Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Musk deer Moschus cupreus persist in the eastern forests of Afghanistan

  • Stephane Ostrowski (a1), Haqiq Rahmani (a2), Jan Mohammad Ali (a3), Rita Ali (a3) and Peter Zahler (a1)...
Abstract

Nuristan province, in north-east Afghanistan, holds a significant portion of the country's remaining forests, but because of the inaccessible terrain and the recent history of poor security little is known about the wildlife inhabiting these forests. We conducted transect surveys in central Nuristan and confirmed the presence of musk deer Moschus cupreus > 60 years after the last documented observation of the species in Afghanistan. We found that, in summer, musk deer inhabit remote alpine scrub on scattered rock outcrops and in upper fringes of closed coniferous forests at c. 3,000–3,500 m. They invariably use steep slopes (≥ 20°), which makes them difficult to approach. We built a data-driven geographical model, which predicted that suitable habitat for musk deer in Afghanistan extends over c. 1,300 km2 in the contiguous provinces of Nuristan (75.5%), Kunar (14.4%) and Laghman (10.1%). Although relatively vast, the area of habitat potentially available to musk deer in Afghanistan appears to be highly fragmented. Despite indications of unsustainable hunting, this Endangered species persists in Afghanistan and targeted conservation programmes are required to protect it and its forest habitat.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Musk deer Moschus cupreus persist in the eastern forests of Afghanistan
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Musk deer Moschus cupreus persist in the eastern forests of Afghanistan
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Musk deer Moschus cupreus persist in the eastern forests of Afghanistan
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
(Corresponding author) E-mail sostrowski@wcs.org
References
Hide All
AIMS (Afghanistan Information Management Services) (2014) Http://www.aims.org.af [accessed 18 August 2014].
Anwar, M.B., Nadeem, M.S., Beg, M.A., Kayani, A.R. & Muhammad, G. (2012) A photographic key for the identification of mammalian hairs of prey species in snow leopard (Panthera uncia) habitats of Gilgit-Baltistan Province of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 44, 737743.
Bader, H.R., Douglas, C., Fairchild, J., Kaczmarek, D. & Hanna, C. (2010) The Afghanistan Timber Trade: An Evaluation of the Interaction Between the Insurgency, GIRoA and Criminality in the Task Force Bastogne Area of Operations (Nuristan, Kunar, Laghman, and Nangarhar). Unpublished report. Natural Resources Counterinsurgency Cell, U.S. Army, USA.
CGIAR-CSI (CGIAR Consortium for Spatial Information) (2008) SRTM 90m Digital Elevation Data. Http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org [accessed 18 August 2014].
Delattre, E. & Rahmani, H. (2009) A Preliminary Assessment of Forest Cover and Change in the Eastern Forest Complex of Afghanistan. Unpublished report. Wildlife Conservation Society, New York, USA.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) (2014) Afghanistan. Http://www.fao.org/world/Afghanistan [accessed 18 August 2014].
Green, M.J.B. (1985) Aspects of the ecology of the Himalyan musk deer. PhD thesis. University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
Green, M.J.B. (1986) The distribution, status and conservation of the Himalayan musk deer Moschus chrysogaster . Biological Conservation, 35, 347375.
Green, M.J.B. (1987) Scent-marking in the Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster). Journal of Zoology, 1, 721737.
Habibi, K. (1977) The Mammals of Afghanistan: Their Distribution and Status. Unpublished report. UNDP/FAO Department of Forest and Range, Kabul, Afghanistan.
Habibi, K. (2003) Mammals of Afghanistan. Zoo Outreach Organization, Coimbatore, India.
Hassinger, J. (1973) A survey of the mammals of Afghanistan, resulting from the 1965 Street Expedition (excluding bats). Fieldiana Zoology, 60, 1195.
Kanderian, N., Shank, C., Johnson, M., Rahmani, H. & Hatch, C. (2009) Identifying Priority Zones for a Protected Area Network in Afghanistan. CBD/POWPA Technical Report (unpublished). National Environmental Protection Agency, Kabul, Afghanistan.
Kattel, B. & Alldredge, A. (1991) Capturing and handling of the Himalayan musk deer. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 19, 397399.
Khan, A.A., Qureshi, B. & Awan, M. (2006) Impact of musk trade on the decline in Himalayan musk deer Moschus chrysogaster population in Neelum Valley, Pakistan. Current Science, 91, 696699.
Malczewski, J. (2004) GIS-based land-use suitability analysis: a critical overview. Progress in Planning, 62, 365.
Mishra, C., Madhusudan, M.D. & Datta, A. (2006) Mammals of the high altitudes of western Arunachal Pradesh, eastern Himalaya: an assessment of threats and conservation needs. Oryx, 40, 2935.
Naumann, C. & Nogge, G. (1973) Die Grossäuger Afghanistans. Zeitschrift des Kölner Zoo, 3, 7993.
Nowak, R. (1999) Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th edition, volume 2. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA.
Olson, D.M., Dinerstein, E., Wikramanayake, E.D., Burgess, N.D., Powell, G.V.N., Underwood, E.C. et al. (2001) Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on earth. BioScience, 51, 933938.
Petocz, R. & Larsson, J. (1977) Ecological Reconnaissance of Western Nuristan with Recommendations for Management. FO:DP/AFG/74/016 Field Document No. 9 (unpublished report). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Kabul, Afghanistan.
Qamar, Q.Z., Anwar, M. & Minhas, R.A. (2008) Distribution and population status of Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) in the Machiara National Park, AJ&K. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 40, 159163.
Qureshi, B., Awan, M.S., Khan, A.A., Dar, N.I. & Dar, M.E. (2004) Distribution of Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) in Neelum Valley, District Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Journal of Biological Sciences, 4, 258261.
Rajchal, R. (2006) Population Status, Distribution, Management, Threats and Mitigation Measures of Himalayan Musk Deer (Moschus chrysogaster) in Sagarmatha National Park. Unpublished report. Institute of Forestry, Pokhara, Nepal.
Roberts, T.J. (2005) Field Guide to the Large and Medium-Sized Mammals of Pakistan. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Stevens, K., Dehgan, A., Karlstetter, M., Rawan, F., Tawhid, M.I., Ostrowski, S. et al. (2011) Large mammals surviving conflicts in the eastern forests of Afghanistan. Oryx, 45, 265271.
Timmins, R.J. & Duckworth, J.W. (2008a) Moschus cupreus. In IUCN Red List of Threatened Species v.2012.2. Http://www.iucnredlist.org [accessed 22 December 2013].
Timmins, R.J. & Duckworth, J.W. (2008b) Moschus leucogaster. In IUCN Red List of Threatened Species v.2012.2. Http://www.iucnredlist.org [accessed 22 December 2013].
UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) (2003) Afghanistan: Post-Conflict Environmental Assessment. Unpublished report. United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, Kenya.
WWF (2012) Wildfinder Database. Http://www.worldwildlife.org/publications/wildfinder-database [accessed 18 August 2014].
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Oryx
  • ISSN: 0030-6053
  • EISSN: 1365-3008
  • URL: /core/journals/oryx
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed