Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Ocelot Leopardus pardalis in Belize: the impact of trap spacing and distance moved on density estimates

  • Adam Dillon and Marcella J. Kelly (a1)
Abstract

We used remote cameras to obtain information on an elusive species and to examine the effects of different camera trapping methodologies on abundance estimates. We determined activity pattern, trail use, trap success, and density of ocelot Leopardus pardalis in seven camera-trap surveys across two habitat types in western Belize: tropical broad-leaf rainforest and tropical pine forest. Ocelots in the rainforest were active mostly at night, in particular immediately after sunset, and they travelled on low-use roads (especially in the wet season) and high-use roads (especially in the dry season) more than established and newly cut trails. Trap success was relatively high in the rainforest (2.11–6.20 captures per 100 trap nights) and low in the pine forest (0.13–0.15 captures per 100 trap nights). Camera trapping combined with mark-recapture statistics gave densities of 25.82–25.88 per 100 km2 in the broad-leaf versus 2.31–3.80 per 100 km2 in the pine forest. Density estimates increased when animals repeatedly captured at the same camera (zero-distance moved animals) were included in the buffer size analysis. Density estimates were significantly negatively correlated with distance between cameras. We provide information on ocelot population status from an unstudied portion of its range and advise that camera trap methodologies be standardized to permit comparisons across sites.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Ocelot Leopardus pardalis in Belize: the impact of trap spacing and distance moved on density estimates
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Ocelot Leopardus pardalis in Belize: the impact of trap spacing and distance moved on density estimates
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Ocelot Leopardus pardalis in Belize: the impact of trap spacing and distance moved on density estimates
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, 210B Cheatham Hall, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0321, USA. E-mail adillon@vt.edu
Footnotes
Hide All
*

Current address: 2022 Dexter Ave N Apt B, Seattle, WA 98109, USA.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Beletsky, L. (1999) Belize and Northern Guatemala. Academic Press, London, UK.
Billings, R.F., Clarke, S.R., Mendoza, V.E., Cabrera, P.C., Figueroa, B.M., Campos, J.R. & Baeza, G. (2004) Bark beetle outbreaks and fire: a devastating combination for Central America's pine forests. Unasylva, 217, 1518.
CEPF (2005) Mesoamerica Hotspot: Northern Mesoamerica Briefing Book. Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund , Washington, DC, USA.
Crawshaw, P.G. (1995) Comparative ecology of ocelot (Felis pardalis) and jaguar (Panthera onca) in a protected subtropical forest in Brazil and Argentina. PhD thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA.
Di Bitetti, M.S., Paviolo, A. & De Angelo, C. (2006) Density, habitat use and activity patterns of ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) in the Atlantic forest of Misiones, Argentina. Journal of Zoology, 270, 153163.
Emmons, L.H. (1987) Comparative feeding ecology of felids in a neotropical rainforest. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 20, 271283.
Emmons, L.H. (1988) A field study of ocelots (Felis pardalis) in Peru. Revue d'Ecologie (Terre et la Vie), 43, 133157.
Haines, A.M., Janecka, J.E., Tewes, M.E., Grassman, Jr, L.I. & Morton, P. (2006) The importance of private lands for ocelot Leopardus pardalis conservation in the United States. Oryx, 40, 9094.
IUCN (2006) 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland [http://www.redlist.org, accessed 28 August 2007].
Johnson, M.S. & Chaffey, D.R. (1973) An Inventory of the Chiquibul Forest Reserve, Belize. Land resource study no. 14. Land Resources Division, Overseas Development Administration, Surrey, UK.
Karanth, K.U. (1995) Estimating tiger (Panthera tigris) populations from camera-trap data using capture-recapture models. Biological Conservation, 71, 333338.
Karanth, K.U., Chundawat, R.S., Nichols, J.D. & Kumar, N.S. (2004) Estimation of tiger densities in the tropical dry forests of Panna, Central India, using photographic capture-recapture sampling. Animal Conservation, 7, 285290.
Karanth, K.U. & Nichols, J.D. (1998) Estimation of tiger densities in India using photographic captures and recaptures. Ecology, 79, 28522862.
Kelly, M.J. (2003) Jaguar monitoring in the Chiquibul Forest, Belize. Caribbean Geography, 13, 1932.
Konecny, M.J. (1989) Movement pattern and food habits of four sympatric carnivore species in Belize, Central America. In Advances in Neotropical Mammalogy (eds Redford, K.H. & Eisenberg, J.F.), pp. 243264. Sandhill Crane Press, Gainesville, USA.
Ludlow, M.E. & Sunquist, M.E. (1987) Ecology and behavior of ocelots in Venezuela. National Geographic Research, 3, 447461.
Maffei, L., Cuellar, E. & Noss, A.J. (2004) One thousand jaguars (Panthera onca) in Boliva's Chaco? Camera trapping in the Kaa-Iya National Park. Journal of Zoology, 262, 295304.
Maffei, L., Noss, A.J., Cuellar, E. & Rumiz, D.I. (2005) Ocelot (Felis pardalis) population densities, activity, and ranging behaviour in the dry forests of eastern Bolivia: data from camera trapping. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 21, 16.
Murray, J.L. & Gardner, G.L. (1997) Leopardus pardalis. Mammalian Species, 548, 110.
Nichols, J.D. & Karanth, K.U. (2002) Statistical concepts: estimating absolute densities of tigers using capture-recapture sampling. In Field Monitoring Tigers and their Prey: A Manual for Researchers, Managers and Conservationists in Tropical Asia (eds Karanth, K.U. & Nichols, J.D.), pp. 121137. Centre for Wildlife Studies, Bangalore, India.
Otis, D.L., Burnham, K.P., White, G.C. & Anderson, D.R. (1978) Statistical inference from capture data on closed animal populations. Wildlife Monographs, 62, 1135.
Rexstad, E. & Burnham, K.P. (1991) User's Guide for Interactive Program CAPTURE: Abundance Estimation of Closed Animal Populations. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA.
Silver, S.C., Ostro, L.E.T., Marsh, L.K., Maffei, L., Noss, A.J., Kelly, M.J., Wallace, R.B., Gomez, H. & Ayala, G. (2004) The use of camera traps for estimating jaguar Panthera onca abundance and density using capture/recapture analysis. Oryx, 38, 148154.
Soisalo, M.K. & Cavalcanti, M.C. (2006) Estimating the density of a jaguar population in the Brazilian Pantanal using camera-traps and capture-recapture sampling in combination with GPS radio-telemetry. Biological Conservation, 129, 487496.
Sunquist, M.E. & Sunquist, F. (2002) Ocelot. In Wild Cats of the World (eds Sunquist, M. & Sunquist, F.), pp. 120129. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.
Sunquist, M.E., Sunquist, F. & Daneke, D.E. (1989) Ecological separation in a Venezuelan llanos carnivore community. In Advances in Neotropical Mammalogy (eds Redford, K.H. & Eisenberg, J.F.), pp. 197232. Sandhill Crane Press, Gainesville, USA.
Trolle, M. & Kery, M. (2003) Estimation of ocelot density in the Pantanal using capture-recapture analysis of camera-trapping data. Journal of Mammology, 84, 607614.
Trolle, M. & Kery, M. (2005) Camera-trap study of ocelots and other secretive mammals in the northern Pantanal. Mammalia, 69, 34.
Wegge, P., Pokheral, C.P. & Jnawali, S.R. (2004) Effects of trapping effort and trap shyness on estimates of tiger abundance from camera trap studies. Animal Conservation, 7, 251256.
White, G.C., Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P. & Otis, D.L. (1982) Capture-recapture and Removal Methods for Sampling Closed Populations. Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, USA.
Wilson, K.R. & Anderson, D.R. (1985) Evaluation of a nested grid approach for estimating density. Journal of Wildlife Management, 49, 675678.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Oryx
  • ISSN: 0030-6053
  • EISSN: 1365-3008
  • URL: /core/journals/oryx
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed