Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Age structure of the Vulnerable white-lipped peccary Tayassu pecari in areas under different levels of hunting pressure in the Amazon Forest

  • Rossano Marchetti Ramos (a1), Juarez C. B. Pezzuti (a2) and Emerson M. Vieira (a3)

Subsistence hunting can change the demographic structure of wild mammal populations, increasing the proportion of young animals, inducing females to reproduce early and increasing litter sizes. We examined the relationship between hunting pressure and age structure in the Vulnerable white-lipped peccary Tayassu pecari, analysing the distribution of age classes at seven sites in the region Terra do Meio in the Brazilian Amazon. These sites differ in the number of human inhabitants and hence were subject to differing hunting pressures. We completed semi-structured interviews with local people to assess the importance of hunting and of the white-lipped peccary as food. We also estimated the age of hunted white-lipped peccaries by assessing tooth eruption and tooth wear in skulls of hunted individuals. Our results indicated that the white-lipped peccary was the most frequently hunted terrestrial animal in the region. Fishing, followed by hunting, provided the main sources of animal protein. Our data suggest there is no relationship between age structure and hunting at the study sites. The social structure and mobility of white-lipped peccaries seem to minimize the effects of hunting on age structure. Our results, similar to previous studies, show that the age structure of the white-lipped peccary is robust to hunting impacts. Other factors may have stronger effects on age structure than subsistence hunting. We suggest that deforestation may explain the prevalence of older individuals in peccary populations to the north of our study sites.

Corresponding author
(Corresponding author) E-mail
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

F.W. Allendorf , P.R. England , G. Luikart , P.A. Ritchie & N. Ryman (2008) Genetic effects of harvest on wild animal populations. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 23, 327337.

M. Altrichter (2005) The sustainability of subsistence hunting of peccaries in the Argentine Chaco. Biological Conservation, 126, 351362.

M. Altrichter , A. Taber , H. Beck , R. Reyna-Hurtado , L. Lizarraga , A. Keuroghlian & E.W. Sanderson (2012) Range-wide declines of a key Neotropical ecosystem architect, the Near Threatened white-lipped peccary Tayassu pecari . Oryx, 46, 8798.

R.E. Bodmer (1990) Responses of ungulates to seasonal inundations in the Amazon floodplain. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 6, 191201.

R.E. Bodmer (1995) Managing Amazonian wildlife: biological correlates of game choice by detribalized hunters. Ecological Applications, 5, 872877.

G. Caughley (1966) Mortality patterns in mammals. Ecology, 47, 906918.

H.S. Cooley , R.B. Wielgus , G.M. Koehler , H.S. Robinson & B.T. Maletzke (2009) Does hunting regulate cougar populations? A test of the compensatory mortality hypothesis. Ecology, 90, 29132921.

A.L.J. Desbiez , A. Keuroghlian , U. Piovezan & R.E. Bodmer (2011) Invasive species and bushmeat hunting contributing to wildlife conservation: the case of feral pigs in a Neotropical wetland. Oryx, 45, 7883.

J.M.V. Fragoso (1998) Home range and movement patterns of white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari) herds in the northern Brazilian Amazon. Biotropica, 30, 458469.

A. Jerozolimski & C.A. Peres (2003) Bringing home the biggest bacon: a cross-site analysis of the structure of hunter-kill profiles in Neotropical forests. Biological Conservation, 111, 415425.

A. Keuroghlian , D.P. Eaton & W.S. Longland (2004) Area use by white-lipped and collared peccaries (Tayassu pecari and Tayassu tajacu) in a tropical forest fragment. Biological Conservation, 120, 411425.

R.A. Kiltie & J. Terborgh (1983) Observations on the behavior of rainforest peccaries in Perú: why do white lipped peccaries form herds? Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 62, 241255.

R. Kirkpatrick (1962) Age determination of the collared peccary by the tooth-replacement pattern. Journal of Wildlife Management, 26, 214217.

E.W.M. Lucas , F.A.S. de Sousa , F.D.S. dos Silva & P.S. Lucio (2009) Modelagem hidrológica determinística e estocástica aplicada à região hidrográfica do Xingu—Pará. Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia, 24, 308322.

E. Naranjo & R.E. Bodmer (2007) Source-sink systems and conservation of hunted ungulates in the Lacandon Forest, Mexico. Biological Conservation, 138, 412420.

C.A. Peres (2000) Effects of subsistence hunting on vertebrate community structure in Amazonian forests. Conservation Biology, 14, 240253.

C.A. Peres & P.M.P. Dolman (2000) Density compensation in Neotropical primate communities: evidence from 56 hunted and non-hunted Amazonian forests of varying productivity. Oecologia, 122, 175189.

C.A. Peres & E. Palacios (2007) Basin-wide effects of game harvest on vertebrate population densities in Amazonian forests: implications for animal-mediated seed dispersal. Biotropica, 39, 304315.

K. Redford (1992) The empty forest. BioScience, 42, 412422.

K. Redford & J. Robinson (1987) The game of choice: patterns of Indian and colonist hunting in the Neotropics. American Anthropologist, 89, 650667.

R. Reyna-Hurtado , C.A. Chapman , S. Calme & E.J. Pedersen (2012) Searching in heterogeneous and limiting environments: foraging strategies of white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari). Journal of Mammalogy, 93, 124133.

R. Reyna-Hurtado , E. Naranjo , C.A. Chapman & G.W. Tanner (2009a) Hunting and the conservation of a social ungulate: the white-lipped peccary Tayassu pecari in Calakmul, Mexico. Oryx, 44, 89.

R. Reyna-Hurtado , E. Rojas-Flores & G.W. Tanner (2009b) Home range and habitat preferences of white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari) in Calakmul, Campeche, Mexico. Journal of Mammalogy, 90, 11991209.

G.B. Schaller (1983) Mammals and their biomass on a Brazilian ranch. Arquivos de Zoologia, 31, 136.

S. Servanty , J.-M. Gaillard , F. Ronchi , S. Focardi , É. Baubet & O. Gimenez (2011) Influence of harvesting pressure on demographic tactics: implications for wildlife management. Journal of Applied Ecology, 48, 835843.

G. White & R. Bartmann (1998) Effect of density reduction on overwinter survival of free-ranging mule deer fawns. Journal of Wildlife Management, 62, 214225.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0030-6053
  • EISSN: 1365-3008
  • URL: /core/journals/oryx
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 3
Total number of PDF views: 63 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 237 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 26th June 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.