Skip to main content
×
Home

Strengths and vulnerabilities of Australian networks for conservation of threatened birds

  • Tim Q. Holmes (a1), Brian W. Head (a2), Hugh P. Possingham (a1) and Stephen T. Garnett (a3)
Abstract
Abstract

We analysed the supportive social networks associated with the conservation of six threatened Australian bird taxa, in one of the first network analyses of threatened species conservation programmes. Each example showed contrasting vulnerabilities. The Alligator Rivers yellow chat Epthianura crocea tunneyi had the smallest social network and no real action was supported. For the Capricorn yellow chat Epthianura crocea macgregori the network was centred on one knowledgeable and committed actor. The orange-bellied parrot Neophema chrysogaster had a strongly connected recovery team but gaps in the overall network could limit communication. The recovery teams for the swift parrot Lathamus discolor and Baudin's black-cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii had strong links among most stakeholders but had weak ties to the timber industry and orchardists, respectively, limiting their capacity to manage threatening processes. Carnaby's black cockatoo Calyptorhynchus latirostris seemed to have the most effective social network of any of the taxa studied but may be vulnerable to skill shortages. In each case the network analysis pointed to gaps that could be filled to enhance the conservation effort, and highlighted the importance of recovery teams. The research suggests that formal network analysis could assist in the design of more effective support mechanisms for the conservation of threatened species.

Copyright
Corresponding author
(Corresponding author) Email stephen.garnett@cdu.edu.au
References
Hide All
Adger W.N., Brown K. & Tompkins E.L. (2005) The political economy of cross-scale networks in resource co-management. Ecology and Society, 10, http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol10/iss2/art9.
Ainsworth G.B. (2014) Valuing birds: understanding the relationship between social values and the conservation of Australian threatened avifauna. PhD thesis. Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia.
Ainsworth G.B., Aslin H.J., Weston M.A. & Garnett S.T. (2016) Do social values influence levels of conservation effort in threatened species? The case of two Australian chats. Oryx, 50, 636645.
Alexander S.M., Armitage D. & Charles A. (2015) Social networks and transitions to co-management in Jamaican marine reserves and small-scale fisheries. Global Environmental Change, 35, 213225.
Armitage D., de Loë R. & Plummer R. (2012) Environmental governance and its implications for conservation practice. Conservation Letters, 5, 245255.
Armstrong M. (2004) The Yellow Chat Epthianura crocea tunneyi in Kakadu National Park. Parks Australia (North), Darwin, Australia.
BirdLife International (2012) Zanda baudinii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T22684727A38973933. Http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012-1.RLTS.T22684727A38973933.en [accessed 16 June 2016].
BirdLife International (2013) Zanda latirostris. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T22684733A48062560. Http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-2.RLTS.T22684733A48062560.en [accessed 16 June 2016].
BirdLife International (2015a) Lathamus discolor. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T22685219A83985233. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T22685219A83985233.en [accessed 16 June 2016].
BirdLife International (2015b) Neophema chrysogaster. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T22685203A79818705. Http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T22685203A79818705.en [accessed 16 June 2016].
Bodin Ö. & Crona B.I. (2009) The role of social networks in natural resource governance: what relational patterns make a difference? Global Environmental Change, 19, 366374.
Bodin Ö., Crona B. & Ernstson H. (2006) Social networks in natural resource management: what is there to learn from a structural perspective? Ecology and Society, 11, http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol11/iss2/resp2/.
Borgatti S.P., Carley K.M. & Krackhardt D. (2006) On the robustness of centrality measures under conditions of imperfect data. Social Networks, 28, 124136.
Borgatti S.P., Everett M.G. & Freeman L.C. (2002) Ucinet 6 for Windows: Software for Social Network Analysis. Analytic Technologies, Lexington, USA.
Bottrill M.C., Walsh J.C., Watson J.E.M., Joseph L.N., Ortega-Argueta A. & Possingham H.P. (2011) Does recovery planning improve the status of threatened species? Biological Conservation, 144, 15951601.
Butts C.T. (2009) Revisiting the foundations of network analysis. Science, 325, 414416.
Campbell N.A. & Saunders D.A. (1976) Morphological variation in the white-tailed black cockatoo, Calyptorhynchus baudinii, in Western Australia: a multivariate approach. Australian Journal of Zoology, 24, 589595.
Chapman T. (2008) Forest black cockatoo (Baudin's cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii and forest red-tailed black-cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) recovery plan. Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation, Perth, Australia.
Chilvers J. & Evans J. (2009) Understanding networks at the science–policy interface. Geoforum, 40, 355362.
Commonwealth Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008) Approved Conservation Advice for Epthianura crocea tunneyi (Yellow Chat (Alligator Rivers)). Http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/publicspecies.pl?taxon_id=67089 [accessed 27 December 2015].
Crona B. & Hubacek K. (2010) The right connections: how do social networks lubricate the machinery of natural resource governance? Ecology and Society, 15, http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol15/iss4/art18/.
Cross R., Borgatti S.P. & Parker A. (2002a) Making invisible work visible: using social network analysis to support strategic collaboration. California Management Review, 44, 2546.
Cross R., Nohria N. & Parker A. (2002b) Six myths about informal networks—and how to overcome them. Sloan Management Review, 43, 6775.
Department of the Environment (1999) Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. Https://www.environment.gov.au/epbc [accessed 16 June 2016].
Department of Environment and Conservation (2012) Carnaby's Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus latirostris) Recovery Plan. Department of Environment and Conservation, Perth, Australia.
Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (2013) Recovery plans. Http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/recovery.html [accessed 27 December 2015].
Fowler J.H. & Christakis N.A. (2008) Dynamic spread of happiness in a large social network: longitudinal analysis over 20 years in the Framingham Heart Study. British Medical Journal, 337, a2338.
Garnett S., Szabo J. & Dutson G. (2011) Action Plan for Australian Birds 2010. CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia.
Higgins P. (ed.) (1999) Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume 4. Parrots to Dollarbird, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, Australia.
Holland J. (2007) Tools for Institutional, Political, and Social Analysis of Policy Reform: A Sourcebook for Development Practitioners. The World Bank, Washington, DC, USA.
Holmes T.Q. (2014) Analysis of the institutional arrangements for the management of Australia's threatened birds. PhD thesis. University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia.
Houston W. & Melzer A. (2008) Yellow Chat (Capricorn subspecies) Epthianura crocea macgregori Recovery Plan. Report to Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra. Queensland Environmental Protection Agency, Brisbane, Australia.
Jepson P. (2016) Saving a species threatened by trade: a network study of Bali starling Leucopsar rothschildi conservation. Oryx, 50, 480488.
Jepson P., Marua M. & Buckingham M. (2011) What is a conservation actor? Conservation and Society, 9, 229235.
Keast A. (1958) The relationship between seasonal movements and the development of geographic variation in the Australian Chats, (Epthianura Gould and Ashbyia North (Passeres: Muscicapidae, Malurinae)). Australian Journal of Zoology, 6, 5368.
Keast R., Mandell M.P. & Agranoff R. eds (2014) Network Theory in the Public Sector: Building New Theoretical Frameworks. Routledge, London, UK.
Koliba C.J., Mills R.M. & Zia A. (2011) Accountability in governance networks: an assessment of public, private, and nonprofit emergency management practices following Hurricane Katrina. Public Administration Review, 71, 210220.
Kossinets G. (2006) Effects of missing data in social networks. Social Networks, 28, 247268.
Kyne P.M. & Jackson M.V. (2015) Surveys for Yellow Chat Epthianura crocea tunneyi on the South Alligator River Floodplain, Kakadu National Park, 2014. A report to Parks Australia, Darwin, Australia.
Lauber T.B., Decker D.J. & Knuth B.A. (2008) Social networks and community-based natural resource management. Environmental Management, 42, 677687.
Lukasiewicz A., Davidson P., Syme G.J. & Bowmer K.H. (2013) How the social construction of the environment affects people's reactions to water policy. Australasian Journal of Environmental Management, 20, 179192.
Mills M., Álvarez-Romero J.G., Vance-Borland K., Cohen P., Pressey R.L., Guerrero A.M. & Ernstson H. (2014) Linking regional planning and local action: towards using social network analysis in systematic conservation planning. Biological Conservation, 169, 613.
Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (2006) National Recovery Plan for the Orange-Bellied Parrot. Department of Primary Industries and Water, Hobart, Australia.
Ostrom E. (2005) Understanding Institutional Diversity. Princeton University Press, Princeton, USA.
Otte E. & Rousseau R. (2002) Social network analysis: a powerful strategy, also for the information sciences. Journal of Information Science, 28, 441453.
Prell C. (2012) Social Network Analysis: History, Theory & Methodology. SAGE Publications Ltd, London, UK.
Prell C., Hubacek K. & Reed M. (2009) Stakeholder analysis and social network analysis in natural resource management. Society & Natural Resources, 22, 501518.
Reagans R., Zuckerman E. & McEvily B. (2004) How to make the team: social networks vs. demography as criteria for designing effective teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 49, 101133.
Reed M.S., Graves A., Dandy N., Posthumus H., Hubacek K., Morris J. et al. (2009) Who's in and why? A typology of stakeholder analysis methods for natural resource management. Journal of Environmental Management, 90, 19331949.
Saunders D.A. (1979) The availability of tree hollows for use as nest sites by white-tailed black cockatoos. Wildlife Research, 6, 205216.
Saunders D.L. & Tzaros C.L. (2011) National Recovery Plan for Swift Parrot Lathamus discolor . Birds Australia, Melbourne, Australia.
Schodde R. & Mason I.J. (1999) The Directory of Australian Birds: Passerines. CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia.
Scott J. (2011) Social network analysis: developments, advances, and prospects. SOCNET, 1, 2126.
Stojanovic D., Webb M.H., Alderman R., Porfirio L.L. & Heinsohn R. (2014) Discovery of a novel predator reveals extreme but highly variable mortality for an endangered migratory bird. Diversity and Distributions, 20, 12001207.
Stoker G. (1998) Governance as theory: five propositions. International Social Science Journal, 50, 1728.
Swift Parrot Recovery Team (2001) National Swift Parrot Recovery Plan 2001–2005. Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Hobart, Australia.
Tompkins E.L. & Adger W.N. (2004) Does adaptive management of natural resources enhance resilience to climate change? Ecology and Society, 9, http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol9/iss2/art10.
Vance-Borland K. & Holley J. (2011) Conservation stakeholder network mapping, analysis, and weaving. Conservation Letters, 4, 278288.
Wasserman S. & Faust K. (1994) Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Wey T., Blumstein D.T., Shen W. & Jordán F. (2008) Social network analysis of animal behaviour: a promising tool for the study of sociality. Animal Behaviour, 75, 333344.
Woodward E. (2008) Social networking for Aboriginal land management in remote northern Australia. Australasian Journal of Environmental Management, 15, 241252.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Oryx
  • ISSN: 0030-6053
  • EISSN: 1365-3008
  • URL: /core/journals/oryx
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 4
Total number of PDF views: 93 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 572 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 8th November 2016 - 22nd November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.