Bas, Adeline Jacob, Céline Hay, Julien Pioch, Sylvain and Thorin, Sébastien 2016. Improving marine biodiversity offsetting: A proposed methodology for better assessing losses and gains. Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 175, p. 46.
Bayraktarov, Elisa Saunders, Megan I. Abdullah, Sabah Mills, Morena Beher, Jutta Possingham, Hugh P. Mumby, Peter J. and Lovelock, Catherine E. 2016. The cost and feasibility of marine coastal restoration. Ecological Applications, Vol. 26, Issue. 4, p. 1055.
Bull, J. W. and Maron, M. 2016. How humans drive speciation as well as extinction. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 283, Issue. 1833, p. 20160600.
Bull, Joseph W. Gordon, Ascelin Watson, James E. M. Maron, Martine and Carvalho, Silvia 2016. Seeking convergence on the key concepts in ‘no net loss’ policy. Journal of Applied Ecology,
Cramer, Viki A. Dunlop, Judy Davis, Rob Ellis, Ryan Barnett, Belinda Cook, Annette Morris, Keith and van Leeuwen, Stephen 2016. Research priorities for the northern quoll (Dasyurus hallucatus) in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. Australian Mammalogy, Vol. 38, Issue. 2, p. 135.
Cramer, Viki A. Armstrong, Kyle N. Bullen, Robert D. Ellis, Ryan Gibson, Lesley A. McKenzie, N. L. O'Connell, Morgan Spate, Andy and van Leeuwen, Stephen 2016. Research priorities for the Pilbara leaf-nosed bat (Rhinonicteris aurantia Pilbara form). Australian Mammalogy, Vol. 38, Issue. 2, p. 149.
Ferguson, Ian Levetan, Laura Crossman, Neville and Bennett, Lauren 2016. Financial Mechanisms to Improve the Supply of Ecosystem Services from Privately-Owned Australian Native Forests. Forests, Vol. 7, Issue. 2, p. 34.
Hardy, Mathew J. Fitzsimons, James A. Bekessy, Sarah A. and Gordon, Ascelin 2016. Exploring the Permanence of Conservation Covenants. Conservation Letters,
Jacob, Céline Vaissiere, Anne-Charlotte Bas, Adeline and Calvet, Coralie 2016. Investigating the inclusion of ecosystem services in biodiversity offsetting. Ecosystem Services, Vol. 21, p. 92.
Jacob, Céline Pioch, Sylvain and Thorin, Sébastien 2016. The effectiveness of the mitigation hierarchy in environmental impact studies on marine ecosystems: A case study in France. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, Vol. 60, p. 83.
Johnston, Teagan R. Stock, William D. and Mawson, Peter R. 2016. Foraging by Carnaby’s Black-Cockatoo in Banksia woodland on the Swan Coastal Plain, Western Australia. Emu, Vol. 116, Issue. 3, p. 284.
Maron, Martine Ives, Christopher D. Kujala, Heini Bull, Joseph W. Maseyk, Fleur J. F. Bekessy, Sarah Gordon, Ascelin Watson, James E.M. Lentini, Pia E. Gibbons, Philip Possingham, Hugh P. Hobbs, Richard J. Keith, David A. Wintle, Brendan A. and Evans, Megan C. 2016. Taming a Wicked Problem: Resolving Controversies in Biodiversity Offsetting. BioScience, Vol. 66, Issue. 6, p. 489.
Nunes, Sâmia Gardner, Toby Barlow, Jos Martins, Heron Salomão, Rodney Monteiro, Dyeden and Souza, Carlos 2016. Compensating for past deforestation: Assessing the legal forest surplus and deficit of the state of Pará, eastern Amazonia. Land Use Policy, Vol. 57, p. 749.
Apostolopoulou, Evangelia and Adams, William M. 2015. Neoliberal Capitalism and Conservation in the Post-crisis Era: The Dialectics of “Green” and “Un-green” Grabbing in Greece and the UK. Antipode, Vol. 47, Issue. 1, p. 15.
Bidaud, Cecile Hrabanski, Marie and Meral, Philippe 2015. Voluntary biodiversity offset strategies in Madagascar. Ecosystem Services, Vol. 15, p. 181.
Boisvert, Valérie 2015. Conservation banking mechanisms and the economization of nature: An institutional analysis. Ecosystem Services, Vol. 15, p. 134.
Bull, J.W. and Brownlie, S. 2015. The transition from No Net Loss to a Net Gain of biodiversity is far from trivial. Oryx, p. 1.
Bull, J.W. Singh, N.J. Suttle, K.B. Bykova, E.A. and Milner-Gulland, E.J. 2015. Creating a frame of reference for conservation interventions. Land Use Policy, Vol. 49, p. 273.
Bull, J.W. Hardy, M.J. Moilanen, A. and Gordon, A. 2015. Categories of flexibility in biodiversity offsetting, and their implications for conservation. Biological Conservation, Vol. 192, p. 522.
Calvet, Coralie Napoléone, Claude and Salles, Jean-Michel 2015. The Biodiversity Offsetting Dilemma: Between Economic Rationales and Ecological Dynamics. Sustainability, Vol. 7, Issue. 6, p. 7357.
Biodiversity offsets are an increasingly popular yet controversial tool in conservation. Their popularity lies in their potential to meet the objectives of biodiversity conservation and of economic development in tandem; the controversy lies in the need to accept ecological losses in return for uncertain gains. The offsetting approach is being widely adopted, even though its methodologies and the overriding conceptual framework are still under development. This review of biodiversity offsetting evaluates implementation to date and synthesizes outstanding theoretical and practical problems. We begin by outlining the criteria that make biodiversity offsets unique and then explore the suite of conceptual challenges arising from these criteria and indicate potential design solutions. We find that biodiversity offset schemes have been inconsistent in meeting conservation objectives because of the challenge of ensuring full compliance and effective monitoring and because of conceptual flaws in the approach itself. Evidence to support this conclusion comes primarily from developed countries, although offsets are increasingly being implemented in the developing world. We are at a critical stage: biodiversity offsets risk becoming responses to immediate development and conservation needs without an overriding conceptual framework to provide guidance and evaluation criteria. We clarify the meaning of the term biodiversity offset and propose a framework that integrates the consideration of theoretical and practical challenges in the offset process. We also propose a research agenda for specific topics around metrics, baselines and uncertainty.
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