Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

When to eat? The influence of circadian rhythms on metabolic health: are animal studies providing the evidence?

  • Sofía Moran-Ramos (a1) (a2), Adrian Baez-Ruiz (a3), Ruud M. Buijs (a3) and Carolina Escobar (a1)
Abstract
Abstract

As obesity and metabolic diseases rise, there is need to investigate physiological and behavioural aspects associated with their development. Circadian rhythms have a profound influence on metabolic processes, as they prepare the body to optimise energy use and storage. Moreover, food-related signals confer temporal order to organs involved in metabolic regulation. Therefore food intake should be synchronised with the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) to elaborate efficient responses to environmental challenges. Human studies suggest that a loss of synchrony between mealtime and the SCN promotes obesity and metabolic disturbances. Animal research using different paradigms has been performed to characterise the effects of timing of food intake on metabolic profiles. Therefore the purpose of the present review is to critically examine the evidence of animal studies, to provide a state of the art on metabolic findings and to assess whether the paradigms used in rodent models give the evidence to support a ‘best time’ for food intake. First we analyse and compare the current findings of studies where mealtime has been shifted out of phase from the light–dark cycle. Then, we analyse studies restricting meal times to different moments within the active period. So far animal studies correlate well with human studies, demonstrating that restricting food intake to the active phase limits metabolic disturbances produced by high-energy diets and that eating during the inactive/sleep phase leads to a worse metabolic outcome. Based on the latter we discuss the missing elements and possible mechanisms leading to the metabolic consequences, as these are still lacking.

Copyright
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: Dr Carolina Escobar, fax +52 55 56230222, email escocarolina@gmail.com
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1. C Ekmekcioglu & Y Touitou (2011) Chronobiological aspects of food intake and metabolism and their relevance on energy balance and weight regulation. Obes Rev 12, 1425.

2. M Garaulet & JA Madrid (2010) Chronobiological aspects of nutrition , metabolic syndrome and obesity. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 62, 967978.

3. CM Haupt , D Alte , M Dörr , et al. (2008) The relation of exposure to shift work with atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction in a general population. Atherosclerosis 201, 205211.

4. A Knutsson & H Bøggild (2010) Gastrointestinal disorders among shift workers. Scand J Work Environ Health 36, 8595.

5. R Canuto , AS Garcez & MTA Olinto (2012) Metabolic syndrome and shift work: a systematic review. Sleep Med Rev 17, 425431.

7. RV Seimon , JA Roekenes , J Zibellini , et al. (2015) Do intermittent diets provide physiological benefits over continuous diets for weight loss? A systematic review of clinical trials. Mol Cell Endocrinol 418, 153172.

8. Y Ma , ER Bertone , EJ Stanek , et al. (2003) Association between eating patterns and obesity in a free-living US adult population. Am J Epidemiol 158, 8592.

9. RT Brookheart , CI Michel & JE Schaffer (2009) As a matter of fat. Cell Metab 10, 912.

10. J-P Després & I Lemieux (2006) Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome. Nature 444, 881887.

11. MF Gregor & GS Hotamisligil (2011) Inflammatory mechanisms in obesity. Annu Rev Immunol 29, 415445.

13. DA Golombek , LP Casiraghi , PV Agostino , et al. (2013) The times they’re a-changing: effects of circadian desynchronization on physiology and disease. J Physiol Paris 107, 310322.

14. C Escobar , R Salgado , K Rodriguez , et al. (2011) Scheduled meals and scheduled palatable snacks synchronize circadian rhythms: consequences for ingestive behavior. Physiol Behav 104, 555561.

15. M Perez-Mendoza , JB Rivera-Zavala & M Diaz-Munoz (2014) Daytime restricted feeding modifies the daily variations of liver gluconeogenesis: adaptations in biochemical and endocrine regulators. Chronobiol Int 31, 815828.

16. RM Buijs , C Escobar & DF Swaab (2013) The circadian system and the balance of the autonomic nervous system. Handb Clin Neurol 117, 173191.

17. JE Oosterman , A Kalsbeek , SE Fleur , et al. (2014) Impact of nutrients on circadian rhythmicity. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 308, R337R350.

18. RM Buijs , FA Scheer , F Kreier , et al. (2006) Organization of circadian functions: interaction with the body. Prog Brain Res 153, 341360.

19. FN Buijs , F Cazarez , MC Basualdo , et al. (2014) The suprachiasmatic nucleus is part of a neural feedback circuit adapting blood pressure response. Neuroscience 266, 197207.

20. MH Hastings , AB Reddy & ES Maywood (2003) A clockwork web: circadian timing in brain and periphery, in health and disease. Nat Rev Neurosci 4, 649661.

21. E Challet (2013) Circadian clocks, food intake, and metabolism. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci 119, 105135.

22. C Cailotto , C van Heijningen , J van der Vliet , et al. (2008) Daily rhythms in metabolic liver enzymes and plasma glucose require a balance in the autonomic output to the liver. Endocrinology 149, 19141925.

23. J Bass & JS Takahashi (2010) Circadian integration of metabolism and energetics. Science 330, 13491354.

24. SM Bailey , US Udoh & ME Young (2014) Circadian regulation of metabolism. J Endocrinol 222, R75R96.

25. S Zvonic , AA Ptitsyn , SA Conrad , et al. (2006) Characterization of peripheral circadian clocks in adipose tissues. Diabetes 55, 962970.

26. A Shostak , J Husse & H Oster (2013) Circadian regulation of adipose function. Adipocyte 2, 201206.

27. BD Harfmann , EA Schroder & KA Esser (2015) Circadian rhythms, the molecular clock, and skeletal muscle. J Biol Rhythms 30, 8494.

28. JJ McCarthy , JL Andrews , EL McDearmon , et al. (2007) Identification of the circadian transcriptome in adult mouse skeletal muscle. Physiol Genomics 31, 8695.

29. KA Dyar , S Ciciliot , LE Wright , et al. (2014) Muscle insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism are controlled by the intrinsic muscle clock. Mol Metab 3, 2941.

30. A Balsalobre , SA Brown , L Marcacci , et al. (2000) Resetting of circadian time in peripheral tissues by glucocorticoid signaling. Science 289, 23442347.

31. A Balsalobre , F Damiola & U Schibler (1998) A serum shock induces circadian gene expression in mammalian tissue culture cells. Cell 93, 929937.

32. U Schibler , J Ripperger & SA Brown (2003) Peripheral circadian oscillators in mammals: time and food. J Biol Rhythms 18, 250260.

33. S-H Yoo , S Yamazaki , PL Lowrey , et al. (2004) PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE real-time reporting of circadian dynamics reveals persistent circadian oscillations in mouse peripheral tissues. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 53395346.

34. C Vollmers & S Gill (2009) Time of feeding and the intrinsic circadian clock drive rhythms in hepatic gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106, 2145321458.

35. S Panda , MP Antoch , BH Miller , et al. (2002) Coordinated transcription of key pathways in the mouse by the circadian clock. Cell 109, 307320.

36. BA Hodge , Y Wen , LA Riley , et al. (2015) The endogenous molecular clock orchestrates the temporal separation of substrate metabolism in skeletal muscle. Skelet Muscle 5, 17.

37. A Ribas-Latre & K Eckel-Mahan (2016) Interdependence of nutrient metabolism and the circadian clock system: importance for metabolic health. Mol Metab 5, 133152.

38. F Damiola , N Le Minh , N Preitner , et al. (2000) Restricted feeding uncouples circadian oscillators in peripheral tissues from the central pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Genes Dev 14, 29502961.

39. K Stokkan , S Yamazaki & H Tei (2001) Entrainment of the circadian clock in the liver by feeding. Science 291, 490492.

40. M Hatori , C Vollmers , A Zarrinpar , et al. (2012) Time-restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high-fat diet. Cell Metab 15, 848860.

41. K Eckel-Mahan , V Patel & S De Mateo (2013) Reprogramming of the circadian clock by nutritional challenge. Cell 155, 14641478.

42. JS Pendergast , KL Branecky , W Yang , et al. (2013) High-fat diet acutely affects circadian organisation and eating behavior. Eur J Neurosci 37, 13501356.

43. A Chaix , A Zarrinpar , P Miu , et al. (2014) Time-restricted feeding is a preventative and therapeutic intervention against diverse nutritional challenges. Cell Metab 20, 9911005.

44. A Kohsaka , AD Laposky , KM Ramsey , et al. (2007) High-fat diet disrupts behavioral and molecular circadian rhythms in mice. Cell Metab 6, 414421.

45. CB Green , JS Takahashi & J Bass (2008) The meter of metabolism. Cell 134, 728742.

46. FW Turek , C Joshu , A Kohsaka , et al. (2005) Obesity and metabolic syndrome in circadian clock mutant mice. Science 308, 10431045.

47. M Lefta , KS Campbell , H Feng , et al. (2012) Development of dilated cardiomyopathy in Bmal1-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 303, 475485.

48. A Kohsaka , P Das , I Hashimoto , et al. (2014) The circadian clock maintains cardiac function by regulating mitochondrial metabolism in mice. PLOS ONE 9, e112811.

49. B Marcheva , KM Ramsey , ED Buhr , et al. (2010) Disruption of the clock components CLOCK and BMAL1 leads to hypoinsulinemia and diabetes. Nature 466, 627631.

50. E Maury , HK Hong & J Bass (2014) Circadian disruption in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Metab 40, 338346.

51. Y Tahara & S Shibata (2016) Circadian rhythms of liver physiology and disease: experimental and clinical evidence. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 13, 217226.

52. JD Johnston , FA Scheer & FW Turek (2016) Circadian rhythms, metabolism, and chrononutrition in rodents and humans. Adv Nutr 7, 399406.

53. G Yang , L Chen , GR Grant , et al. (2016) Timing of expression of the core clock gene Bmal1 influences its effects on aging and survival. Sci Transl Med 8, 324ra16.

54. KI Proper , D van de Langenberg , W Rodenburg , et al. (2016) The relationship between shift work and metabolic risk factors: a systematic review of longitudinal studies. Am J Prev Med 50, e147e157.

55. F Wang , L Zhang , Y Zhang , et al. (2014) Meta-analysis on night shift work and risk of metabolic syndrome. Obes Rev 15, 709720.

56. SL Colles , JB Dixon & PE O’Brien (2007) Night eating syndrome and nocturnal snacking: association with obesity, binge eating and psychological distress. Int J Obes (Lond) 31, 17221730.

57. DM Arble , J Bass , AD Laposky , et al. (2009) Circadian timing of food intake contributes to weight gain. Obesity (Silver Spring) 17, 21002102.

58. R Salgado-Delgado , M Angeles-Castellanos , N Saderi , et al. (2010) Food intake during the normal activity phase prevents obesity and circadian desynchrony in a rat model of night work. Endocrinology 151, 10191029.

59. J Reznick , E Preston , DL Wilks , et al. (2013) Altered feeding differentially regulates circadian rhythms and energy metabolism in liver and muscle of rats. Biochim Biophys Acta 1832, 228238.

60. A Zarrinpar , A Chaix , S Yooseph , et al. (2014) Diet and feeding pattern affect the diurnal dynamics of the gut microbiome. Cell Metab 20, 10061017.

61. M Morris , I Araujo , R Pohlman , et al. (2012) Timing of fructose intake: an important regulator of adiposity. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 39, 5762.

62. GA Bray (2012) Fructose and risk of cardiometabolic disease. Curr Atheroscler Rep 14, 570578.

63. A Rutledge & K Adeli (2007) Fructose and the metabolic syndrome: pathophysiology and molecular mechanisms. Nutr Rev 65, 1323.

64. H Jang , G Lee , J Kong , et al. (2012) Feeding period restriction alters the expression of peripheral circadian rhythm genes without changing body weight in mice. PLOS ONE 7, e49993.

65. NA Shamsi , MD Salkeld , L Rattanatray , et al. (2014) Metabolic consequences of timed feeding in mice. Physiol Behav 128, 188201.

66. J Tsai , C Villegas-Montoya , BB Boland , et al. (2013) Influence of dark phase restricted high fat feeding on myocardial adaptation in mice. J Mol Cell Cardiol 55, 147155.

67. S Ussar , NW Griffin , O Bezy , et al. (2015) Interactions between gut microbiota, host genetics and diet modulate the predisposition to obesity and metabolic syndrome. Cell Metab 22, 516530.

68. P Seale & MA Lazar (2009) Brown fat in humans: turning up the heat on obesity. Diabetes 58, 14821484.

69. Y Satoh , H Kawai , N Kudo , et al. (2006) Time-restricted feeding entrains daily rhythms of energy metabolism in mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 290, R1276R1283.

70. J Borén , MR Taskinen , SO Olofsson , et al. (2013) Ectopic lipid storage and insulin resistance: a harmful relationship. J Intern Med 274, 2540.

71. RC Salgado-Delgado , N Saderi , MDC Basualdo , et al. (2013) Shift work or food intake during the rest phase promotes metabolic disruption and desynchrony of liver genes in male rats. PLOS ONE 8, e60052.

72. Y Adamovich , L Rousso-Noori , Z Zwighaft , et al. (2014) Circadian clocks and feeding time regulate the oscillations and levels of hepatic triglycerides. Cell Metab 19, 319330.

73. A Kalsbeek , S la Fleur & E Fliers (2014) Circadian control of glucose metabolism. Mol Metab 3, 372383.

74. SQ Shi , TS Ansari , OP McGuinness , et al. (2013) Circadian disruption leads to insulin resistance and obesity. Curr Biol 23, 372381.

75. M Gil-Lozano , EL Mingomataj , WK Wu , et al. (2014) Circadian secretion of the intestinal hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1, by the rodent L-cell. Diabetes 63, 36743685.

76. J-Y Tsai , PC Kienesberger , T Pulinilkunnil , et al. (2010) Direct regulation of myocardial triglyceride metabolism by the cardiomyocyte circadian clock. J Biol Chem 285, 29182929.

77. T Wu , L Sun , F ZhuGe , et al. (2011) Differential roles of breakfast and supper in rats of a daily three-meal schedule upon circadian regulation and physiology. Chronobiol Int 28, 890903.

78. JW Apolzan & R Harris (2012) Differential effects of chow and purified diet on the consumption of sucrose solution and lard and the development of obesity. Physiol Behav 105, 325331.

79. M Garaulet , P Gomez-Abellan , J Alburquerque-Bejar , et al. (2013) Timing of food intake predicts weight loss effectiveness. Int J Obes 37, 604611.

80. MS Bray , J-Y Tsai , C Villegas-Montoya , et al. (2010) Time-of-day-dependent dietary fat consumption influences multiple cardiometabolic syndrome parameters in mice. Int J Obes 34, 15891598.

81. H Sasaki , T Ohtsu , Y Ikeda , et al. (2014) Combination of meal and exercise timing with a high-fat diet influences energy expenditure and obesity in mice. Chronobiol Int 31, 959975.

82. Y Fuse , A Hirao , H Kuroda , et al. (2012) Differential roles of breakfast only (one meal per day) and a bigger breakfast with a small dinner (two meals per day) in mice fed a high-fat diet with regard to induced obesity and lipid metabolism. J Circadian Rhythms 10, 4.

83. V Aas , NP Hessvik , M Wettergreen , et al. (2011) Chronic hyperglycemia reduces substrate oxidation and impairs metabolic switching of human myotubes. Biochim Biophys Acta 1812, 94105.

84. KI Stanford , RJ Middelbeek , KL Townsend , et al. (2013) Brown adipose tissue regulates glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. J Clin Invest 123, 215223.

85. KL Townsend & Y-H Tseng (2014) Brown fat fuel utilization and thermogenesis. Trends Endocrinol Metab 25, 168177.

87. T Yoneshiro & S Aita (2013) Recruited brown adipose tissue as an antiobesity agent in humans. J Clin Invest 123, 34043408.

88. J Yoon , D Han , J Noh , et al. (2012) Meal time shift disturbs circadian rhythmicity along with metabolic and behavioral alterations in mice. PLOS ONE 7, e44053.

89. S Summermatter , H Marcelino , D Arsenijevic , et al. (2009) Relevance for muscle–adipose glucose redistribution during catch-up growth. Diabetes 58, 22282237.

90. RM Buijs & A Kalsbeek (2001) Hypothalamic integration of central and peripheral clocks. Nat Rev Neurosci 2, 521526.

91. MG Myers & DP Olson (2012) Central nervous system control of metabolism. Nature 491, 357363.

92. JJ Geerling , MR Boon , S Kooijman , et al. (2014) Sympathetic nervous system control of triglyceride metabolism: novel concepts derived from recent studies. J Lipid Res 55, 180189.

93. A Kalsbeek & RM Buijs (2002) Output pathways of the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus: coding circadian time by transmitter selection and specific targeting. Cell Tissue Res 309, 109118.

94. RM Buijs , CG van Eden , VD Goncharuk , et al. (2003) The biological clock tunes the organs of the body: timing by hormones and the autonomic nervous system. J Endocrinol 177, 1726.

95. RM Buijs , SE la Fleur , J Wortel , et al. (2003) The suprachiasmatic nucleus balances sympathetic and parasympathetic output to peripheral organs through separate preautonomic neurons. J Comp Neurol 464, 3648.

96. S Perreau-Lenz , P Pévet , RM Buijs , et al. (2004) The biological clock: the bodyguard of temporal homeostasis. Chronobiol Int 21, 125.

97. A Kalsbeek , IF Palm , SE La Fleur , et al. (2006) SCN outputs and the hypothalamic balance of life. J Biol Rhythms 21, 458469.

98. F Kreier , A Yilmaz , A Kalsbeek , et al. (2003) Hypothesis: shifting the equilibrium from activity to food leads to autonomic unbalance and the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes 52, 26522666.

99. RM Buijs & F Kreier (2006) The metabolic syndrome: a brain disease? Neuroendocrinology 18, 715716.

100. N Tentolouris , G Argyrakopoulou & N Katsilambros (2008) Perturbed autonomic nervous system function in metabolic syndrome. Neuromolecular Med 10, 169178.

101. CMM Licht , EJC de Geus & BWJH Penninx (2013) Dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system predicts the development of the metabolic syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 98, 24842493.

102. F Kreier , E Fliers , PJ Voshol , et al. (2002) Selective parasympathetic innervation of subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat – functional implications. J Clin Invest 110, 12431250.

103. E Fliers , F Kreier , PJ Voshol , et al. (2003) White adipose tissue: getting nervous. J Neuroendocrinol 15, 10051010.

104. E Bruinstroop , SE Fleur , MT Ackermans , et al. (2013) The autonomic nervous system regulates postprandial hepatic lipid metabolism. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 304, E1089E1096.

105. MA Lips , GH de Groot , M De Kam , et al. (2013) Autonomic nervous system activity in diabetic and healthy obese female subjects and the effect of distinct weight loss strategies. Eur J Endocrinol 169, 383390.

106. A Niijima , K Nagai , N Nagai , et al. (1993) Effects of light stimulation on the activity of the autonomic nerves in anesthetized rats. Physiol Behav 54, 555561.

107. C Cailotto , J Lei , J van der Vliet , et al. (2009) Effects of nocturnal light on (clock) gene expression in peripheral organs: a role for the autonomic innervation of the liver. PLoS ONE 4, e5650.

108. T Mutoh , S Shibata , H-W Korf , et al. (2003) Melatonin modulates the light-induced sympathoexcitation and vagal suppression with participation of the suprachiasmatic nucleus in mice. J Physiol 547, 317332.

109. E Sabath , A Baez-Ruiz & RM Buijs (2015) Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease as a consequence of autonomic imbalance and circadian desynchronization. Obes Rev 16, 871882.

110. P Pevet & E Challet (2011) Melatonin: both master clock output and internal time-giver in the circadian clocks network. J Physiol Paris 105, 170182.

111. L Agez , V Laurent , HY Guerrero , et al. (2009) Endogenous melatonin provides an effective circadian message to both the suprachiasmatic nuclei and the pars tuberalis of the rat. J Pineal Res 46, 95105.

112. G Favero , A Stacchiotti , S Castrezzati , et al. (2015) Melatonin reduces obesity and restores adipokine patterns and metabolism in obese (ob/ob) mice. Nutr Res 35, 891900.

113. E Mühlbauer , E Gross , K Labucay , et al. (2009) Loss of melatonin signalling and its impact on circadian rhythms in mouse organs regulating blood glucose. Eur J Pharmacol 606, 6171.

114. A Conti & GJ Maestroni (1998) Melatonin rhythms in mice: role in autoimmune and lymphoproliferative diseases. Ann New York Acad Sci 840, 395410.

115. TC Nogueira , C Lellis-Santos , DS Jesus , et al. (2011) Absence of melatonin induces night-time hepatic insulin resistance and increased gluconeogenesis due to stimulation of nocturnal unfolded protein response. Endocrinology 152, 12531263.

117. K Szewczyk-Golec , A Wozniak & RJ Reiter (2015) Inter-relationships of the chronobiotic, melatonin, with leptin and adiponectin: implications for obesity. J Pineal Res 59, 277291.

118. J Cipolla-Neto , FG Amaral , S Afeche , et al. (2014) Melatonin, energy metabolism, and obesity: a review. J Pineal Res 56, 371381.

119. P Pévet (2014) The internal time-giver role of melatonin. A key for our health. Rev Neurol (Paris) 170, 646652.

120. B Nojkov , JH Rubenstein , WD Chey , et al. (2010) The impact of rotating shift work on the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome in nurses. Am J Gastroenterol 105, 842847.

121. L Miele , V Valenza , G La Torre , et al. (2009) Increased intestinal permeability and tight junction alterations in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology 49, 18771887.

122. P Brun , I Castagliuolo , V Di Leo , et al. (2007) Increased intestinal permeability in obese mice: new evidence in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 292, 518525.

123. MM Hussain (2014) Regulation of intestinal lipid absorption by clock genes. Annu Rev Nutr 34, 357375.

124. S Ding , MM Chi , BP Scull , et al. (2010) High-fat diet: bacteria interactions promote intestinal inflammation which precedes and correlates with obesity and insulin resistance in mouse. PLoS ONE 5, e12191.

125. JK Nicholson , E Holmes , J Kinross , et al. (2012) Host–gut microbiota metabolic interactions. Science 336, 12621267.

126. B Schnabl & DA Brenner (2014) Interactions between the intestinal microbiome and liver diseases. Gastroenterology 146, 15131524.

127. A Mukherji , A Kobiita , T Ye , et al. (2013) Homeostasis in intestinal epithelium is orchestrated by the circadian clock and microbiota cues transduced by TLRs. Cell 153, 812827.

128. CA Thaiss , D Zeevi , M Levy , et al. (2014) Transkingdom control of microbiota diurnal oscillations promotes metabolic homeostasis. Cell 159, 514529.

129. X Liang , FD Bushman & GA Fitzgerald (2015) Rhythmicity of the intestinal microbiota is regulated by gender and the host circadian clock. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112, 1047910484.

130. RM Voigt , CB Forsyth , SJ Green , et al. (2014) Circadian disorganization alters intestinal microbiota. PLOS ONE 9, e97500.

131. V Leone , SM Gibbons , K Martinez , et al. (2015) Effects of diurnal variation of gut microbes and high-fat feeding on host circadian clock function and metabolism. Cell Host Microbe 17, 681689.

132. KC Allison , N Goel & RS Ahima (2014) Delayed timing of eating: impact on weight and metabolism. Curr Obes Rep 3, 91100.

133. D Jakubowicz , M Barnea , J Wainstein , et al. (2013) High caloric intake at breakfast vs. dinner differentially influences weight loss of overweight and obese women. Obesity 21, 25042512.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Nutrition Research Reviews
  • ISSN: 0954-4224
  • EISSN: 1475-2700
  • URL: /core/journals/nutrition-research-reviews
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 219
Total number of PDF views: 610 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 2376 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 28th July 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.