Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Beyond conflict: exploring the spectrum of human–wildlife interactions and their underlying mechanisms

  • Saloni Bhatia (a1), Stephen Mark Redpath (a2), Kulbhushansingh Suryawanshi (a1) and Charudutt Mishra (a1)

Abstract

Humans have lived alongside and interacted with wild animals throughout evolutionary history. Even though wild animals can damage property, or injure humans and domesticated animals, not all interactions between humans and wildlife are negative. Yet, research has tended to focus disproportionately on negative interactions leading to negative outcomes, labelling this human–wildlife conflict. Studies have identified several factors, ranging from gender, religion, socio-economics and literacy, which influence people's responses to wildlife. We used the ISI Web of Knowledge database to assess quantitatively how human–wildlife interactions are framed in the scientific literature and to understand the hypotheses that have been invoked to explain these. We found that the predominant focus of research was on human–wildlife conflict (71%), with little coverage of coexistence (2%) or neutral interactions (8%). We suggest that such a framing is problematic as it can lead to biases in conservation planning by failing to consider the nuances of people's relationships with wildlife and the opportunities that exist for conservation. We propose a typology of human responses to wildlife impacts, ranging from negative to positive, to help moderate the disproportionate focus on conflict. We suggest that standardizing terminology and considering interactions beyond those that are negative can lead to a more nuanced understanding of human–wildlife relations and help promote greater coexistence between people and wildlife. We also list the various influential factors that are reported to shape human–wildlife interactions and, to generate further hypotheses and research, classify them into 55 proximate (correlates) and five ultimate (mechanisms) factors.

Copyright

Corresponding author

(Corresponding author) E-mail saloni86@gmail.com

Footnotes

Hide All
*

Also at: Snow Leopard Trust, Seattle, USA

Also at: Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India

Supplementary material for this article is available at https://doi.org/10.1017/S003060531800159X

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Ajzen, I. (1985) From intentions to actions: a theory of planned behavior. In Action-Control: from Cognition to Behavior (eds Kuhl, J. & Beckmann, J.), pp. 1139. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany.
Ajzen, I. (1991) The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179211.
Alcock, J. (ed.) (1975) Animal Behavior: an Evolutionary Approach. Sinauer, Sunderland, USA.
Amit, R. & Jacobson, S.K. (2017) Understanding rancher coexistence with jaguars and pumas: a typology for conservation practice. Biodiversity and Conservation, 26, 13531374.
Anand, S. & Radhakrishna, S. (2017) Investigating trends in human–wildlife conflict: is conflict escalation real or imagined? Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity, 10, 154161.
Banerjee, K., Jhala, Y.V., Chauhan, K.S. & Dave, C.V. (2013) Living with lions: the economics of coexistence in the Gir forests, India. PLOS ONE, 9, e89708.
Bhatia, S., Athreya, V., Grenyer, R. & Macdonald, D.W. (2013) Understanding the role of representations of human–leopard conflict in Mumbai through media-content analysis. Conservation Biology, 27, 588594.
Bhatia, S., Redpath, S.M., Suryawanshi, K. & Charudutt, M. (2016) The relationship between religion and attitudes toward large carnivores in northern India? Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 22, 3042.
Bostedt, G. & Grahn, P. (2008) Estimating cost functions for the four large carnivores in Sweden. Ecological Economics, 68, 517524.
Bruskotter, J.T. & Fulton, D.C. (2012) Will hunters steward wolves? A comment on Treves and Martin. Society and Natural Resources, 25, 97102.
Bruskotter, J.T., Vucetich, J.A., Manfredo, M.J., Karns, G.R., Wolf, C., Ard, K. et al. (2017) Modernization, risk, and conservation of the world's largest carnivores. BioScience, 67, 646655.
Carter, N.H. & Linnell, J.D. (2016) Co-adaptation is key to coexisting with large carnivores. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 31, 575578.
Carter, N.H., Shrestha, B.K., Karki, J.B., Pradhan, N.M.B. & Liu, J. (2012) Coexistence between wildlife and humans at fine spatial scales. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109, 1536015365.
Dickman, A.J. (2010) Complexities of conflict: the importance of considering social factors for effectively resolving human–wildlife conflict. Animal Conservation, 13, 458466.
Dickman, A.J. (2012) From cheetahs to chimpanzees: a comparative review of the drivers of human–carnivore conflict and human–primate conflict. Folia Primatologica, 83, 377387.
Dietsch, A.M., Teel, T.L. & Manfredo, M.J. (2016) Social values and biodiversity conservation in a dynamic world. Conservation Biology, 30, 12121221.
Dorresteijn, I., Milcu, A.I., Leventon, J., Hanspach, J. & Fischer, J. (2016) Social factors mediating human–carnivore coexistence: understanding thematic strands influencing coexistence in Central Romania. Ambio, 45, 490500.
Earle, T.C. (2010) Trust in risk management: a model-based review of empirical research. Risk Analysis, 30, 541574.
Fishbein, M. & Ajzen, I. (eds) (1975) Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior: an Introduction to Theory and Research. Addison-Wesley, Reading, USA.
Frank, B. (2016) Human–wildlife conflicts and the need to include tolerance and coexistence: an introductory comment. Society and Natural Resources, 29, 738743.
Gadd, M. (2005) Conservation outside of parks: attitudes of local people in Laikipia, Kenya. Environmental Conservation, 32, 5063.
Ghosal, S. & Kjosavik, J.D. (2015) Living with leopards: negotiating morality and modernity in western India. Society & Natural Resources, 28, 10921107.
Gillingham, S. & Lee, P.C. (1999) The impact of wildlife-related benefits on the conservation attitudes of local people around the Selous Game Reserve, Tanzania. Environment Conservation, 26, 218228.
Goldman, M.J., Roque, J., Pinho, D. & Perry, J. (2010) Human dimensions of wildlife maintaining complex relations with large cats: Maasai and lions in Kenya and Tanzania. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 15, 332346.
Gore, M.L., Kahler, J.S. & Somers, M. (2012) Gendered risk perceptions associated with human–wildlife conflict: implications for participatory conservation. PLOS ONE, 7, e32901.
Gore, M.L., Knuth, B.A., Curtis, P.D. & Shanahan, J.E. (2007) Factors influencing risk perception associated with human–black bear conflict. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 12, 133136.
Gore, M.L., Wilson, R.S., Siemer, W.F., Hudenko, H.W., Clarke, C.E., Hart, P.S. et al. (2009) Application of risk concepts to wildlife management: special issue introduction. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 14, 301313.
Hazzah, L., Bath, A., Dolrenry, S., Dickman, A. & Frank, L. (2017) From attitudes to actions: predictors of lion killing by Maasai warriors. PLOS ONE, 12, e0170796.
Hazzah, L., Mulder, M.B. & Frank, L. (2009) Lions and warriors: social factors underlying declining African lion populations and the effect of incentive-based management in Kenya. Biological Conservation, 142, 24282437.
Homer, P. & Kahle, L. (1988) A structural equation test of the ‘value-attitude-behaviour hierarchy’. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 638664.
Humle, T. & Hill, C. (2016) People primate interactions: implications for primate conservation. In An Introduction to Primate Conservation (eds Serge, A.W. & Marshall, A. J.), pp. 219240. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Ingold, T. (2000) From trust to domination an alternative history of human–animal relations. In The Perception of the Environment: Essays in Livelihood, Dwelling and Skill (ed. Ingold, T.), pp. 6176, Routledge, London, UK.
Inskip, C., Carter, N., Riley, S., Roberts, T. & MacMillan, D. (2016) Toward human–carnivore coexistence: understanding tolerance for tigers in Bangladesh. PLOS ONE, 11, e0145913.
Kansky, R., Kidd, M. & Knight, A.T. (2014) Meta-analysis of attitudes toward damage-causing mammalian wildlife. Conservation Biology, 28, 924938.
Kansky, R., Kidd, M. & Knight, A.T. (2016) A wildlife tolerance model and case study for understanding human wildlife conflicts. Biological Conservation, 201, 137145.
Karlsson, J. & Sjöström, M. (2011) Subsidized fencing of livestock as a means of increasing tolerance for wolves. Ecology and Society, 16, 110.
Kellert, S.R. (1985) Public perecptions of predators, particularly the wolf and coyote. Biological Conservation, 31, 167189.
Kluckhohn, C. (1951) Values and value-orientations in the theory of action: an exploration in definition and classification. In Toward a General Theory of Action (eds Parsons, T. & Shils, E.), pp. 388433. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, USA.
Koziarski, A., Kissui, B. & Kiffner, C. (2016) Patterns and correlates of perceived conflict between humans and large carnivores in Northern Tanzania. Biological Conservation, 199, 4150.
Lescureux, N. & Linnell, J.D.C. (2010) Knowledge and perceptions of Macedonian hunters and herders: the influence of species specific ecology of bears, wolves, and lynx. Human Ecology, 387, 389399.
Li, J., Wang, D., Yin, H., Zhaxi, D., Jiagong, Z., Schaller, G.B. et al. (2015) Role of Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in snow leopard conservation. Conservation Biology, 28, 8794.
Lindsey, P.A., Havemann, C.P., Lines, R., Palazy, L., Price, A.E., Retief, T. et al. (2013) Determinants of persistence and tolerance of carnivores on Namibian ranches: implications for conservation on southern African private lands. PLOS ONE, 8, e52458.
Madden, F. (2004) Creating coexistence between humans and wildlife: global perspectives on local efforts to address human–wildlife conflict. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 9, 247257.
Manfredo, M.J. (ed.) (2008) Who cares about wildlife? In Social Science Concepts for Exploring Human–Wildlife Relationships and Conservation Issues, pp. 127, Springer-Verlag, New York, USA.
Manfredo, M.J. & Dayer, A.A. (2004) Concepts for exploring the social aspects of human–wildlife conflict in a global context. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 9, 120.
Manfredo, M.J., Teel, T.L. & Dietsch, A.M. (2016) Implications of human value shift and persistence for biodiversity conservation. Conservation Biology, 30, 287296.
Marchini, S. & Macdonald, D.W. (2012) Predicting rancher's intention to kill jaguars: case studies in Amazonia and Pantanal. Biological Conservation, 147, 213221.
Marshall, N.A. (2011) Assessing resource dependency on the rangelands as a measure of climate sensitivity. Society and Natural Resources, 24, 11051115.
McComas, K.A. (2006) Defining moments in risk communication research: 1996–2005. Journal of Health Communication, 11, 7591.
Mishra, C., Redpath, S.R. & Suryawanshi, K.S. (2016) Livestock predation by snow leopards: conflicts and the search for solutions. In Snow Leopards: Biodiversity of the World: Conservation from Genes to Landscapes (eds McCarthy, T. & Mallon, D.), pp. 5967. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Mishra, C., Young, J.C., Fiechter, M., Rutherford, B. & Redpath, S.M. (2017) Building partnerships with communities for biodiversity conservation: lessons from Asian mountains. Journal of Applied Ecology, 54, 15831591.
Mutanga, C.N., Muboko, N. & Gandiwa, E. (2017) Protected area staff and local community viewpoints: a qualitative assessment of conservation relationships in Zimbabwe. PLOS ONE 12, e0177153.
Natori, Y. & Chenoweth, R. (2008) Differences in rural landscape perceptions and preferences between farmers and naturalists. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 28, 250267.
Nyhus, P.J. (2016) Human–wildlife conflict and coexistence. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 41, 143171.
Peterson, M.N., Birckhead, J.L., Leong, K., Peterson, M.J. & Peterson, T.R. (2010) Rearticulating the myth of human–wildlife conflict. Conservation Letters, 3, 7482.
Peyton, R.B, Bull, P.A. & Holsman, R.H. (2007) Measuring the Social Carrying Capacity for Gray Wolves in Michigan. Unpublished report. Michigan State University, Michigan, USA.
Pont, A.C., Marchini, S., Engel, M.T., Machado, R., Ott, P.H., Crespo, E.A. et al. (2016) The human dimension of the conflict between fishermen and South American sea lions in southern Brazil. Hydrobiologia, 770, 89104.
Pooley, S. (2016) A cultural herpetology of Nile crocodiles in Africa. Conservation & Society, 14, 391405.
Pooley, S., Barua, M., Beinart, W., Dickman, A., Holmes, G., Lorimer, J. et al. (2017) An interdisciplinary review of current and future approaches to improving human–predator relations. Conservation Biology, 31, 513523.
Prokop, P. & Fančovičová, J. (2010) Perceived body condition is associated with fear of a large carnivore predator in humans. Annales Zoologici Fennici, 47, 417425.
Redpath, S.M., Bhatia, S. & Young, J. (2015) Tilting at wildlife: reconsidering human–wildlife conflict. Oryx, 49, 222225.
Riley, S.J. & Decker, D.J. (2000) Wildlife stakeholder acceptance capacity for cougars in Montana. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 28, 931939.
Rohan, M.J. (2000) A rose by any name? The values construct. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 4, 255277.
Rokeach, M. (ed.) (1973) The Nature of Human Values. Free Press, New York, USA.
Romañach, S., Lindsey, P. & Woodroffe, R. (2007) Determinants of attitudes towards predators in central Kenya and suggestions for increasing tolerance in livestock dominated landscapes. Oryx, 41, 185195.
Rust, N.A., Tzanopoulos, J., Humle, T. & MacMillan, D.C. (2016) Why has human–carnivore conflict not been resolved in Namibia? Society and Natural Resources, 29, 10791094.
Shen, S.X., Zinn, H. & Wang, A.Y. (2006) Assessing wildlife value orientations in China: an exploration of the concepts and methodology. In Proceedings of the 2006 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (eds Burns, R. & Robinson, K.), pp. 468473, Northern Research Station, New York, USA.
Simms, A., Salahudin, Z.M., Ali, H., Ali, I. & Wood, T. (2011) Saving threatened species in Afghanistan: snow leopards in the Wakhan Corridor. International Journal of Environmental Studies, 68, 299312.
Slovic, P. (1987) Perception of risk. Science, 236, 280285.
St John, A.V.F.A., Edwards-Jones, G.A. & Jones, J.P.G. (2010) Conservation and human behaviour: lessons from social psychology. Wildlife Research, 37, 658–657.
Stern, P.C. & Dietz, T. (1994) The value basis of environmental concern. Journal of Social Issues, 50, 6584.
Swanepoel, L.H., Somers, M.J. & Dalerum, F. (2015) Functional responses of retaliatory killing versus recreational sport hunting of leopards in South Africa. PLOS ONE, 10, e0125539.
Treves, A. (2012) Tolerant attitudes reflect an intent to steward: a reply to Bruskotter and Fulton. Society & Natural Resources, 25, 103104.
Treves, A. & Naughton-Treves, L. (1999) Risk and opportunity for humans coexisting with large carnivores. Journal of Human Evolution, 36, 275282.
Vauclair, C. (2009) Measuring cultural values at the individual-level: considering morality in cross-cultural value research. Revista de Administração Mackenzie, 10, 6083.
Webber, A.D. & Hill, C.M. (2014) Using Participatory Risk Mapping (PRM) to identify and understand people's perceptions of crop loss to animals in Uganda. PLOS ONE, 9, e102912.
Woodroffe, R., Thirgood, S. & Rabinowitz, A. (2005) The future of coexistence resolving human–wildlife conflicts in a changing world. In People and Wildlife, Conflict or Coexistence? (eds Woodroffe, R., Thirgood, S. & Rabinowitz, A.), pp. 388405, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Young, J.C., Marzano, M., White, R.M., Mccracken, D.I., Redpath, S.M., Carss, D.N. et al. (2010) The emergence of biodiversity conflicts from biodiversity impacts: characteristics and management strategies. Biodiversity and Conservation, 19, 39733990.
Zajac, R.M., Bruskotter, J.T., Wilson, R.S. & Prange, S. (2012) Learning to live with black bears: a psychological model of acceptance. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 76, 13311340.

Keywords

Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Bhatia et al. supplementary material
Bhatia et al. supplementary material

 PDF (312 KB)
312 KB

Beyond conflict: exploring the spectrum of human–wildlife interactions and their underlying mechanisms

  • Saloni Bhatia (a1), Stephen Mark Redpath (a2), Kulbhushansingh Suryawanshi (a1) and Charudutt Mishra (a1)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed