic inflammation in clinically stable COPD. Endocrine 42, 190195.
214. de Pablo, P, Cooper, MS & Buckley, CD (2012) Association between bone mineral density and C-reactive protein in a large population-based sample. Arthritis Rheum 64, 26242631.
215. Wauquier, F, Leotoing, L, Coxam, V, et al. (2009) Oxidative stress in bone remodelling and disease. Trends Mol Med 15, 468477.
216. Sharma, T, Islam, N, Ahmad, J, et al. (2015) Correlation between bone mineral density and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 19, 491497.
217. Yang, S, Feskanich, D, Willett, WC, et al. (2014) Association between global biomarkers of oxidative stress and hip fracture in postmenopausal women: a prospective study. J Bone Miner Res 29, 25772583.
218. Hanayama, R, Shimizu, H, Nakagami, H, et al. (2009) Fluvastatin improves osteoporosis in fructose-fed insulin resistant model rats through blockade of the classical mevalonate pathway and antioxidant action. Int J Mol Med 23, 581588.
219. Felice, JI, Gangoiti, MV, Molinuevo, MS, et al. (2014) Effects of a metabolic syndrome induced by a fructose-rich diet on bone metabolism in rats. Metabolism 63, 296305.
220. Bass, EF, Baile, CA, Lewis, RD, et al. (2013) Bone quality and strength are greater in growing male rats fed fructose compared with glucose. Nutr Res 33, 10631071.
221. Jatkar, A, Kurland, IJ & Judex, S (2016) Diets high in fat or fructose differentially modulate bone health and lipid metabolism. Calcif Tissue Int 100, 2028.
222. Gelfand, RA & Sherwin, RS (1986) Nitrogen conservation in starvation revisited: protein sparing with intravenous fructose. Metabolism 35, 3744.
223. Jackson, AS, Janssen, I, Sui, X, et al. (2012) Longitudinal changes in body composition associated with healthy ageing: men, aged 20–96 years. Br J Nutr 107, 10851091.
224. Kiss, C, Poór, G, Donáth, J, et al. (2003) Prevalence of obesity in an elderly Hungarian population. Eur J Epidemiol 18, 653658.
225. Bazzocchi, A, Diano, D, Ponti, F, et al. (2013) Health and ageing: a cross-sectional study of body composition. Clin Nutr 32, 569578.
226. Carter, CS, Cesari, M, Ambrosius, WT, et al. (2004) Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, body composition, and physical performance in aged rats. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 59, B416B423.
227. Kyle, UG, Genton, L, Hans, D, et al. (2001) Age-related differences in fat-free mass, skeletal muscle, body cell mass and fat mass between 18 and 94 years. Eur J Clin Nutr 55, 663672.
228. Mott, JW, Wang, J, Thornton, JC, et al. (1999) Relation between body fat and age in 4 ethnic groups. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 10071013.
229. Bray, GA, Nielsen, SJ & Popkin, BM (2004) Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 537543.
230. Bray, GA & Popkin, BM (2013) Calorie-sweetened beverages and fructose: what have we learned 10 years later. Pediatr Obes 8, 242248.
231. Trumbo, PR & Rivers, CR (2014) Systematic review of the evidence for an association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and risk of obesity. Nutr Rev 72, 566574.
232. Dolan, LC, Potter, SM & Burdock, GA (2009) Evidence-based review on the effect of normal dietary consumption of fructose on development of hyperlipidemia and obesity in healthy, normal weight individuals. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 50, 5384.
233. White, C, Drummond, S & De Looy, A (2010) Comparing advice to decrease both dietary fat and sucrose, or dietary fat only, on weight loss, weight maintenance and perceived quality of life. Int J Food Sci Nutr 61, 282294.
234. Mooradian, AD, Chehade, J, Hurd, R, et al. (2000) Monosaccharide-enriched diets cause hyperleptinemia without hypophagia. Nutrition 16, 439441.
235. Shapiro, A, Mu, W, Roncal, C, et al. (2008) Fructose-induced leptin resistance exacerbates weight gain in response to subsequent high-fat feeding. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 295, R1370R1375.
236. Lindqvist, A, Baelemans, A & Erlanson-Albertsson, C (2008) Effects of sucrose, glucose and fructose on peripheral and central appetite signals. Regul Pept 150, 2632.
237. Yagi, T, Ueda, H, Amitani, H, et al. (2012) The role of ghrelin, salivary secretions, and dental care in eating disorders. Nutrients 4, 967989.
238. Hu, Z, Cha, SH, Chohnan, S, et al. (2003) Hypothalamic malonyl-CoA as a mediator of feeding behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100, 1262412629.
239. Wolfgang, MJ, Cha, SH, Sidhaye, A, et al. (2007) Regulation of hypothalamic malonyl-CoA by central glucose and leptin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104, 1928519290.
240. Cha, SH, Wolfgang, M, Tokutake, Y, et al. (2008) Differential effects of central fructose and glucose on hypothalamic malonyl-CoA and food intake. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105, 1687116875.
241. Page, KA, Chan, O, Arora, J, et al. (2013) EFfects of fructose vs glucose on regional cerebral blood flow in brain regions involved with appetite and reward pathways. JAMA 309, 6370.
242. Murtagh-Mark, CM, Reiser, KM, Harris, R, et al. (1995) Source of dietary carbohydrate affects life span of Fischer 344 rats independent of caloric restriction. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 50A, B148B154.
243. Ruff, JS, Suchy, AK, Hugentobler, SA, et al. (2013) Human-relevant levels of added sugar consumption increase female mortality and lower male fitness in mice. Nat Commun 4, 2245.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Nutrition Research Reviews
  • ISSN: 0954-4224
  • EISSN: 1475-2700
  • URL: /core/journals/nutrition-research-reviews
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed