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Assessing the ongoing threat from veterinary non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to Critically Endangered Gyps vultures in India

  • Richard J. Cuthbert (a1), Ruchi Dave (a2), Soumya Sunder Chakraborty (a2), Sashi Kumar (a2), Satya Prakash (a3), Sachin P. Ranade (a2) and Vibhu Prakash (a2)...
Abstract
Abstract

Use of the veterinary drug diclofenac is responsible for bringing three species of Gyps vultures endemic to South Asia to the brink of extinction, and the Government of India banned veterinary use of the drug in May 2006. To evaluate the effectiveness of the ban we undertook surveys of > 250 veterinary and general pharmacies in 11 Indian states from November 2007 to June 2010. Twelve different classes of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were purchased from 176 pharmacies. Other than meloxicam (of negligible toxicity to vultures at likely concentrations in their food), diclofenac and ketoprofen (both toxic to vultures), little is known of the safety or toxicity of the remaining nine NSAIDs on sale. Meloxicam was the most commonly encountered drug, sold in 70% of pharmacies, but 50% of the meloxicam brands sold had paracetamol (acetaminophen) as a second ingredient. Diclofenac and ketoprofen were recorded in 36 and 29% of pharmacies, respectively, with states in western and central India having the highest prevalence of diclofenac (44–45%). Although the large number of manufacturers and availability of meloxicam is encouraging, the wide range of untested NSAIDs and continued availability of diclofenac is a major source of concern. Circumvention of the 2006 diclofenac ban is being achieved by illegally selling forms of diclofenac manufactured for human use for veterinary purposes. To provide a safer environment for vultures in South Asia we recommend reducing the size of vials of diclofenac meant for human use, to increase the costs of illegal veterinary use, and taking action against pharmaceutical manufacturers and pharmacies flouting the diclofenac ban.

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Corresponding author
*Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire, SG19 2DL, UK. E-mail richard.cuthbert@rspb.org.uk
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This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

R.E. Green , M.A. Taggart , D. Das , D.J. Pain , C. Sashikumar , A.A. Cunningham & R. Cuthbert (2006) Collapse of Asian vulture populations: risk of mortality from residues of the veterinary drug diclofenac in carcasses of treated cattle. Journal of Applied Ecology, 43, 949956.

D. Swarup , R.C. Patra , V. Prakash , R. Cuthbert , D. Das , P. Avari . (2007) The safety of meloxicam to critically endangered Gyps vultures and other scavenging birds in India. Animal Conservation, 10, 192198.

M.A. Taggart , K. Senacha , R.G. Green , Y.V. Jhala , B. Raghavan , A.R. Rahmani . (2007) Diclofenac residues in carcasses of domestic ungulates available to vultures in India. Environment International, 33, 759765.

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Oryx
  • ISSN: 0030-6053
  • EISSN: 1365-3008
  • URL: /core/journals/oryx
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