We conducted an interview-based survey for the Javan warty pig Sus verrucosus, endemic to the islands of Java and Bawean in Indonesia. The species occurs in 10 isolated areas, although some additional, probably very small populations, may remain. Compared to a survey conducted in 1982, 17 of the 32 (53%) populations are extinct or have dropped to levels so low that local hunters have failed to encounter the species in recent years. This indicates a rapid population decline. We hypothesize that this loss is primarily caused by a decline in suitable habitat, especially stands of teak Tectona grandis forest or similar forest plantations, and by high hunting pressure. Competition from and hybridization with the Eurasian wild boar Sus scrofa may be further threats to S. verrucosus. Rapid action is needed to prevent extinction in the wild. We recommend effective protection of selected S. verrucosus populations, lobbying of the Government to give protected status to S. verrucosus, conducting ecological research and investigating crop damage issues, and establishment of conservation breeding programmes.
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