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African elephants: population trends and their causes

  • I. Douglas-Hamilton (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 April 2009

In 1985 many African elephant populations, which had been monitored for a decade or more, were either in rapid decline or down to a fraction of their former size. The author examines regional trends and information on key populations with reference to the critical factors affecting the survival of the African elephant, most significantly poaching and the illegal trade in ivory

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This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

R.F.W. Barnes and I. Douglas-Hamilton 1982. The numbers and distribution patterns of large mammals in the Ruaha-Rungwa area of southern Tanzania. J. Appl. Ecol. 19, 411425.

G. Caughley and J. Goddard 1975. Abundance and distribution of elephants in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia. East African Wildlife J. 13, 3948.

S.K. Eltringham and R.C. Malpas 1980. The decline in elephant numbers in Rwenzori and Kabalega Falls National Parks, Uganda. Afr. J. Ecol. 18, 7386.

D.A. Melton 1985. The Status of elephants in Northern Botswana. Biological Conservation, 31, 317333.

W.K. Otticholo 1986. Population estimates and distribution patterns of elephants in the Tsavo ecosystem, Kenya, in 1980. African Journal of Ecology, 24, 5357.

P. Van Wyk and N. Fairall 1969. The influence of the African elephant on the vegetation of the Kruger National Park with special reference to the tree and shrub strata. Koedoe, 12, 5789.

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