Adams, W.M., Aveling, R., Brockington, D., Dickson, B., Elliott, J., Hutton, J. et al. (2004) Biodiversity conservation and the eradication of poverty. Science, 306, 1146–1149.
Agrawal, A. (2001) Common property institutions and sustainable governance of resources. World Development, 29, 1649–1672.
Balmford, A. & Whitten, T. (2003) Who should pay for tropical conservation, and how could the costs be met? Oryx, 37, 238–250.
Bruner, A.G., Gullison, R.E., Rice, R.E. & da Fonseca, G.A.B. (2001) Effectiveness of parks in protecting tropical biodiversity. Science, 291, 125–128.
Bulte, E., Lipper, L., Stringer, R. & Zilberman, D. (2008) Payments for ecosystem services and poverty reduction: concepts, issues, and empirical perspectives. Environment and Development Economics, 13, 245–254.
Cavendish, W. (2000) Empirical regularities in the poverty–environment relationship of rural households: evidence from Zimbabwe. World Development, 28, 1979–2003.
Ferraro, P.J. & Kiss, A. (2002) Direct payments to conserve biodiversity. Science, 298, 1718–1719.
Ferraro, P. & Simpson, R.D. (2005) Cost-effective conservation when eco-entrepreneurs have market power. Environment and Development Economics, 10, 651–663.
Fisher, B. & Christopher, T. (2007) Poverty and biodiversity: measuring the overlap of human poverty and the biodiversity hotspots. Ecological Economics, 62, 93–101.
Fisher, J. (2012) No pay, no care? The importance of payments in payments for ecosystem services. Oryx, 46, 45–54.
Gaston, K.J. (2000) Global patterns in biodiversity. Nature, 405, 220–227.
Hall, A. (2008) Better REDD than dead: paying the people for environmental services in Amazonia. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 363, 1925–1932.
Holland, T.G., Peterson, G.D. & Gonzalez, A. (2009) A cross-national analysis of how economic inequality predicts biodiversity loss. Conservation Biology, 23, 1304–1313.
Kosoy, N., Corbera, E. & Brown, K. (2008) Participation in payments for ecosystem services: case studies from the Lacandon rainforest, Mexico. Geoforum, 39, 2073–2083.
Kosoy, N., Martinez-Tuna, M., Muradian, R. & Martinez-Alier, J. (2007) Payments for environmental services in watersheds: insights from a comparative study of three cases in Central America. Ecological Economics, 61, 446–455.
Martin, A., Rutagarama, E., Gray, M., Asuma, S., Bana, M., Basabose, A. & Mwine, M. (2011) Linking development interventions to conservation: perspectives from partners in the International Gorilla Conservation Programme. Society and Natural Resources, 24, 626–636.
Masozera, M.K. (2002) Socio-economic impact analysis of the conservation of the Nyungwe Forest Reserve, Rwanda. MSc thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA.
Masozera, M.K. & Alavalpati, J.R.R. (2004) Forest dependency and its implications for protected areas management: a case study from the Nyungwe Forest Reserve, Rwanda. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 19, 1–8.
McAfee, K. & Shapiro, E.N. (2010) Payments for ecosystem services in Mexico: nature, neoliberalism, social movements, and the State. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 100, 579–599.
Mulindahabi, F. & Ndikubwimana, I. (2010) Monitoring Threats to Biodiversity in Nyungwe National Park, Rwanda. Ranger-based Monitoring Report Year 2010. Wildlife Conservation Society Rwanda and Rwandan Development Board Tourism & Conservation, Kigali, Rwanda.
Myers, N. (1997) Environmental services of biodiversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 93, 2764–2769.
Ostrom, E. (1990) Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Petheram, L. & Campbell, B.M. (2010) Listening to locals on payments for environmental services. Journal of Environmental Management, 91, 1139–1149.
Plumptre, A.J., Masozera, M., Fashing, P.J., McNeilage, A., Ewango, C., Kaplin, B.A. & Liengola, I. (2002) Biodiversity Surveys of the Nyungwe Forest of Southwest Rwanda: Final Report. Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, USA.
Rodrigues, A.S.L., Andelman, S.J., Bakarr, M.I., Boitani, L., Brooks, T.M., Cowling, R.M. et al. (2004) Effectiveness of the global protected area network in representing species diversity. Nature, 428, 640–643.
Salafsky, N. & Wollenberg, E. (2000) Linking livelihoods and conservation: a conceptual framework and scale for assessing the integration of human needs and biodiversity. World Development, 28, 1421–1438.
Sommerville, M., Jones, J.P.G., Rahajaharison, M. & Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2010a) The role of fairness and benefit distribution in community-based payments for environmental services interventions: a case study from Menabe, Madagascar. Ecological Economics, 69, 1262–1271.
Sommerville, M., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Rahajaharison, M. & Jones, J.P.G. (2010b) Impact of a community-based payment for environmental services intervention on forest use in Menabe, Madagascar. Conservation Biology, 24, 1488–1498.
Stainback, G.A. & Masozera, M. (2010) Payment for ecosystem services and poverty reduction in Rwanda. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 12, 122–139.
Vedder, A., Hall, J., Harcourt, A., Monfort, A. & Wilson, R. (1992) Burundi and Rwanda. In The Conservation Atlas of Tropical Forests: Africa (eds Sayer, J.A., Harcourt, C.S. & Collins, N.M.), pp. 102–109. IUCN and Simon and Schuster, New York, USA.
Waas, P. (1995) Kenya's Indigenous Forests: Status, Management and Conservation. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Weber, W. (1989) An Analysis of Value Conflicts and Convergence in the Management of Afromontane Forests in Rwanda. University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, USA.
Wells, M. (1992) Biodiversity conservation, affluence and poverty: mismatched costs and benefits and efforts to remedy them. Ambio, 21, 237–243.
Wunder, S. (2007) The efficiency of payments for environmental services in tropical conservation. Conservation Biology, 21, 48–58.
Wunder, S. & Alban, M. (2008) Decentralized payments for environmental services: the cases of Pimampiro and PROFAFOR in Ecuador. Ecological Economics, 65, 685–698.