Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Efficacy of beehive fences as barriers to African elephants: a case study in Tanzania

  • Ciska P.J. Scheijen (a1), Shane A. Richards (a2), Josephine Smit (a3), Trevor Jones (a4) and Katarzyna Nowak (a5)...

Abstract

Non-lethal mitigation of crop use by elephants Loxodonta africana is an increasingly important part of protected area management across Africa and Asia. Recently, beehive fences have been suggested as a potential mitigation strategy. We tested the effectiveness of this method in a farming community adjacent to Udzungwa Mountains National Park in southern Tanzania. Over a 5.5-year period (2010–2016) a beehive fence was introduced and subsequently extended along the Park boundary. The probability that one or more farms experienced crop loss from elephants on a given day was reduced in the presence of the fence and was reduced further as the fence was extended. The number of hives occupied by bees along the fence was the best predictor of elephants’ visits to farms. Farms closest to the fence experienced a greater likelihood of damage, particularly during the initial period when the fence was shorter. The number of farms affected by elephants declined when the fence was extended. There was a higher probability of damage on farms that were closer to the Park boundary and further from a road. Our mixed results suggest that the shape, length and location of fences need to be carefully planned because changes in a farm's long-term susceptibility to elephant damage vary between individual farms; fences need to be long enough to be effective and ensure that decreasing crop loss frequency is not outweighed by an increasing number of farms damaged per visit.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Efficacy of beehive fences as barriers to African elephants: a case study in Tanzania
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Efficacy of beehive fences as barriers to African elephants: a case study in Tanzania
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Efficacy of beehive fences as barriers to African elephants: a case study in Tanzania
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

(Corresponding author) E-mail knowak02@gmail.com

Footnotes

Hide All
*

Also at: Animal, Wildlife, and Grassland Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa

Also at: Oceans & Atmosphere, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Hobart, Australia

Also at: Southern Tanzania Elephant Program, Iringa, Tanzania

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Adjewodah, P., Beier, P., Sam, M.K., Mason, J.J. (2005) Elephant crop damage in the Red Volta Valley, north-eastern Ghana. Pachyderm, 38, 3948.
Blake, S., Deem, S.L., Strindberg, S., Maisels, F., Momont, L., Isia, I.-B. et al. (2008) Roadless wilderness area determines forest elephant movements in the Congo basin. PLoS ONE 3, e3546.
Bowkett, A.E., Rovero, F., & Marshall, A.R. (2008) The use of camera-trap data to model habitat use by antelope species in the Udzungwa Mountain forests, Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology, 46, 479487.
Chelliah, K., Kannan, G., Kundu, S., Abilash, N., Madhusudan, A., Baskaran, N., & Sukumar, R. (2010) Testing the efficacy of a chilli–tobacco rope fence as a deterrent against crop-raiding elephants. Current Science, 99, 12391243.
Chiyo, P.I., Moss, C.J. & Alberts, S.C. (2012) The influence of life history milestones and association networks on crop-raiding behavior in male African elephants. PLoS ONE, 7, e31382.
Graham, M.D. & Ochieng, T. (2008) Uptake and performance of farm-based measures for reducing crop raiding by elephants Loxodonta africana among smallholder farms in Laikipia District, Kenya. Oryx, 42, 7682.
Graham, M.D., Notter, B., Adams, W.M., Lee, P.C., & Ochieng, T.N. (2010) Patterns of crop-raiding by elephants, Loxodonta africana, in Laikipia, Kenya, and the management of human–elephant conflict. Systematics and Biodiversity, 8, 435445.
Gunn, J., Hawkins, D., Barnes, R.F.W., Mofulu, F., Grant, R.A., & Norton, G.W. (2014) The influence of lunar cycles on crop-raiding elephants; evidence for risk avoidance. African Journal of Ecology, 52, 129137.
Harchut, K., Standley, C., Dobson, A., Klaassen, B., Rambaud-Althaus, C., Althaus, F., & Nowak, K. (2013) Over-diagnosis of malaria by microscopy in the Kilombero Valley, Southern Tanzania: an evaluation of the utility and cost-effectiveness of rapid diagnostic tests. Malaria Journal, 12:159, http://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-12-159.
Hedges, S. & Gunaryadi, D. (2010) Reducing human–elephant conflict: do chillies help deter elephants from entering crop fields? Oryx, 44, 139146.
Hoare, R. (2000) African elephants and humans in conflict: the outlook for co-existence. Oryx, 34, 3438.
Jadhav, S. & Barua, M. (2012) The elephant vanishes: impact of human-elephant conflict on people's wellbeing. Health & Place, 18, 13561365.
Jones, T. & Nowak, K. (2015) Elephant hideout: an unusual population of mountain-climbing elephants. In The Udzungwa Mountains – the Story of a Unique Rainforest in Eastern Africa (eds Rovero, F., Scharff, N., Brogger-Jensen, S. & Pagh Jensen, F.) pp. 128135. The Natural History Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Jones, T., Bamford, A.J., Ferrol-Schulte, D., Hieronimo, P., McWilliam, N. & Rovero, F. (2012) Vanishing wildlife corridors and options for restoration: a case study from Tanzania. Tropical Conservation Science, 5, 463474.
Kabepele, J.P. (2011) Employing novel approaches in the study of human-elephant conflicts along the eastern boundary of Udzungwa Mountains. MSc thesis. University of Poitiers, France.
King, L.E. (2011) Beehive Fence Construction Manual. The Elephants and Bees Project & Save the Elephants, Nairobi, Kenya. Http://elephantsandbees.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/Beehive-Fence-Construction-Manual-2012.pdf [accessed 05 March 2018].
King, L.E., Douglas-Hamilton, I. & Vollrath, F. (2007) African elephants run from the sound of disturbed bees. Current Biology, 17, R832R833.
King, L.E., Douglas-Hamilton, I. & Vollrath, F. (2011) Beehive fences as effective deterrents for crop-raiding elephants: field trials in northern Kenya. African Journal of Ecology, 49, 431439.
King, L.E., Lala, F., Nzumu, H., Mwambingu, E. & Douglas-Hamilton, I. (2017) Beehive fences as a multidimensional conflict-mitigation tool for farmers coexisting with elephants. Conservation Biology, 31 743752.
King, L.E., Lawrence, A., Douglas-Hamilton, I. & Vollrath, F. (2009) Beehive fence deters crop-raiding elephants. African Journal of Ecology, 47, 131137.
Kioko, J., Muruthi, P., Omondi, P. & Chyiyo, P.I. (2008) The performance of electric fences as elephant barriers in Amboseli, Kenya. South African Journal of Wildlife Research, 38, 5258.
Lovett, J.C., Marshall, A.R. & Carr, J. (2006) Changes in tropical forest vegetation along an altitudinal gradient in the Udzungwa Mountains National Park, Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology, 44, 478490.
Nelson, A., Bidwell, P. & Sillero-Zubiri, C. (2003) A review of human-elephant conflict management strategies. People and Wildlife Initiative. Wildlife Conservation Research Unit, Oxford University, Oxford, UK.
Nowak, K., Jones, T. & Lee, P.C. (2009) Using dung bolus diameter for age estimation in an unstudied elephant population in Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania. Pachyderm, 46, 4752.
Omondi, P., Bitok, E. & Kagiri, J. (2004) Managing human–elephant conflicts: the Kenyan experience. Pachyderm, 36, 8086.
Osborn, F.V. & Parker, G.E. (2003) Towards an integrated approach for reducing the conflict between elephants and people: a review of current research. Oryx, 37, 8084.
R Development Core Team (2015) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. Http://www.R-project.org [accessed 09 February 2018].
Richards, S.A. (2008) Dealing with overdispersed count data in applied ecology. Journal of Applied Ecology 45, 218227.
Shemwetta, D.T.K. & Kidegesho, J.R. (2000) Human–Wildlife Conflicts in Tanzania: What Research and Extension Could Offer to Conflict Resolution. Proceedings of the 1st University Wide Conference, Morogoro, Tanzania, 3, 569-577.
Sitati, N.W. & Walpole, M.J. (2006) Assessing farm-based measures for mitigating human–elephant conflict in Transmara District, Kenya. Oryx, 40, 279286.
Sitati, N.W., Walpole, M.J., Smith, R.J. & Leader-Williams, N. (2003) Predicting spatial aspects of human and elephant conflict. Journal of Applied Ecology, 4, 667677.
Sitati, N.W., Walpole, M.J. & Leader-Williams, N. (2005) Factors affecting susceptibility of farms to crop raiding by African elephants: using a predictive model to mitigate conflict. Journal of Applied Ecology, 42, 11751182.
Smit, J., Pozo, R.A., Cusack, J.J., Nowak, K., Jones, T. (2017) Using camera-traps to study the age-sex structure and behaviour of crop-using elephants in Udzungwa Mountains National Park, Tanzania. Oryx, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605317000345.
Stephenson, P.J. (2007) WWF Species Action Plan: African Elephant, 2007–2011. WWF, Gland, Switzerland.
Sullivan, P. (2003) Intercropping principles and production practices. Agronomy Systems Guide. National Center for Appropriate Technology, Butte, USA

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Efficacy of beehive fences as barriers to African elephants: a case study in Tanzania

  • Ciska P.J. Scheijen (a1), Shane A. Richards (a2), Josephine Smit (a3), Trevor Jones (a4) and Katarzyna Nowak (a5)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.