Skip to main content
×
×
Home

The revised IUCN protected area management categories: the debate and ways forward

  • Nigel Dudley (a1), Jeffrey D. Parrish (a2), Kent H. Redford (a3) and Sue Stolton (a1)
Abstract
Abstract

The global protected area estate is the world’s largest ever planned land use. Protected areas are not monolithic and vary in their purpose, designation, management and outcomes. The IUCN protected area category system is a typology based on management objectives. It documents protected area types and is increasingly used in laws, policy and planning. As its role grows, the category system must be reactive to opinions and open to modifications. In response to requests from members IUCN undertook a 4-year consultation and recently published revised guidelines for the categories. These made subtle but important changes to the protected area definition, giving greater emphasis to nature conservation, protection over the long term and management effectiveness. It refined some categories and gave principles for application. Debates during revision were intense and highlighted many of the issues and challenges surrounding protected areas in the early 21st century. There was a consensus on many issues including the suitability of different governance models (such as indigenous and community conserved areas), sacred natural sites, moving the emphasis of Category IV from habitat manipulation towards species and habitat protection, and recognition of legally defined zones within a protected area as different categories. However, there was considerable disagreement about the definition of a protected area, the appropriateness of some categories with extensive human use, the possibility of linking category classification with biodiversity outcomes, and recognition of territories of indigenous peoples. We map these debates and propose actions to resolve these issues: a necessary step if the world’s protected area network is to be representative, secure and well managed.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Equilibrium Research, 47 The Quays, Cumberland Road, Spike Island, Bristol, BS1 6UQ, UK. E-mail nigel@equilibriumresearch.com
Footnotes
Hide All
*

Also at: University of Queensland (Industry Fellow), Brisbane St Lucia, Queensland, Australia

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Agardy T., Bridgewater P., Crosby M.A., Day J., Dayton P.K., Kenchington R. et al. . (2003) Dangerous targets: unresolved issues and ideological clashes around marine protected areas. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Systems, 13, 353367.
Bishop K., Dudley N., Phillips A. & Stolton S. (2004) Speaking a Common Language. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, and University of Cardiff, Cardiff, UK.
Boitani L., Cowling R.M., Dublin H.T., Mace G.M., Parrish J., Possingham H.P. et al. . (2008) Change the IUCN protected area categories to reflect biodiversity outcomes. PLoS Biology, 6, 436438.
Borrini-Feyerabend G., Kothari A. & Oviedo G. (2004) Indigenous and Local Communities and Protected Areas: Towards Equity and Enhanced Conservation. Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series No. 11. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, UK.
Chape S., Harrison J., Spalding M. & Lysenko I. (2005) Measuring the extent and effectiveness of protected areas as an indicator for meeting global biodiversity targets. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 360, 443455.
Colchester M. (2003) Salvaging Nature: Indigenous Peoples, Protected Areas and Biodiversity Conservation. Forest Peoples Programme, Moreton-in-the-Marsh, UK.
Day J. (2002) Zoning: lessons from the Great Barrier Marine Park. Ocean and Coastal Management, 45, 139156.
Dillon B. (2004) The use of the categories in national and international legislation and policy. Parks, 14, 1522.
Dudley N. (ed.) (2008) Guidelines for Applying Protected Area Management Categories. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Dudley N. & Borrini-Feyerabend G. (2006) Review of the definition and selection of protected areas for species conservation. Species, 46, 2628.
Dudley N. & Stolton S. (eds) (2008) Defining Protected Areas: An International Conference in Almeria, Spain. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
ECOSOC (Economic and Social council of the United Nations) (1961) United Nations List of National Parks and Equivalent Reserves. Economic and Social Council of the United Nations, New York, USA.
Gambino R. (ed.) (2008) Parchi d’Europa. Verso una politica europea per le aree protette. ETS Edizioni, Pisa, Italy.
Howard P., Davenport T. & Kigenyi F. (2003) Planning conservation areas in Uganda’s National Forests. Oryx, 31, 253264.
IUCN (1994) Guidelines for Protected Area Management Categories. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, UK.
Koziell I. & Omosa E. (2003) Room to Manoeuvre? Mining, Biodiversity and Protected Areas. International Institute for Environment and Development, and World Business Council on Sustainable Development, London, UK.
Locke H. & Dearden P. (2005) Rethinking protected area categories and the new paradigm. Environmental Conservation, 32, 110.
Mallarach J.M., Morrison J., Kothari A., Sarmiento F., Atauri J.A. & Wishitemi B. (2008) In defence of protected landscapes: a reply to some criticisms of category V protected areas and suggestions for improvement. In Defining Protected Areas: An International Conference in Almeria, Spain (eds Dudley N. & Stolton S.), pp. 3137. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Noss A.J. (1997) Challenges to nature conservation with community development in central African forests. Oryx, 31, 180188.
Phillips A. (2002) Management Guidelines for IUCN Category V Protected Areas: Protected Landscapes/Seascapes. Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series No. 9. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, UK.
Phillips A. (2004) The history of the international system of Protected Area Management Categories. Parks, 14, 414.
Ravenel R.M. & Redford K.H. (2005) Understanding IUCN protected area management categories. Natural Areas Journal, 25, 381389.
Redford K.H. & Maclean Stearman A. (1993) Forest dwelling native Amazonians and the conservation of biodiversity: interests in common or collision? Conservation Biology, 7, 248255.
UNEP–WCMC (2008) State of the World’s Protected Areas: An Annual Review of Global Conservation Progress. UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, UK.
Wild R. & McLeod C. (2008) Sacred Natural Sites: Guidelines for Protected Area Managers. Protected Area Technical Guidelines No. 16. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Woodroffe R. & Ginsberg J.R. (1998) Edge effects and extinction of populations inside protected areas. Science, 280, 21262128.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Oryx
  • ISSN: 0030-6053
  • EISSN: 1365-3008
  • URL: /core/journals/oryx
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 17
Total number of PDF views: 177 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 583 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 20th January 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.