Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Differential utilization of cashew—a low-conflict crop—by sympatric humans and chimpanzees

  • Kimberley J. Hockings (a1) (a2) and Claudia Sousa (a1)
Abstract

Modification of natural areas by human activities mostly has a negative impact on wildlife by increasing the geographical and ecological overlap between people and animals. This can result in escalating levels of competition and conflict between humans and wildlife, for example over crops. However, data on specific crops and crop parts that are unattractive to wildlife yet important for human livelihoods are surprisingly scarce, especially considering their potential application to reducing crop damage by wildlife. Here we examine the co-utilization of a nationally important and spatially abundant cash crop, cashew Anacardium occidentalis, by people and chimpanzees Pan troglodytes verus inhabiting a forested–agricultural matrix in Cantanhez National Park in Guinea-Bissau. In this Park people predominantly harvest the marketable cashew nut and discard the unprofitable fruit whereas chimpanzees only consume the fruit. Local farmers generally perceive a benefit of raiding by chimpanzees as they reportedly pile the nuts, making harvesting easier. By ensuring that conflict levels over crops, especially those with high economic importance, remain low, the costs of living in proximity to wildlife can potentially be reduced. Despite high levels of deforestation associated with cashew farming, these findings point to the importance of cashew as a low-conflict crop in this area.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Differential utilization of cashew—a low-conflict crop—by sympatric humans and chimpanzees
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Differential utilization of cashew—a low-conflict crop—by sympatric humans and chimpanzees
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Differential utilization of cashew—a low-conflict crop—by sympatric humans and chimpanzees
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
(Corresponding author) E-mail hock@fcsh.unl.pt
References
Hide All
Barry, B., Creppy, E. & Wodon, Q. (2007) Cashew production, taxation, and poverty in Guinea-Bissau. In Conflict, Livelihoods and Poverty in Guinea-Bissau (eds Barry, B., Creppy, E., Gacitua-Mario, E. & Wodon, Q.), pp. 7788. World Bank Working Paper 88. The World Bank, Washington, DC, USA.
Bernard, H. (2002) Research Methods in Anthropology: Qualitative and Quantitative Methods, 3rd edition. AltaMira, Walnut Creek, USA.
Brugiere, D., Badjinca, I., Silva, C. & Serra, A. (2009) Distribution of chimpanzees and interactions with humans in Guinea-Bissau and Western Guinea, West Africa. Folia Primatologica, 80, 353358.
Campbell-Smith, G., Campbell-Smith, M., Singleton, I. & Linkie, M. (2011) Apes in space: saving an imperilled orangutan population in Sumatra. PLoS ONE, 6, e17210.
Casanova, C. & Sousa, C. (2007) Plano de Acção Nacional para a Conservação das Populações de Chimpanzés, Cólobos vermelhos e Cólobos brancos e pretos ocidentais na República da Guiné-Bissau. IBAP and World Bank, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau.
Costa, S., Frias, S., Casanova, C. & Sousa, C. (2008) Social perception of non-humans in Tombali (Guinea Bissau, West Africa): an anthropological contribution to chimpanzee conservation. Folia Primatologica, 79, 290291.
Dickman, A. (2010) Complexities of conflict: the importance of considering social factors for effectively resolving human–wildlife conflict. Animal Conservation, 13, 458466.
Frazão-Moreira, A. (2001) As classificações botânicas Nalu (Guiné-Bissau): consensos e variabilidades. Etnográfica, 5, 131155.
Gippoliti, S. & Dell'Omo, G. (1996) Primates of the Cantanhez forest and the Cacine basin, Guinea-Bissau. Oryx, 30, 7480.
Gippoliti, S., Embalo, D. & Sousa, C. (2003) Chimpanzee conservation status in Guinea-Bissau. In IUCN/Species Survival Commission Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan for the Western Chimpanzee (eds Kormos, R. & Boesch, C.), pp. 5561. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Hill, C., Osborn, F. & Plumptre, A. (2002) Human–Wildlife Conflict: Identifying the Problem and Possible Solutions. Albertine Rift Technical Report Series Vol. 1. Wildlife Conservation Society, New York, USA.
Hill, C. & Webber, A. (2010) Perceptions of non-human primates in human–wildlife conflict scenarios. American Journal of Primatology, 72, 919924.
Hoare, R.E. (1999) Determinants of human–elephant conflict in a land-use mosaic. Journal of Applied Ecology, 36, 689700.
Hockings, K.J., Anderson, J.R. & Matsuzawa, T. (2009) Use of wild and cultivated foods by chimpanzees at Bossou, Republic of Guinea: feeding dynamics in a human-influenced environment. American Journal of Primatology, 71, 636646.
Hockings, K.J. & Humle, T. (2009) Best Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Mitigation of Conflict between Humans and Great Apes. IUCN/Species Survival Commission Primate Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.
Hockings, K.J. & McLennan, M. (2012) From forest to farm: systematic review of cultivar feeding by chimpanzees—management implications for wildlife in anthropogenic landscapes. PLoS ONE, 7, e33391.
Hockings, K.J., Yamakoshi, G., Kabasawa, A. & Matsuzawa, T. (2010) Attacks on local persons by chimpanzees in Bossou, Republic of Guinea: long-term perspectives. American Journal of Primatology, 72, 841847.
Lee, P., Thornback, J. & Bennett, E. (1988) Threatened Primates of Africa. IUCN Red Data Book. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Macfie, L. (2000) Human–Gorilla Conflict Resolution: Recommendations for Component within IGCP Uganda Programming. Unpublished Report to International Gorilla Conservation Programme, Nairobi, Africa.
Matsuzawa, T., Humle, T. & Sugiyama, Y. (2011) The Chimpanzees of Bossou and Nimba. Springer, Tokyo, Japan.
McLennan, M.R. (2008) Beleaguered chimpanzees in the agricultural district of Hoima, western Uganda. Primate Conservation, 23, 4554.
Naughton-Treves, L., Treves, A., Chapman, C. & Wrangham, R. (1998) Temporal patterns of crop-raiding by primates: linking food availability in croplands and adjacent forest. Journal of Applied Ecology, 35, 596606.
Nishida, T., Wrangham, R.W., Goodall, J. & Uehara, S. (1983) Local differences in plant feeding habits of chimpanzees between the Mahale Mountains and Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Journal of Human Evolution, 12, 467480.
Nyhus, P.J., Osofsky, S.A., Ferraro, P., Madden, F. & Fischer, H. (2005) Bearing the costs of human–wildlife conflict: the challenges of compensation schemes. In People and Wildlife: Conflict or Coexistence/ (eds Woodroffe, R., Thirgood, S. & Rabinowitz, A.), pp. 107121. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Parker, G. & Osborn, F. (2006) Growing chilli as a means of reducing human–wildlife conflict in Zimbabwe. Oryx, 40, 343346.
Paterson, J. & Wallis, J. (2005) Commensalism and Conflict: the Human–Primate Interface. The American Society of Primatologists, Oklahoma, USA.
Siex, K. & Struhsaker, T. (1999) Colobus monkeys and coconuts: a study of perceived human–wildlife conflicts. Journal of Applied Ecology, 36, 10091020.
Sousa, J., Barata, A., Sousa, C., Casanova, C. & Vicente, L. (2011) Chimpanzee oil palm use in southern Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau. American Journal of Primatology, 73, 485497.
Southworth, J., Hartter, H., Binford, M., Goldman, A., Chapman, C., Chapman, L. et al. (2010) Parks, people and pixels: evaluating landscape effects of an East African national park on its surroundings. Tropical Conservation Science, 3, 122142.
Temudo, M.P. (2009) A narrativa da degradação ambiental no Sul da Guiné-Bissau: uma desconstrução etnográfica. Etnográfica, 13, 237264.
Torres, J., Brito, J., Vasconcelos, M., Catarino, L., Gonçalves, J. & Honrado, J. (2010) Ensemble models of habitat suitability relate chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) conservation to forest and landscape dynamics in Western Africa. Biological Conservation, 143, 416425.
Treves, A. (2008) The human dimensions of conflicts with wildlife around protected areas. In Wildlife and Society: The Science of Human Dimensions (eds Manfredo, D., Vaske, J., Brown, P. & Decker, D.), pp. 262278. Island Press, New York, USA.
Visalberghi, E. & Sirianni, G. (2012) How wild bearded capuchin monkeys deal with the toxic compounds of Anacardium occidentale . Folia Primatologica, in press.
Woodroffe, R., Thirgood, S. & Rabinowitz, A. (eds) (2005) People and Wildlife: Conflict or Coexistence/ Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Oryx
  • ISSN: 0030-6053
  • EISSN: 1365-3008
  • URL: /core/journals/oryx
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score