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Are sacred caves still safe havens for the endemic bats of Madagascar?

  • Álvaro Fernández-Llamazares (a1), Adrià López-Baucells (a2), Ricardo Rocha (a3), Santatra F. M. Andriamitandrina (a4), Zo Emmanuel Andriatafika (a5), Daniel Burgas (a6), Eric Marcel Temba (a4), Laura Torrent (a1) and Mar Cabeza (a1)...
Abstract

Despite conservation discourses in Madagascar increasingly emphasizing the role of customary institutions for wildlife management, we know relatively little about their effectiveness. Here, we used semi-structured interviews with 54 adults in eight villages to investigate whether sacred caves and taboos offer conservation benefits for cave-dwelling bats in and around Tsimanampetsotsa National Park, south-west Madagascar. Although some caves were described as sites of spiritual significance for the local communities, most interviewees (c. 76%) did not recognize their present-day sacred status. Similarly, only 22% of the interviewees recognized taboos inhibiting bat hunting and consumption. Legal protection of bats and caves through protected areas was often more widely acknowledged than customary regulations, although up to 30% of the interviewees reported consumption of bats within their communities. Guano extraction was often tolerated in sacred caves in exchange for economic compensation. This may benefit bat conservation by creating incentives for bat protection, although extraction is often performed through destructive and exploitative practices with little benefit for local communities. In view of these results our study questions the extent to which sacred sites, taboos and protected areas offer protection for bats in Madagascar. These results support previous studies documenting the erosion of customary institutions in Madagascar, including the loss of the spiritual values underpinning sacred sites. Given that many Malagasy bats are cave-dwelling species and that most depend on the customary protection of these sites, it is important to obtain a better understanding of the complex interactions between spiritual practices, taboos and protected areas in sustaining bat diversity.

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Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
(Corresponding author) E-mail alvaro.fernandez-llamazares@helsinki.fi
Footnotes
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*

Also at: Metapopulation Research Centre, University of Helsinki, Finland

Also at: Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes, University of Lisbon, Portugal

Also at: Conservation Science Group, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom

§

Also at: Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Finland

The supplementary material for this article is available at https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605317001648

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