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    Murakami, Kentaro and Livingstone, M. Barbara E. 2016. Associations between Meal and Snack Frequency and Diet Quality in US Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Vol. 116, Issue. 7, p. 1101.

    White, Ruth Harwin, William S. Holderbaum, William and Johnson, Laura 2015. 2015 IEEE 14th International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications (ICMLA). p. 265.


Understanding meal patterns: definitions, methodology and impact on nutrient intake and diet quality

  • Rebecca M. Leech (a1), Anthony Worsley (a1), Anna Timperio (a1) and Sarah A. McNaughton (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 19 March 2015

Traditionally, nutrition research has focused on individual nutrients, and more recently dietary patterns. However, there has been relatively little focus on dietary intake at the level of a ‘meal’. The purpose of the present paper was to review the literature on adults' meal patterns, including how meal patterns have previously been defined and their associations with nutrient intakes and diet quality. For this narrative literature review, a comprehensive search of electronic databases was undertaken to identify studies in adults aged ≥  19 years that have investigated meal patterns and their association with nutrient intakes and/or diet quality. To date, different approaches have been used to define meals with little investigation of how these definitions influence the characterisation of meal patterns. This review identified thirty-four and fourteen studies that have examined associations between adults' meals patterns, nutrient intakes and diet quality, respectively. Most studies defined meals using a participant-identified approach, but varied in the additional criteria used to determine individual meals, snacks and/or eating occasions. Studies also varied in the types of meal patterns, nutrients and diet quality indicators examined. The most consistent finding was an inverse association between skipping breakfast and diet quality. No consistent association was found for other meal patterns, and little research has examined how meal timing is associated with diet quality. In conclusion, an understanding of the influence of different meal definitions on the characterisation of meal patterns will facilitate the interpretation of the existing literature, and may provide guidance on the most appropriate definitions to use.

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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (, which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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*Corresponding author: Rebecca M. Leech, fax +61 3 9244 6017, email
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Nutrition Research Reviews
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