This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
2 JO Prochaska , WF Velicer , JS Rossi . (1994) Stages of change and decisional balance for 12 problem behaviors. Health Psychol 13, 39–46.
3 CC DiClemente , JO Prochaska , SK Fairhurst , WF Velicer , MM Velasquez & JS Rossi (1991) The process of smoking cessation: an analysis of precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages of change. J Consult Clin Psychol 59, 295–304.
4 CC Horwath (1999) Applying the transtheoretical model to eating behavior change: challenges and opportunities. Nutr Res Rev 12, 281–317.
5 JO Prochaska , CC DiClemente & JC Norcross (1992) In search of how people change: applications to addictive behaviors. Am Psychol 47, 1102–1114.
7 A Bandura (1977) Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychol Rev 84, 191–215.
8 CC DiClemente (1981) Self-efficacy and smoking cessation maintenance: a preliminary report. Cognit Ther Res 5, 175–187.
9 WF Velicer , CC DiClemente , JS Rossi & JO Prochaska (1990) Relapse situations and self-efficacy: an integrated model. Addict Behav 15, 271–283.
10 L Spencer , F Pagell , ME Hallion & TB Adams (2002) Applying the transtheoretical model of tobacco cessation and prevention: a review of literature. Am J Health Promot 17, 7–71.
11 L Spencer , T Adams , S Malone , L Roy & E Yost (2006) Applying the transtheoretical model to exercise: a systematic and comprehensive review of literature. Health Promot Pract 7, 428–443.
12 L Spencer , F Pagell & T Adams (2004) Applying the transtheoretical model to cancer screening behavior: a review of literature. Am J Health Behav 29, 36–56.
13 JP Migneault , TB Adams & JP Read (2005) Application of the transtheoretical model to substance abuse: historical development and future directions. Drug Alcohol Rev 24, 437–448.
14 RP Harris , M Helfand , SH Woolf , K Lohr , CD Mulrow , SM Teutsch & D Atkins (2001) Current methods of the U.S. Preventive Task Force: a review of the process. Am J Prev Med 20, 21–35.
15 DR Anderson & MP O'Donnell (1994) Toward a health promotion research agenda: “State of the Science” reviews. Am J Health Promot 8, 462–465.
16 V Burke , J Richards , RAK Milligan , LJ Beilin , D Dunbar & MP Gracey (2000) Stages of change for health-related behaviours in 18 year-old Australians. Psychol Health 14, 1061–1075.
17 MK Campbell , I Tessaro , B DeVellis , S Benedict , K Kelsey , L Belton & C Henriquez-Roldan (2000) Tailoring and targeting a worksite health promotion program to address multiple health behaviors among blue-collar women. Am J Health Promot 14, 306–313.
18 PG Clark , JS Rossi , ML Greaney , DA Riebe , GW Greene , SD Saunders , FD Lees & CR Nigg (2005) Intervening on exercise and nutrition in older adults. J Aging Health 17, 753–778.
19 SJ Chung , S Hoerr , R Levine & G Coleman (2006) Processes underlying young women's decisions to eat fruits and vegetables. J Hum Nutr Diet 19, 287–298.
20 CJ Frame , CG Green , DG Herr , JE Myers & ML Taylor (2001) The stages of change for dietary fat and fruit and vegetable intake of patients at the outset of a cardiac rehabilitation program. Am J Health Promot 15, 405–413.
21 M Frenn , S Malin , AM Villarruel , K Slaikeu , S McCarthy , J Freema & E Nee (2005) Determinants of physical activity and low fat diet among low income African American and Hispanic middle school students. Public Health Nurs 22, 89–97.
23 GW Greene , N Fey-Yensan , C Padula , S Rossi , JS Rossi & PG Clark (2004) Difference in psychosocial variables by stage of change in fruit and vegetables in older adults. J Am Diet Assoc 104, 1236–1243.
24 P Gulliver & CC Horwath (2001) Assessing women's perceived benefits, barriers, and stage of change for meeting milk product consumption recommendations. J Am Diet Assoc 101, 1354–1357.
25 P Gulliver & CC Horwath (2001) Women's readiness to follow milk product consumption recommendations: design and evaluation of a stage of change algorithm. J Hum Nutr Diet 14, 277–286.
26 DS Hawkins , PP Hornsby & JB Schorling (2001) Stages of change and weight loss among rural African American women. Obes Res 9, 5–67.
27 EJ Lea , D Crawford & A Worsley (2006) Consumers' readiness to eat a plant-based diet. Eur J Clin Nutr 60, 342–351.
28 EE Logue , K Sutton , D Jarjoura & W Smucker (2000) Obesity management in primary care: assessment of readiness to change among 284 family practice patients. J Am Board Fam Med 13, 164–171.
29 I Lopez-Azpiazu , MA Martinez-Gonzalez , A Leon-Mateos , M Gibney & JA Martinez (2000) Stages of dietary change and nutrition attitudes in the Spanish population. Public Health 114, 183–189.
30 F Nothwehr , L Snetselaar , J Yang & H Wu (2006) Stage of change for healthful eating and use of behavioral strategies. J Am Diet Assoc 106, 1035–1041.
31 EL O'Hea , KB Wood & PJ Brantley (2003) The transtheoretical model: gender differences across 3 health behaviors. Am J Health Behav 27, 645–656.
32 C Pullen & SN Walker (2002) Midlife and older rural women's adherence to U.S. dietary guidelines across stages of change in healthy eating. Public Health Nurs 19, 170–178.
34 M Vallis , L Ruggiero , G Greene , H Jones , B Zinman , S Rossi , L Edwards , JS Rossi & JO Prochaska (2003) Stages of change for healthy eating in diabetes. Diabetes Care 26, 1468–1474.
35 MAS Van Duyn , AR Kristal , K Dodd , MK Campbell , AF Subar , G Stables , L Nebeline & K Glanz (2001) Association of awareness, intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, and stage of dietary change with fruit and vegetable consumption: a national survey. Am J Health Promot 16, 69–78.
36 CC Wee , RB Davis & RS Phillips (2004) Stage of readiness to control weight and adopt weight control behaviors in primary care. J Gen Intern Med 20, 410–415.
37 CJ Armitage (2006) Evidence that implementation intentions promote transitions between the stages of change. J Consult Clin Psychol 74, 141–151.
38 W Auslander , D Haire-Joshu , C Houston , C Rhee & JH Williams (2002) A controlled evaluation of staging dietary patterns to reduce the risk of diabetes in African American women. Diabetes Care 25, 809–814.
39 J Bradbury , JM Thomason , NJ Jepson , AW Walls , PF Allen & PJ Moynihan (2006) Nutrition counselling increases fruit and vegetable intake in the endentulous. J Dent Res 85, 463–468.
40 KJ Calfas , JF Sallis , MF Zabinski , DE Wilfley , J Rupp , JJ Prochaska , S Thompson , M Pratt & K Patrick (2002) Preliminary evaluation of a multi-component program for nutrition and physical activity change in primary care: PACE+ for adults. Prev Med 34, 153–162.
41 M Clark , SE Hampson , L Avery & R Simpson (2004) Effects of a brief tailored intervention on the process and predictors of lifestyle behaviour change in patients with type 2 diabetes. Psychol Health Med 9, 440–449.
43 M Finckenor & C Byrd-Bredbenner (2000) Nutrition intervention group program based on preaction-stage oriented change processes of the transtheoretical model promotes long-term reduction in dietary fat intake. J Am Diet Assoc 100, 335–342.
44 M Frenn , S Malin & NK Bansal (2003) Stage-based interventions for low-fat diet with middle school students. J Pediatr Nurs 18, 36–45.
45 GW Greene , D Riebe , L Ruggiero , M Caldwell & B Blissmer (2003) A pilot home-based, healthy lifestyle weight management program. Top Clin Nutr 18, 136–142.
46 SS Johnson , MM Driskell , JL Johnson , SJ Dyment , JO Prochaska , JM Prochaska & L Bourne (2006) Transtheoretical model intervention for adherence to lipid-lowering drugs. Dis Manag 9, 102–114.
47 H Jones , L Edwards , MT Vallis , L Ruggiero , SR Rossi , JS Rossi , G Greene , JO Prochaska & B Zinman (2003) . Changes in diabetes self-care behaviors make a difference in glycemic control. Diabetes Care 26, 732–737.
49 MK Mau , JD Curb , K Glanz , R Severino , JS Grove & B Johnson (2001) Mediators of lifestyle behavior change in native Hawaiians. Diabetes Care 24, 1770–1776.
50 JO Prochaska , WF Velicer , C Redding . (2005) Stage-based expert systems to guide a population of primary care patients to quit smoking, eat healthier, prevent skin cancer, and receive regular mammograms. Prev Med 41, 406–416.
51 JO Prochaska , WF Velicer , JS Rossi , CA Redding , GW Greene , SR Rossi , X Sun , JL Fava , R Laforge & BA Plummer (2004) Multiple risk expert systems interventions: impact of simultaneous stage-matched expert system interventions for smoking, high-fat diet, and sun exposure in a population of parents. Health Psychol 23, 503–516.
52 KI Proper , AJ van der Beek , VH Hildebrandt , JWR Twisk & W van Mechelen (2003) Short term effect of feedback on fitness and health measurements on self reported appraisal of the stage of change. Br J Sports Med 37, 529–534.
53 K Resnicow , F McCarty & T Baranowski (2003) Are precontemplators less likely to change their dietary behavior? A prospective analysis. Health Educ Res 18, 693–705.
54 D Riebe , B Blissmer , G Greene , M Caldwell , L Ruggiero , KM Stillwell & CR Nigg (2005) Long-term maintenance of exercise and healthy eating behaviors in overweight adults. Prev Med 40, 769–778.
55 D Riebe , GW Greene , L Ruggiero , KM Stillwell , B Blissmer , CR Nigg & M Caldwell (2003) Evalulation of a healthy-lifestyle approach to weight management. Prev Med 36, 45–54.
56 RAA Soweid , FE Kak , SC Major , DK Karam & A Rouhana (2003) Changes in health-related attitude and self-reported behaviour of undergraduate students at the American University of Beirut following a health awareness course. Educ Health 16, 265–278.
57 A Steptoe , L Perkins-Porras , C McKay , E Rink , S Hilton & FP Cappuccio (2003) Behavioural counselling to increase consumption of fruit and vegetables in low income adults: randomized trial. BMJ 326, 855–859.
59 T Taylor , E Serrano , J Anderson & P Kendall (2000) Knowledge, skills, and behavior improvements on peer educators and low-income Hispanic participants after a stage of change-based bilingual nutrition education program. J Community Health 25, 241–262.
61 MW Verheijden , JE Van derVeen , JC Bakx , RP Akkermans , HJM Van den Hoogen , WA Van Staveren & C Van Weel (2004) Stage-matched nutrition guidance: stages of change and fat consumption in Dutch patients at elevated cardiovascular risk. J Nutr Educ Behav 36, 228–237.
62 MDCF De Oliveira , J Anderson , G Auld & P Kendall (2005) Validation of a tool to measure processes of change for fruit and vegetable consumption among male college students. J Nutr Educ Behav 37, 2–11.
63 E de Vet , J de Nooijer , NK de Vries & J Brug (2005) Determinants of forward stage transition from precontemplation and contemplation for fruit consumption. Am J Health Promot 19, 278–285.
64 E de Vet , J de Nooijer , NK de Vries & J Brug (2005) Stages of change for fruit intake: a longitudinal examination of stability, stage transitions and transition profiles. Psychol Health 20, 415–428.
65 J Di Noia , SP Schinke , JO Prochaska & IR Contento (2006) Application of the transtheoretical model to fruit and vegetable consumption among economically disadvantaged African-American adolescents: preliminary findings. Am J Health Promot 20, 342–348.
66 MK Hargreaves , DG Schlundt , MS Buchowski , RE Hardy , SR Rossi & JS Rossi (1999) Stage of change and the intake of dietary fat in African-American women: improving stage assignment using the eating styles questionnaire. J Am Diet Assoc 99, 1392–1399.
67 PJ Jordan , CA Redding , NA Troop , J Treasure & L Serpell (2003) Developing a stage of change measure for assessing recovery from anorexia nervosa. Eat Behav 3, 365–385.
68 K Kasila , M Poskiparta , P Karhila & T Kettunen (2003) Patients' readiness for dietary change at the beginning of counseling: a transtheoretical model-based assessment. J Hum Nutr Diet 16, 159–166.
69 R Lamb & MS Joshi (2004) Active but not consistent: dietary behaviour and the stages of change model. Psychol Health 19, 543–559.
70 AM Ling & CC Horwath (2001) Perceived benefits and barriers of increased fruit and vegetable consumption: validation of a decisional balance scale. J Nutr Educ 33, 257–265.
71 AM Ling & CC Horwath (2000) Defining and measuring stages of change for dietary behaviors: readiness to meet fruit, vegetable, and grain guidelines among Chinese Singaporeans. J Am Diet Assoc 100, 898–904.
72 EE Logue , DG Jarjoura , KS Sutton , WD Smucker , KR Baughman & CF Capers (2004) Longitudinal relationships between elapsed time in the action stages of change and weight loss. Obes Res 12, 1499–1508.
73 J Ma , NM Betts , T Horacek , C Georgiou , A White & S Nitzke (2002) The importance of decisional balance and self-efficacy in relation to stages of change for fruit and vegetable intake by young adults. Am J Health Promot 16, 157–166.
74 J Ma , NM Betts & T Horacek (2001) Measuring stage of change for assessing readiness to increase fruit and vegetable intake among 18 to 24 year olds. Am J Health Promot 16, 88–97.
75 CA Padula , S Rossi , C Nigg , F Lees , N Fey-Yensan , G Greene & P Clark (2003) Using focus groups for instrument development: application of the transtheoretical model to fruit and vegetable behaviors of older adults. J Nutr Elder 22, 13–33.
76 SR Rossi , GW Greene , JS Rossi , BA Plummer , SV Benisovich , S Keller , WF Velicer , CA Redding , JO Prochaska , UE Pallonen & KS Meier (2001) Validation of decisional balance and situational temptations measures for dietary fat reduction in a large school-based population of adolescents. Eating Behav 2, 1–18.
78 S Snelling , T Adams , C Korba & L Tucker (2006) Stages of change algorithm for calcium intake by male college students. J Am Diet Assoc 106, 904–907.
79 K Sutton , E Logue , D Jarjoura , K Baughman , W Smucker & C Capers (2003) Assessing dietary and exercise stage of change to optimize weight loss interventions. Obes Res 11, 641–652.
80 LJ Tucker , AM Snelling & TB Adams (2002) Development and validation of a stages of change algorithm for calcium intake for college female students. J Am Coll Nutr 21, 530–535.
81 RG Laforge , GW Greene & JO Prochaska (1994) Psychosocial factors influencing low fruit and vegetable consumption. J Behav Med 17, 361–374.
82 GW Greene & SR Rossi (1998) Stages of change for reducing dietary fat intake over 18 months. J Am Diet Assoc 98, 529–534.
83 C Bridle , RP Riemsma , J Pattenden , AJ Sowden , L Mather , IS Watt & A Walker (2005) Systematic review of the effectiveness of health behavior interventions based on the transtheoretical model. Psychol Health 20, 283–301.
84 KB Quinlan & KD McCaul (2000) Matched and mismatched interventions with young adult smokers: testing a stage theory. Health Psychol 19, 165–171.
85 CJ Segan , R Borland & KM Greenwood (2002) Do transtheoretical model measures predict the transition from preparation to action in smoking cessation? Psychol Health 17, 417–435.
86 A Dijkstra , D Tromp & B Conijn (2003) Stage-specfic psychological determinants of stage transition. Br J Health Psychol 8, 423–437.
87 P Aveyard , T Lawrence , KK Cheng , C Griffin , E Croghan & C Johnson (2006) A randomized controlled trial of smoking cessation for pregnant women to test the effect of a transtheoretical model-based intervention on movement in stage and interaction with baseline stage. Br J Health Psychol 11, 263–278.
88 A Dijkstra , B Conijn & H De Vries (2006) A match-mismatch test of a stage model of behaviour change in tobacco smoking. Addiction 101, 1035–1043.
89 B Blissmer & E McAuley (2002) Testing the requirements of stages of physical activity among adults: the comparative effectiveness of stage-matched, mismatched, standard care, and control interventions. Ann Behav Med 24, 181–189.
91 K Glanz , RE Patterson , AR Kristal , CC DiCelmente , J Heimendinger , L Linnan & D McLerran (1994) Stages of change in adopting healthy diets: fat, fibre and correlates of nutrient intake. Health Educ Q 21, 499–519.
92 GR Reed , WF Velicer , JO Prochaska , JS Rossi & BH Marcus (1997) What makes a good staging algorithm: examples from regular exercise. Am J Health Promot 12, 57–66.
93 J Brug , K Glanz & G Kok (1997) The relationship between self-efficacy, attitudes, intake compared to others, consumption, and stages of change related to fruit and vegetables. Am J Health Promot 12, 25–30.
95 R Povey , M Conner , P Sparkes , R James & R Shepherd (1999) A critical examination of the application of the transtheoretical model's stages of change to dietary behaviors. Health Educ Res 14, 641–651.
96 MA Van Duyn , J Heimendinger , E Russek-Cohen , CC DiClemente , LS Sims , AF Subar , SM Krebs-Smith , E Pivonka & LL Kahle (1998) Use of transtheoretical model of change to successfully predict fruit and vegetable consumption. J Nutr Educ 30, 371–380.
97 D Haire-Joshu , WF Auslander , C Houston & JH Williams (1999) Staging of dietary patterns among African-American women. Health Educ Behav 26, 90–102.
98 J Lechner , J Brug , H de Vries , P van Assema & A Mudde (1998) Stages of change for fruit, vegetable and fat intake: consequences of misconception. Health Educ Res 13, 1–11.
99 R Lamb & S Joshi (1996) The stage model and processes of change in dietary fat reduction. J Hum Nutr Diet 9, 43–53.
100 AR Kristal , SJ Curry , AL Shattuck , Z Feng & S Li (2000) A randomized trial of a tailored, self-help dietary intervention: the Puget sound eating patterns study. Prev Med 31, 380–389.
102 GW Greene , SR Rossi , GR Reed , C Wiley & JO Prochaska (1994) Stages of change for reducing dietary fat to 30% of energy or less. J Am Diet Assoc 94, 1105–1110.
104 SJ Curry , AR Kristal & D Bowen (1992) An application of the stage model of behaviour change to dietary fat reduction. Health Educ Res 7, 494–503.
105 MK Campbell , M Symons , W Demar-Wahnefried , B Pollamus , JM Bernhardt , JW McClelland & C Washington (1998) Stages of change and psychosocial correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption among rural African American church members. Am J Health Promot 12, 185–191.
106 RG Laforge , WF Velicer , RL Richmond & N Owen (1999) Stage distributions for five health behaviors in the United States and Australia. Prev Med 28, 61–74.