In South Africa there are efforts to manage reintroduced subpopulations of the Vulnerable cheetah Acinonyx jubatus in small reserves (10–1,000 km2) as a managed metapopulation. We estimated areas required to support cheetahs given varying prey densities, prey profiles and presence/absence of competing predators. A recent population and habitat viability assessment indicated that 20 subpopulations of 10 cheetahs or 10 subpopulations of 15 cheetahs are required to retain 90% of the heterozygosity of free-ranging cheetahs and to overcome stochastic events in the absence or presence of lions Panthera leo, respectively. We estimate that 203 ± SE 42 km2 (range 48–466 km2) is required to support 10 cheetahs in the absence of lions, whereas 703 ± SE 311 km2 (166–2,806 km2) is required to support 15 cheetahs given equal numbers of lions, and 2,424 ± SE 890 km2 (727–3,739 km2) given equal numbers of leopards Panthera pardus, spotted hyaenas Crocuta crocuta, wild dogs Lycaon pictus and lions. Existing subpopulations of cheetahs generally occur at densities higher than our mean predicted densities but usually within the range of predicted densities. The large area requirements of cheetahs have implications for the development of the managed metapopulation. Sourcing reintroduction sites of the sizes required to support recommended subpopulation sizes will be difficult. Consequently, innovative measures to increase the carrying capacity of reserves for cheetahs and/or to enlarge reserves will be required. Managers may be forced to stock cheetahs close to or beyond the carrying capacity of their reserves. Consequently, careful management of reintroduced subpopulations will be required to prevent declines in prey populations.
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