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Mitigating carnivore–livestock conflict in Europe: lessons from Slovakia

  • Robin Rigg (a1), Slavomír Finďo (a2), Maria Wechselberger (a3), Martyn L. Gorman (a4), Claudio Sillero-Zubiri (a5) and David W. Macdonald (a5)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 04 May 2011

Conflicts with human interests have reappeared following recovery of large carnivores in Europe. Public acceptance is higher than historically but there is a need to identify effective, acceptable techniques to facilitate coexistence. We present a case study of predation on livestock in Slovakia. Damage, mitigation measures and public opinion were assessed using compensation records, analysis of farm conditions, questionnaire surveys, semi-structured interviews, diet analysis and on-farm trials of livestock-guarding dogs. Economic damage was inconsequential on a national scale but high locally: c. 80% of reported losses occurred at 12% of sheep flocks. Grey wolves Canis lupus were held responsible for four to six times more damage than brown bears Ursus arctos, although livestock occurred in only 2 of 78 wolf faeces during spring–autumn, when sheep and cattle were most vulnerable. Losses to Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx were negligible. Compared to other sectors of society shepherds had the most negative attitudes, particularly towards wolves, despite compensation payments. Appropriate use of livestock-guarding dogs was associated with fewer losses: median loss at trial flocks with predation was 70% lower than at control flocks. We conclude that identifying vulnerable farms and targeting them for mitigation could reduce damage, although lack of motivation and awareness are obstacles. This study shows that damage levels need not be excessive despite high predator densities in human-dominated landscapes. Conflicts were unevenly distributed, with much of the variation explained by local conditions and husbandry practices, especially preventive measures. Livestock-guarding dogs are particularly appropriate where wolves are present in proximity to unfenced pastures.

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*Slovak Wildlife Society, P.O. Box 72, Liptovský Hrádok 033 01, Slovakia. E-mail
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F.C.C. Azevedo & D.L. Murray (2007) Evaluation of potential factors predisposing livestock to predation by jaguars. Journal of Wildlife Management, 71, 23792386.

L.L. Marker , A.J. Dickman & D.W. Macdonald (2005) Perceived effectiveness of livestock-guarding dogs placed on Namibian farms. Rangeland Ecology and Management, 58, 329336.

C.W. Ryan , J.C. Pack , W.K. Igo & A. Billings (2007) Influence of mast production on black bear non-hunting mortalities in West Virginia. Ursus, 18, 4653.

P. Stahl , J.M. Vandel , S. Ruette , L. Coat , Y. Coat & L. Balestra (2002) Factors affecting lynx predation on sheep in the French Jura. Journal of Applied Ecology, 39, 204216.

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