Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 23
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Barnes, Megan D. Craigie, Ian D. Dudley, Nigel and Hockings, Marc 2016. Understanding local-scale drivers of biodiversity outcomes in terrestrial protected areas. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences,

    Cronin, Drew T. Riaco, Cirilo Linder, Joshua M. Bergl, Richard A. Gonder, Mary Katherine O'Connor, Michael P. and Hearn, Gail W. 2016. Impact of gun-hunting on monkey species and implications for primate conservation on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. Biological Conservation, Vol. 197, p. 180.

    Crudge, B. O'Connor, D. Hunt, M. Davis, E. O. and Browne-Nuñez, C. 2016. Groundwork for effective conservation education: an example ofin situandex situcollaboration in South East Asia. International Zoo Yearbook, Vol. 50, Issue. 1, p. 34.

    Harvey, Ross 2016. Risks and Fallacies Associated with Promoting a Legalised Trade in Ivory. Politikon, Vol. 43, Issue. 2, p. 215.

    Hinsley, Amy Lee, Tamsin E. Harrison, Joseph R. and Roberts, David L. 2016. Estimating the extent and structure of trade in horticultural orchids via social media. Conservation Biology, Vol. 30, Issue. 5, p. 1038.

    Phelps, Jacob Biggs, Duan and Webb, Edward L 2016. Tools and terms for understanding illegal wildlife trade. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment,

    Bennett, Elizabeth L. 2015. Legal ivory trade in a corrupt world and its impact on African elephant populations. Conservation Biology, Vol. 29, Issue. 1, p. 54.

    Daut, Elizabeth F. Brightsmith, Donald J. Mendoza, A. Patricia Puhakka, Liisa and Peterson, Markus J. 2015. Illegal domestic bird trade and the role of export quotas in Peru. Journal for Nature Conservation, Vol. 27, p. 44.

    Kretser, Heidi E. Wong, Ramacandra Roberton, Scott Pershyn, Carrianne Huang, JianMing Sun, Fuping Kang, Aili and Zahler, Peter 2015. Mobile decision-tree tool technology as a means to detect wildlife crimes and build enforcement networks. Biological Conservation, Vol. 189, p. 33.

    Linkie, Matthew Martyr, Deborah J. Harihar, Abishek Risdianto, Dian Nugraha, Rudijanta T. Maryati, Leader-Williams, Nigel Wong, Wai-Ming and Hayward, Matt 2015. EDITOR'S CHOICE: Safeguarding Sumatran tigers: evaluating effectiveness of law enforcement patrols and local informant networks. Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 52, Issue. 4, p. 851.

    Muths, Erin and Fisher, Robert N. 2015. An alternative framework for responding to the amphibian crisis. Oryx, p. 1.

    Rayan, D. Mark and Linkie, Matthew 2015. Conserving tigers in Malaysia: A science-driven approach for eliciting conservation policy change. Biological Conservation, Vol. 184, p. 18.

    Cronin, Drew T. Libalah, Moses B. Bergl, Richard A. and Hearn, Gail W. 2014. Biodiversity and Conservation of Tropical Montane Ecosystems in the Gulf of Guinea, West Africa. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, Vol. 46, Issue. 4, p. 891.

    NIELSEN, MARTIN REINHARDT JACOBSEN, JETTE BREDAHL and THORSEN, BO JELLESMARK 2014. Factors Determining the Choice of Hunting and Trading Bushmeat in the Kilombero Valley, Tanzania. Conservation Biology, Vol. 28, Issue. 2, p. 382.

    Wittemyer, G. Northrup, J. M. Blanc, J. Douglas-Hamilton, I. Omondi, P. and Burnham, K. P. 2014. Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, Issue. 36, p. 13117.

    Gandiwa, Edson Heitkönig, Ignas M.A. Lokhorst, Anne M. Prins, Herbert H.T. and Leeuwis, Cees 2013. Illegal hunting and law enforcement during a period of economic decline in Zimbabwe: A case study of northern Gonarezhou National Park and adjacent areas. Journal for Nature Conservation, Vol. 21, Issue. 3, p. 133.

    Koh, Lian P. Kettle, Chris J. Sheil, Douglas Lee, Tien M. Giam, Xingli Gibson, Luke and Clements, Gopalasamy R. 2013. Encyclopedia of Biodiversity.

    Linkie, Matthew Guillera-Arroita, Gurutzeta Smith, Joseph Ario, Anton Bertagnolio, Gregoire Cheong, Francis Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben Dinata, Yoan Duangchantrasiri, Somphot Fredriksson, Gabriella Gumal, Melvin T. Horng, Liang Song Kawanishi, Kae Khakim, Faesal Rakhman Kinnaird, Margaret F. Kiswayadi, Dedy Lubis, Abu H. Lynam, Antony J. Maryati, Maung, Myint Ngoprasert, Dusit Novarino, Wilson O’Brien, Timothy G. Parakkasi, Karmila Peters, Helga Priatna, Dolly Rayan, D.Mark Seuaturien, Naret Shwe, Nay Myo Steinmetz, Robert Sugesti, Arif M. Sunarto, Sunquist, Melvin E. Umponjan, Mayuree Wibisono, Hariyo T. Wong, Christopher C.T. and Zulfahmi, 2013. Cryptic mammals caught on camera: Assessing the utility of range wide camera trap data for conserving the endangered Asian tapir. Biological Conservation, Vol. 162, p. 107.

    TRAYFORD, HANNAH R. and FARMER, KAY H. 2013. Putting the Spotlight on Internally Displaced Animals (IDAs): A Survey of Primate Sanctuaries in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. American Journal of Primatology, Vol. 75, Issue. 2, p. 116.

    Wong, Wai-Ming and Linkie, Matthew 2013. Managing sun bears in a changing tropical landscape. Diversity and Distributions, Vol. 19, Issue. 7, p. 700.


Another inconvenient truth: the failure of enforcement systems to save charismatic species

  • Elizabeth L. Bennett (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 07 June 2011

In spite of significant recent advances in understanding how to conserve species we are failing to conserve some of the most beloved and charismatic, with severe population losses, shrinking ranges and extinctions of subspecies. The primary reason is hunting for illegal trade of highly valuable body parts, increasingly operated by sophisticated organized criminal syndicates supplying wealthy East Asian markets. Current enforcement systems were not established to tackle such crime, and weak governance, low capacity and inadequate resources facilitate the trade. To save these species this trade must be treated as serious crime, with allocation of sufficient resources, highly trained personnel, and appropriate technologies to allow it to be tackled effectively. Success in tackling this trade will necessitate commitment from governments and non-governmental organizations and the support of civil society.

Corresponding author
*Wildlife Conservation Society, 2300 Southern Blvd. Bronx, New York 10460, USA. Email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

Anon (2007) Huge Seizure of Tiger Skins, Bear Paws and Saiga Horns in Russian Far East. Http:// [accessed 20 March 2010].

Anon (2009a) Tonnes of Elephant Tusks Smuggled into Vietnam. Agence France Press, 2 March.

E.L. Bennett (2009) Social dimensions of managing hunting in tropical forests. In Wildlife and Society: The Science of Human Dimensions (eds M.J. Manfredo , J.J. Vaske , P.J. Brown , D.D. Decker & E.A. Duke ), pp. 289300. Island Press, Washington, DC, USA.

CITES Secretariat (2010b) Monitoring of Illegal Trade in Ivory and Other Elephant Specimens. Report to the 15th Meeting of the Conference of the Parties, CoP 15 Doc 44.1 (Rev. 1). Http:// [accessed 20 March 2010].

CITES Secretariat (2010c) Rhinoceroses. Report to the 15th Meeting of the Conference of the Parties, CoP 15 Doc 45.1 (Rev. 1). Http:// [accessed 20 March 2010].

B. Davies (2005) Black Market: Inside the Endangered Species Trade in Asia. Earth Aware Editions, San Rafael, USA.

S. Guynup (2010) On the Ground: Pangolins in Peril. Defenders Magazine, Winter 2010. Washington, DC, USA. Http:// [accessed 3 December 2010].

C.M. Hill (2009) Working with communities to achieve conservation goals. In Wildlife and Society: The Science of Human Dimensions (eds M.J. Manfredo , J.J. Vaske , P.J. Brown , D.D. Decker & E.A. Duke ), pp. 117128. Island Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Interpol (2010) Powerful Alliance to Fight Wildlife Crime Comes into Effect. Http:// [accessed 3 December 2010].

A. Kramer (2010) At Russia-China Border, Bear Paws Sell Best. New York Times, 30 June 2010. Http:// [accessed 3 December 2010].

M.D. Madhusudan & K.U. Karanth (2000) Hunting for an answer: is local hunting compatible with large mammal conservation in India? In Hunting for Sustainability in Tropical Forests (eds J.G. Robinson & E.L. Bennett ), pp. 339355. Columbia University Press, New York, USA.

T. Milliken , R.W. Burn & L. Sangalakula (2009b) The Elephant Trade Information System (ETIS) and the illicit trade in ivory. Report to the 15th Meeting of the CITES Conference of the Parties, CoP 15, Doc. 44.1 Annex. Http:// [accessed 20 March 2010].

E.J. Milner-Gulland , M.V. Kholodova , A. Bekenov , O.M. Bukreeva , A. Grachev , L. Amgalan & A.A. Lushchekina (2001) Dramatic declines in saiga antelope population. Oryx, 35, 340345.

J.G. Robinson & H. Queiroz (2011) Márcio Ayres: new approaches to the conservation and management of protected areas in Amazonia. In The Amazon Várzea: The Decade Past and the Decade Ahead (eds M. Pinedo-Vasquez , M.L. Ruffino , R.R. Sears , E.S. Brondizio & C. Padoch ), Springer Verlag and New York Botanical Garden Press, New York, USA.

E. Sanderson , J. Forrest , C. Loucks , J. Ginsberg & E. Dinerstein (2006) Setting Priorities for the Conservation and Recovery of Wild Tigers: 2005–2015: The Technical Assessment. Wildlife Conservation Society, WWF, Smithsonian, and National Fish & Wildlife Foundation—Save the Tiger Fund, New York, and Washington, DC, USA.

TRAFFIC (2010a) South African Delegates Visit Viet Nam to Address Illegal Rhino Horn Trade. Http:// [accessed 3 December 2010].

J. Walston , J.G. Robinson , E.L. Bennett , U. Breitenmoser , G.A.B. da Fonseca , J. Goodrich . (2010). Bringing the tiger back from the brink – the six percent solution. PLoS Biology, 8(9), e1000485. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000485.

S.K. Wasser , W.J. Clark , O. Drori , E.S. Kisamo , C. Mailand , B. Mutyoba & M. Stephens (2008). Combating the illegal trade in African elephant ivory with DNA forensics. Conservation Biology, 22, 10651071.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0030-6053
  • EISSN: 1365-3008
  • URL: /core/journals/oryx
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *