Skip to main content
×
Home

African elephants: population trends and their causes

  • I. Douglas-Hamilton (a1)
Abstract

In 1985 many African elephant populations, which had been monitored for a decade or more, were either in rapid decline or down to a fraction of their former size. The author examines regional trends and information on key populations with reference to the critical factors affecting the survival of the African elephant, most significantly poaching and the illegal trade in ivory

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      African elephants: population trends and their causes
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      African elephants: population trends and their causes
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      African elephants: population trends and their causes
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
References
Hide All
Avergan T. and Honey M. 1982. War in Uganda. Tanzania Publishing House Ltd, Dar-es-Salaam.
Barnes R.F.W. and Douglas-Hamilton I. 1982. The numbers and distribution patterns of large mammals in the Ruaha-Rungwa area of southern Tanzania. J. Appl. Ecol. 19, 411425.
Bell R.H.V. 1984. Letter to the Editor. Swara, 7, 40.
Boitani L. 1981. The Southern National Park, a Master Plan. Prepared for Instituto di Zoologia, Facolta di Scienze dell'Universita di Roma, Italy.
Borner M. and Severre E. 1984. The Ruaha Elephants Report from the Ministry of Lands, Natural Resources and Tourism, Tanzania.
Borner M. and Severre E. 1985. Rhino and Elephant Poaching in the Selous Game Reserve. Serengeti Wildlife Research and Frankfurt Zoological Society.
Bousquet B. and Szaniawski A. 1981. Benin et Haute Volta. Resultats des Recensements Aeriens de Grands Mammiferes dans la region Pendjarie et Mekrou. FO:DP/UPV/78/008 DP/BEN/77/011. Document de Terrain No. 4.
Bryden H. A. 1903. The decline and fall of the South African elephant. Fortnightly; Review (n.s.), 79, 100108.
Burrill A., Douglas-Hamilton I. and Mackinnon J. 1986. Protected Areas as Refuges for Elephants. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Caldwell J.R. and Barzdo J. 1985. The World Trade in Raw Ivory, 1983 and 1984. Wildlife Trade Monitoring Unit report to CITES.
Carrington R. 1958. Elephants, a Short Account of their Natural History, Evolution and Influence on Mankind. Penguin, London.
Caughley G. and Goddard J. 1975. Abundance and distribution of elephants in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia. East African Wildlife J. 13, 3948.
Cobb S.M. 1976. The distribution and abundance of the large herbivore community of Tsavo National Park, Kenya. D.Phil. Thesis. University of Oxford.
Craven D. 1984. Damaraland and Kaokoland—Where to Now? Namibia Wildlife Trust Newsletter. Winter 1984.
De Bie S and Kessler J.J. 1983. An Aerial Resource Inventory of the National Park Boucle du Baoule?. Department of Nature Conservation, Agricultural University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Douglas-Hamilton I. 1972. On the Ecology and Behaviour of the African Elephant. D.Phil.Thesis. University of Oxford.
Douglas-Hamilton I. 1976a. The African Elephant Action Plan. Typescript report for the IUCN/WWF/NYZS Elephant Survey and Conservation Programme.
Douglas-Hamilton I. 1979b. African Elephant Ivory Trade. Final Report to US Fish and Wildlife Service.
Douglas-Hamilton I. 1983a. Back from the brink. AERSG Newsletter, 1, 13.
Douglas-Hamilton I. 1983b. Elephants hit by African arms race. Pachyderm, 2, November 1983.
Douglas-Hamilton I. 1984a. Trends in key African elephant populations. Pachyderm, 4, 79.
Douglas-Hamilton I. 1984b. Elephant and rhino populations trends in Selous, Tanzania, Pachyderm, 4, 18.
Douglas-Hamilton O. 1980. Africa's elephants—can they survive? National Geographic Magazine, 158, 568603.
Douglas-Hamilton I., Froment J.M., Doungoube G. and Root J. 1985. Amenagement Faune Republique Centra-fricaine. Recensement aereien de la faune dans la zone nord de la Republique Centrafricaine, FO: CAF/78/006 Document de travail 5.
Douglas-Hamilton I., Hillman A.K.K., Holt P. and Ansell P. 1979. Luangwa Valley. IUCN/NYZS WWF Elephant, Rhino and Wildlife Survey.
Douglas-Hamilton I., Malpas R., Edroma E., Holt P., Laker-Ajok G. and Weyerhaeuser R. 1980. Rwenzori National Park and Kabalega National Park Aerial Counts. IUCN Progress Report. Uganda Elephant Survey. Uganda Institute of Ecology.
Dublin H. and Douglas-Hamilton I. 1986. Current Status and Past Trends of Elephants in the Serengeti and Mara ecosystems (in press).
Ecosystems 1979–1980. Aerial Survey Reports in Tanzania Ecosytems Ltd, Nairobi.
Eltringham S.K. and Malpas R.C. 1980. The decline in elephant numbers in Rwenzori and Kabalega Falls National Parks, Uganda. Afr. J. Ecol. 18, 7386.
Froment J.M. 1985. Exploitation des Elephants en Republique Centrafricaine. Document de terrain No. 1, CAF/78/006, FAO.
Haigh J.C., Parker I.S.C., Parkinson D.A. and Archer. A.L. 1979. An Elephant Extermination. Environmental Conservation, 6, 305310.
Hall-Martin A. 1980. Elephant survivors. Oryx, XV, 355362.
Hall-Martin A. 1981. Conservation and management of elephants in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. 1UCN/SSC AERSG proceedings at Hwange Safari Lodge, Zimbabwe.
Hillman A.K.K. and Borner M. 1983. Aerial Census of the Garamba National Park, Zaire. Report of WWF/FZS. Typescript.
Hillman A.K.K., Snyder P.M., Tear T. and Sommerlatte M. 1981. An Aerial Reconnaissance of the Shamba Area, Southern Sudan. Typescript report.
Kayanja F. and Douglas-Hamilton I. 1982. Impact of the Unexpected—Case History of the Uganda National Parks. Bali Conference.
Martin R. 1985. Establishment of African Ivory Export Quotas and Associated Control Procedures. A report to the CITES secretariat.
Melton D.A. 1985. The Status of elephants in Northern Botswana. Biological Conservation, 31, 317333.
Mulder M.B. and Caro T. 1980. Slaughter of the Elephants. New Scientist, July, 3234.
Olivier R.C.D. 1983. The Gounna Elephants of Mali. A Challenge for the Integrated Management of Sahelian Rangeland. UNEP, Nairobi. Typescript.
Omar H.S. 1981. Save the elephants from extinction in Somali. Somali Range Bulletin, 12, 6770.
Otticholo W.K. 1986. Population estimates and distribution patterns of elephants in the Tsavo ecosystem, Kenya, in 1980. African Journal of Ecology, 24, 5357.
Owen-Smtih G. 1984. Namibia's most valuable resource. Quagga, 7. Spring 1984.
Parker I.S.C. 1979. The Ivory Trade. Report to I. Douglas-Hamilton on behalf of the US Fish and Wildlife Service.
Parker I.S.C. and Amin M. 1983. Ivory Crisis. Chatto and Windus, London.
Parker I.S.C. and Martin E.B. 1982. How many elephants are killed for the ivory trade? Oryx, XVI, 235239.
Parker I.S.C. and Martin E.B. 1983. Further insight into the international ivory trade. Oryx, XVII, 194200.
Parry D. 1983. Slaughterhouse of the Giants. Quagga, 7, 3233.
Patterson L 1985. Aerial Monitoring of Major Wildlife Species in Northern Botswana. Third Survey, Kalahari Conservation Society.
Pilgram T. and Western D. 1984. Managing elephant populations for ivory production. Pachyderm, 4, 911.
Reoyo M.T. 1979. Le Parc National de Zakouma En Peril: Destruction Systematique des animaux par de Militaires. Typescript report.
Roth H.H., Merz G. and Steinhauer B. 1984. Repartition et Statue des grandes mammiferes en Cote d'Ivoire. Mammalia, 48, 207226.
Savidge J.M., Woodford M.H. and Croze H. 1976. Report on a Mission to Zaire. FAO (KEN/71/526–ZAI/70/001).
Sheldrick D.L.W. 1976. Report on Poaching in the Tsavo National Park. Typescript report.
Stelfox J.G., Kafwafwa J.W., Otticholo W.K. 1981. Distributions and population trends of elephants and rhinoceros in Kenya: 1977–1981. KREMU Technical Report No. 43. Ministry of Tourism and Wildlife, Nairobi.
Teleki G. 1980. Status of the Elephant (Loxodonta africana) in Sierra Leone. A Preliminary Report on Distributions. Report to WWF. Typescript.
US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. 1983 World Military Expenditures and Arms Transfers. US State Dept.
Van Wyk P. and Fairall N. 1969. The influence of the African elephant on the vegetation of the Kruger National Park with special reference to the tree and shrub strata. Koedoe, 12, 5789.
Verschuren J. 1981. Senegal's disappearing elephants. Oryx XVI, 118119.
Verschuren J. 1982. Hope for Liberia. Oryx, XVI, 421427.
Watson R.M., Thackway R.M., Tippet C.I. and Scholes V.A.D. 1976. Sudan National Livestock Census and Resource Inventory. Typescript. 20 volumes.
Wells M. and Douglas-Hamilton I. 1986. Tusk size CAR. Pachyderm 6, 16.
Weyerhaeuser R. 1982. On the ecology of the Lake Manyara elephants. Masters Thesis. Yale University.
Work D.R. 1983. Chobe Elephant Survey Interim Report. Typescript report.
WTMU. 1983. The Hong Kong and Japanese Trade in Unworked Ivory 1979–1982. Traffic Bulletin, 5, 710.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Oryx
  • ISSN: 0030-6053
  • EISSN: 1365-3008
  • URL: /core/journals/oryx
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 10
Total number of PDF views: 1057 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 860 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 22nd November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.