Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Density of threatened ocelot Leopardus pardalis in the Sierra Abra-Tanchipa Biosphere Reserve, San Luis Potosí, Mexico

  • Abraham Martínez-Hernández (a1), Octavio César Rosas-Rosas (a2), Fernando Clemente-Sánchez (a2), Luis Antonio Tarango-Arámbula (a2), Jorge Palacio-Núñez (a2), Louis C. Bender (a3) and José Guadalupe Herrera-Haro (a1)...
Abstract
Abstract

There is little information on the population status of the ocelot Leopardus pardalis in Mexico. In the Sierra Abra-Tanchipa Biosphere Reserve, in San Luis Potosí, ocelots are affected by habitat loss and fragmentation as a result of increased agricultural development. We used photographic identification in camera-trapping capture–recapture surveys to determine population abundance and density during the dry season and subsequent early and late humid seasons during April 2011–March 2012. We recorded 80 photographs of 15 individuals (10 males, one female, and four of undetermined sex) in 7,786 camera-days. Abundance was estimated using a closed capture heterogeneity model, yielding an estimated population of 9 ± SE 3 in the dry season and 21 ± SE 8 and 15 ± SE 5 during the subsequent early and late humid seasons, respectively. Spatially explicit density estimates were 0.04 and 0.03–0.18 individuals per km2 for the dry and humid seasons, respectively, and were similar (P > 0.612) among seasons. Peaks in ocelot activity occurred during 20.00–04.00. We conclude that the ocelots of the Sierra Abra-Tanchipa Reserve have a low population density and may face geographical and biological isolation as a result of habitat conversion. Continued monitoring and improved understanding of the movements and habitat preferences of ocelots are necessary to ensure their continued persistence, and connectivity between this population and others in north-east Mexico.

Copyright
Corresponding author
(Corresponding author) E-mail octaviocrr@colpos.mx
References
Hide All
ArandaJ.M. (1991) Felinos de México: estado actual del conocimiento y conservación. In Felinos de Venezuela: Biología, Ecología y Conservación (eds Anónimo), pp. 175186. FUDECI, Valencia, Venezuela.
ArandaM. (2005) Leopardus pardalis . In Los Mamíferos Silvestres de México (eds Ceballos G. & Oliva G.), pp. 359361. FCE/CONABIO, Mexico City, Mexico.
Ávila-NájeraD., Rosas-RosasO., Tarango-ArámbulaL., Martínez-MontoyaJ. & SantoyoE. (2011) Knowledge, use and cultural value of six prey of jaguar (Panthera onca) and their relationship with this species in San Nicolas de los Montes, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad, 82, 10201028.
BorchersD.L. & EffordM.G. (2008) Spatially explicit maximum likelihood methods for capture–recapture studies. Biometrics, 64, 377385.
BrownD.E. (1990) The Ocelot. Audubon Wildlife Report, 1989/1990, 421433.
BurnhamK.P. & AndersonD.R. (1998) Model Selection and Inference: A Practical Information-Theoretic Approach. Springer-Verlag, New York, USA.
CasoA. (1994) Home range and habitat use of three Neotropical carnivores in northeast Mexico. MSc thesis. Texas A&M University, Kingsville, USA.
CasoA., López-GonzálezC., PayánE., EizirikE., de OliveiraT., Leite-PitmanR. et al. (2008) Leopardus pardalis. In IUCN Red List of Threatened Species v.2013.2. Http://www.iucnredlist.org [accesed 13 September 2012].
Chapa-VargasL. & Monzalvo-SantosK. (2012) Natural protected areas of San Luis Potosí, Mexico: ecological representativeness, risks, and conservation implications across scales. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 26, 16251641.
de OliveiraT.G. (1994) Neotropical Cats: Ecology and Conservation. Edufma, Sao Luís, Brazil.
de OliveiraT.G. & CassaroK. (2005) Guia de campo dos felinos do Brasil. Instituto Pró-Carnívoros, Sociedade de Zoológicos do Brasil, Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
de OliveiraT.G., TortatoM.A., SilveiraL., KasperC.B., MazimF.D., LucheriniM. et al. (2010) Ocelot ecology and its effect on the small-felid guild in the lowland neotropics. In Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids (eds Macdonald D.W. & Loveridge A.J.), pp. 559580. Oxford University Press, New York, USA.
Di BitettiM.S., PavioloA. & De AngeloC. (2006) Density, habitat use and activity patterns of ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) in the Atlantic Forest of Misiones, Argentina. Journal of Zoology, 270, 153163.
Di BitettiM.S., PavioloA., De AngeloC.D. & Di BlancoY.E. (2008) Local and continental correlates of the abundance of a neotropical cat, the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis). Journal of Tropical Ecology, 24, 189200.
Díaz-PulidoA. & Payán-GarridoE. (2011) Densidad de ocelotes (Leopardus pardalis) en los Llanos Colombianos. Mastozoología Neotropical, 18, 6371.
DillonA. & KellyM.J. (2007) Ocelot Leopardus pardalis in Belize: the impact of trap spacing and distance moved on density estimates. Oryx, 41, 469477.
EffordM.G., WarburtonB., ColemanC. & BarkerR.J. (2005) A field test of two methods of density estimation. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 33, 731738.
EfronB. & TibshiraniR.J. (1993) An Introduction to the Bootstrap. Chapman and Hall, New York, USA.
EmmonsL.H. (1988) A field study of ocelots (Felis pardalis) in Peru. Revue d'Ecologie (Terre et la Vie), 43, 133157.
FosterR.J. & HarmsenB.J. (2012) A critique of density estimation from camera-trap data. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 76, 224236.
GonzálezJ.F. & CardenalJ. (2011) Ocelot density in the Caribbean slope of the Talamanca region, Costa Rica. Hystrix—The Italian Journal of Mammalogy, 22, 355360.
GoulartF.V., GraipelM.E., TortatoM.A., GhizoniI.R.Jr, Oliveira-SantosL.G. & CáceresN.C. (2009) Ecology of the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in the Atlantic Forest of Southern Brazil. Neotropical Biology and Conservation, 4, 137143.
GrayT.N.E. & PrumS. 2012. Leopard density in post-conflict landscape, Cambodia: evidence from spatially explicit capture–recapture. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 76, 163169.
HainesA.M., JanečkaJ.E., TewesM.E., GrassmanL.I.Jr & MortonP. (2006) The importance of private lands for ocelot Leopardus pardalis conservation in the United States. Oryx, 40, 9094.
HarvesonP.M., TewesM.E., AndersonG.L. & LaackL.L. (2004) Habitat use by ocelots in south Texas: implications for restoration. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 32, 948954.
IbarraE. & GalindoG. (2010) Diagnostico espacio temporal de la dinámica del uso de suelo en la Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra del Abra Tanchipa, Huasteca Potosina. Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí, Mexico.
INEGI (2011) Perspectiva estadística de San Luis Potosí. Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía, Aguascalientes, Mexico.
KaranthK.U. (1995) Estimating tiger (Panthera tigris) populations from camera-trap data using capture–recapture models. Biological Conservation, 71, 333338.
KaranthK.U. & NicholsJ.D. (1998) Estimation of tiger densities in India using photographic captures and recaptures. Ecology, 79, 28522862.
KitchenerA. (1991) The Natural History of the Wild Cats. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, USA.
KolowskiJ.M. & AlonsoA. (2010) Density and activity patterns of ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) in northern Peru and the impact of oil exploration activities. Biological Conservation, 143, 917925.
López-GonzálezC.A., BrownD.E. & Gallo-ReynosoJ.P. (2003) The ocelot Leopardus pardalis in north-western Mexico: ecology, distribution and conservation status. Oryx, 37, 358364.
LudlowM.E. & SunquistM.E. (1987) Ecology and behavior of ocelots in Venezuela. National Geographic Research, 3, 447461.
MaffeiL.A. & NossA.J. (2008) How small is too small? Camera trap survey areas and density estimates for ocelots in the Bolivian Chaco. Biotropica, 40, 7175.
MaffeiL.A., NossA.J., CuéllarE. & RumizD.I. (2005) Ocelot (Felis pardalis) population densities, activity, and ranging behaviour in the dry forests of eastern Bolivia: data from camera trapping. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 21, 349353.
Martínez-CalderasJ., Rosas-RosasO., Martínez-MontoyaJ., Tarango-ArámbulaL., Clemente-SánchezF., Crosby-GalvánM. & Sánchez-HermosilloM. (2011) Distribución del ocelote (Leopardus pardalis) en San Luis Potosí, México. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad, 82, 9971004.
Martínez-MeyerE. (1997) Estudio ecológico del ocelote (Leopardus pardalis) en la zona de Chamela, Jalisco, México. MSc thesis. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico.
MoreiraJ., GarcíaR., McNabR., DubónT., CórdovaF. & CórdovaM. (2007) Densidad de ocelotes (Carnivora: Leopardus pardalis) en la parte este del Parque Nacional Mirador Río Azul, Guatemala. WCS-Guatemala, Petén, Guatemala.
MorenoR. & BustamanteA. (2009) Datos ecológicos del ocelote (Leopardus pardalis) en Cana, Parque Nacional Darién, Panamá; utilizando el método de cámaras trampa. Tecnociencia, 11, 91101.
MurrayJ.L. & GardnerG.L. (1997) Leopardus pardalis . Mammalian Species, 548, 110.
Norma Oficial Mexicana (2010) NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010. Protección ambiental-Especies nativas de México de flora y fauna silvestres-Categoría de riesgo y especificaciones para su inclusión, exclusión o cambio-Lista de especies en riesgo. Diario Oficial de la Federación. December, 2010, Distrito Federal, Mexico.
OtisD.L., BurnhamK.P., WhiteG.C. & AndersonD.R. (1978) Statistical inference from capture data on closed populations. Wildlife Monographs, 62, 1135.
RexstadE. & BurnhamK.P. (1991) User's Guide for Interactive Program CAPTURE: Abundance Estimation of Closed Animal Populations. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA.
Sánchez-RamosG., HernándezL., MoraS.A., Vargas-ContrerasJ., LaraM.V., ZamoraC.T. & CardonaA.E. (1993) Sierra del Abra Tanchipa. Estudio de caso. In Proyecto de evaluación de áreas naturales protegidas de México (eds Gómez-Pompa A. & Dirzo A.), pp. 95101. SEDESOL, Mexico City, Mexico.
SilverS.C., OstroL.E.T., MarchL.K., MaffeiL., NossA.J., KellyM.J. et al. (2004) The use of camera traps for estimating jaguar (Panthera onca) abundance and density using capture/recapture analysis. Oryx, 38, 148154.
SternbergM.A. & MaysJ.L. (2011) Ocelot Survey in and Around Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, South Texas Refuge Complex, USA.
StonerK.E. & TimmR.M. (2010) Seasonally dry tropical forest mammals: adaptations and seasonal patterns. In Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests: Ecology and Conservation (eds Dirzo R., Young H.S., Mooney H.A. & Ceballos G.), pp. 85106. Island Press, Washington, DC, USA.
SunquistM.E. & SunquistF. (2002) Ocelot. In Wild Cats of the World (eds Sunquist M. & Sunquist F.), pp. 120129. Univeristy of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.
TewesM.E. & SchmidlyD.J. (1987) The neotropical felids: jaguar, ocelot, margay, and jaguarundi. In Wild Furbearer Management and Conservation in North America (eds Novak M., Baker J.A., Obbard M.E. & Malloch B.), pp. 697711. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Toronto, Canada.
TrolleM. & KéryM. (2003) Estimation of ocelot density in the Pantanal using capture–recapture analysis of camera-trapping data. Journal of Mammalogy, 84, 607614.
TrolleM. & KéryM. (2005) Camera-trap study of ocelot and other secretive mammals in the northern Pantanal. Mammalia, 69, 405412.
Villordo-GalvánJ.A., Rosas-RosasO.C., Clemente-SánchezF., Martínez-MontoyaJ.F., Tarango-ArámbulaL.A., Mendoza-MartínezG. et al. (2010) Present status of the jaguar (Panthera onca) in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The Southwestern Naturalist, 55, 394402.
WhiteG.C., AndersonD.R., BurnhamK.P. & OtisD.L. (1982) Capture–Recapture and Removal Methods for Sampling Closed Populations. Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, USA.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Oryx
  • ISSN: 0030-6053
  • EISSN: 1365-3008
  • URL: /core/journals/oryx
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 1
Total number of PDF views: 57 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 339 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.