Skip to main content Accessibility help

Bringing sustainable seafood back to the table: exploring chefs’ knowledge, attitudes and practices in Peru

  • Rocio López De La Lama (a1), Santiago De La Puente (a2) and Armando Valdés-Velásquez (a3)


Conservation organizations promoting sustainable seafood have had greater success when chefs are empowered as agents of change in favour of sustainable seafood. Peru is experiencing a gastronomic revolution with seafood at its core, and Peruvian top chefs are being approached by conservation organizations to become environmental advocates. Within this context we characterize the factors that influence chefs’ behaviours regarding sustainable seafood. A total of 52 Peruvian top chefs were surveyed using the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Framework, complemented by a focus group with a subset of the surveyed population. Our results suggest that, regardless of their age or academic background, chefs are aware of the negative consequences that human activities have on the ocean and believe that restaurants have an obligation to become part of the solution by promoting the use of sustainable seafood. Nonetheless, three factors limit chefs’ understanding of key concepts and prevent them from fully internalizing the environmental consequences of their actions in restaurants: (1) sustainability is a new topic for them, particularly for older chefs; (2) the fish species commonly used at restaurants are poorly regulated, and (3) chefs are risk averse to actions that could result in profit loss. Additionally, the structure of the seafood supply chain further limits chefs’ capacity to act sustainably, even if they are aware of the need to change their behaviour. Recommendations are provided for future conservation campaigns advocating use of sustainable seafood, some of which have now been implemented.


Corresponding author

(Corresponding author) E-mail


Hide All

Also at: Laboratorio de Estudios en Biodiversidad, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru

Supplementary material for this article is available at



Hide All
APEGA (2010) Carreras de cocina. Informe de la oferta académica en Lima y regiones. Sociedad Peruana de Gastronomía, Lima, Perú.
APEGA (2013) El boom gastronómico peruano al 2013. Sociedad Peruana de Gastronomía, Lima, Perú.
Ashoka (2009) Changing the Future of Wild Fish. An Entrepreneurial Approach to Sustainable Solutions. Report commissioned by: The David and Lucile Packard Foundation. 190p. Http:// [accessed 20 December 2017].
Bucic, T., Harris, J. & Arli, D. (2012) Ethical consumers among the millennials: a cross-national study. Journal of Business Ethics, 110, 113131.
Caillaux, M. (2011) Cambios en el Índice Trófico Marino de las capturas de los principales recursos pesqueros de la costa peruana desde el año 1950 hasta el 2008. BSc thesis. Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Peru.
Cheung, W.W.L., Pitcher, T.J. & Pauly, D. (2005) A fuzzy logic expert system to estimate intrinsic extinction vulnerabilities of marine fishes to fishing. Biological Conservation, 124, 97111.
Doherty, P.D., Alfaro-Shigueto, J., Hodgson, D., Mangel, J., Witt, M. & Godley, B. (2014) Big catch, little sharks: insight into Peruvian small-scale longline fisheries. Ecology and Evolution, 4, 23752383.
Eriksson, H. & Clarke, S. (2015) Chinese market responses to overexploitation of sharks and sea cucumbers. Biological Conservation, 184, 163173.
Froese, R. & Pauly, D. (2017) FishBase. Http:// [accessed 22 September 2017].
García, M.E. (2013) The taste of conquest: colonialism, cosmopolitics, and the dark side of Peru's gastronomic boom. The Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Anthropology, 18, 505524.
Generación con Causa (2017) ¿Qué es Generación con Causa? Https:// [accessed 16 December 2017].
Guía Gastronómica del Perú (2011) El Manual del Buen Gourmet 2011. IDEAS, Lima, Perú.
Hilger, J., Hallstein, E., Stevens, A. & Villas-Boas, S. (2015) Measuring Willingness to Pay for Environmental Attributes in Seafood. Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics Working Papers. University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, USA.
Iles, A. (2004) Making seafood sustainable: merging consumption and citizenship in the United States. Science and Public Policy, 31, 127138.
Jacquet, J., Hocevar, J., Lai, S., Majluf, P., Pelletier, N., Pitcher, T. et al. (2010) Conserving wild fish in a sea of market-based efforts. Oryx, 44, 4556.
Jacquet, J., Hauert, C., Traulsen, A. & Milinski, M. (2011) Shame and honour drive cooperation. Biology Letters, 7, 899901.
Launiala, A. (2009) How much can a KAP survey tell us about people's knowledge, attitudes and practices? Some observations from medical anthropology research on malaria in pregnancy in Malawi. Anthropology Matters, 11, 113.
Matta, R. (2010) Cocina y clases: la revolución gastronómica peruana y sus chefs mediáticos. Http:// [accessed 16 December 2017].
Matta, R. (2014) República gastronómica y país de cocineros: comida, política, medios y una nueva idea de nación para el Perú. Revista Colombiana de Antropología, 50, 1540.
MINAM (2014) Se firman Diez Compromisos por la pesca responsable y sostenible en Voces por el Clima. Ministerio del Ambiente del Perú. Http:// [accessed 16 December 2017].
Monteferri, B., Bengolea, C., Scheske, C. & Ruiz, M. (2017) Advancing Sustainable Fisheries Reforms in Peru – Looking at the Future (2017–Onwards). A report by the Peruvian Society for Environmental Law, prepared for the Environmental Defense Fund, Lima, Peru.
Olofsson, A. & Öhman, S. (2006) General beliefs and environmental concern: transatlantic comparisons. Environment and Behavior, 38, 768790.
Parkes, G., Young, J.A., Walmsley, S.F., Abel, R., Harman, J., Horvat, P. et al. (2010) Behind the signs—a global review of fish sustainability information schemes. Reviews in Fisheries Science, 18, 344356.
PRODUCE (2017) Reglamento de Organización de Funciones del Ministerio de la Producción del Perú (Decreto Supremo No. 002-2017-PRODUCE). Lima, Peru.
Programa Nacional “A Comer Pescado” (2017) Pescadores y acuicultores se reunirán con grandes compradores en Lima. Http:// [accessed 16 December 2017].
R Development Core Team (2018) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. Https:// [accessed 20 August 2018].
Roheim, C.A. (2009) An evaluation of sustainable seafood guides: implications for environmental groups and the seafood industry. Marine Resource Economics, 24, 301310.
Sueiro, J.C. & De la Puente, S. (2015) La pesca artesanal en el Perú: Diagnóstico de la actividad pesquera artesanal peruana. 2nd edition. Centro para la Sostenibilidad Ambiental de la Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú.
Twenge, J.M., Campbell, W.K. & Freeman, E.C. (2012) Generational differences in young adults’ life goals, concern for others, and civic orientation, 1966–2009. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102, 10451062.
Warner, K., Timme, W., Lowell, B. & Hirshfield, M. (2013) Oceana Study Reveals Seafood Fraud Nationwide. Http:// [accessed 15 December 2017].
WHO (World Health Organization) (2008) Advocacy, Communication and Social Mobilization for TB Control. A Guide to Developing Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Surveys. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
Wintersteen, K. (2012) Sustainable gastronomy. A market-based strategy for improving environmental sustainability in the Peruvian anchoveta fishery. In Environmental Leadership: A Reference Handbook, Vols. 1 & 2 (ed. Gallagher, D.R.), pp. 626634. Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, USA.
Zapata, S. & Noriega, C. (2008) Recursos Hidrobiológicos en la Gastronomía Peruana. Universidad San Martín de Porres, Lima, Perú.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

López De La Lama et al. supplementary material
López De La Lama et al. supplementary material 1

 Word (26 KB)
26 KB

Bringing sustainable seafood back to the table: exploring chefs’ knowledge, attitudes and practices in Peru

  • Rocio López De La Lama (a1), Santiago De La Puente (a2) and Armando Valdés-Velásquez (a3)


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.