Skip to main content Accesibility Help
×
×
Home

Understanding ranger motivation and job satisfaction to improve wildlife protection in Kahuzi–Biega National Park, eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo

  • Charlotte Spira (a1), Andrew E. Kirkby (a1) and Andrew J. Plumptre (a2)
Abstract

Rangers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo are working to conserve some of the largest remaining blocks of tropical rainforest, along with iconic species that are being targeted by poachers for subsistence or commercial purposes. During 2015–2016 we surveyed 72% of Kahuzi–Biega National Park rangers to assess their level of job satisfaction, why they chose to become rangers, what they liked and disliked about their job, and what affected their motivation to conduct their work. We used a cumulative link model to assess how various factors affected their self-reported level of job satisfaction. The rangers surveyed had been working in the Park for 16 years on average and most chose this occupation to earn a salary, to conserve wildlife or to serve their country. Overall, ranger job satisfaction was low; however, our findings highlight numerous ways in which this could be improved. These include higher salaries, more promotion opportunities, better recognition from the Congolese wildlife authority and other state services, positive performance incentives, better security, improved living conditions in remote patrol posts, and more support from the judicial system. Ranger patrol assignment (i.e. type of patrol and Park sector to patrol), receiving free housing at the Park headquarters, age, and length of service were statistically significant predictors of job satisfaction. It is likely that increasing ranger job satisfaction would result in a higher commitment to protecting wildlife, improved performance, and positive outcomes for wildlife conservation.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Understanding ranger motivation and job satisfaction to improve wildlife protection in Kahuzi–Biega National Park, eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Understanding ranger motivation and job satisfaction to improve wildlife protection in Kahuzi–Biega National Park, eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Understanding ranger motivation and job satisfaction to improve wildlife protection in Kahuzi–Biega National Park, eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
(Corresponding author) E-mail cspira@wcs.org
Footnotes
Hide All
*

Current address: BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Aiken, L.S., West, S.G. & Reno, R.R. (1991) Multiple Regression: Testing and Interpreting Interactions. SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks, USA.
Beyers, R.L., Hart, J.A., Sinclair, A.R.E., Grossmann, F., Klinkenberg, B. & Dino, S. (2011) Resource wars and conflict ivory: the impact of civil conflict on elephants in the Democratic Republic of Congo – the case of the Okapi Reserve. PLOS ONE, 6, e27129.
Biggs, D., Cooney, R., Roe, D., Dublin, H., Allan, J., Challender, D. & Skinner, D. (2015) Engaging Local Communities in Tackling Illegal Wildlife Trade: Can a ‘Theory of Change’ Help? IIED Discussion Paper. IIED, London, UK.
Brough, P. & Frame, R. (2004) Predicting police job satisfaction and turnover intentions: the role of social support and police organisational variables. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 33, 816.
Burke, R.J. (1989) Examining the career plateau: some preliminary findings. Psychological Reports, 65, 295306.
Butchart, S.H.M., Walpole, M., Collen, B., van Strien, A., Scharlemann, J.P.W, Almond, R.E.A. et al. (2010) Global biodiversity: indicators of recent declines. Science, 328, 11641168.
Cameron, J., Banko, K.M. & Pierce, W.D. (2001) Pervasive negative effects of rewards on intrinsic motivation: the myth continues. The Behavior Analyst, 24, 144.
Charles, M.T. (1982) The Yellowstone ranger: the social control and socialization of federal law enforcement officers. Human Organization, 41, 216226.
Christensen, R.H.B. (2015a) Analysis of Ordinal Data with Cumulative Link Models —Estimation with the Ordinal Package. Https://docplayer.net/17933339-Analysis-of-ordinal-data-with-cumulative-link-models-estimation-with-the-r-package-ordinal.html [accessed 15 June 2016].
Christensen, R.H.B. (2015b) ordinal: Regression Models for Ordinal Data. Http://www.cran.r-project.org/package=ordinal/ [accessed 15 June 2016].
Claridge, G., Chea-Leth, V. & Van Chhoan, I. (2005) The Effectiveness of Law Enforcement Against Forest and Wildlife Crime: A Study of Enforcement Disincentives and Other Relevant Factors in Southwestern Cambodia. East-West Management Institute, Conservation International, and U.S. Agency for International Development, Washington, DC, USA.
Eliason, S.L. (2006) Factors influencing job satisfaction among state conservation officers. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 29, 618.
Eliason, S.L. (2011) Policing natural resources: issues in a conservation law enforcement agency. Professional Issues in Criminal Justice, 6, 4358.
Gray, M. & Kalpers, J. (2005) Ranger based monitoring in the Virunga–Bwindi region of East-Central Africa: a simple data collection tool for park management. Biodiversity and Conservation, 14, 27232741.
Henson, D.W., Malpas, R.C. & D'Udine, F.A.C. (2016) Wildlife Law Enforcement in Sub-Saharan African Protected Areas: a Review of Best Practices. Occasional Paper of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Hicks, T.C., Darby, L., Hart, J., Swinkels, J., January, N. & Menken, S. (2010) Trade in orphans and bushmeat threatens one of the Democratic Republic of the Congo's most important populations of Eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). African Primates, 29, 566570.
Hilborn, R., Arcese, P., Borner, M., Hando, J., Hopcraft, G., Loibooki, M. et al. (2006) Effective enforcement in a conservation area. Science, 314, 1266.
Hoath, D.R., Schneider, F.W. & Starr, M.W. (1998) Police job satisfaction as a function of career orientation and position tenure: implications for selection and community policing. Journal of Criminal Justice, 26, 337347.
Hötte, M.H.H., Kolodin, I.A., Bereznuk, S.L., Slaght, J.C., Kerley, L.L., Soutyrina, S.V. et al. (2016) Indicators of success for smart law enforcement in protected areas: a case study for Russian Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) reserves. Integrative Zoology, 11, 215.
Institut Congolais pour la Conservation de la Nature (2015) Plan Opérationnel de 2015 du Parc National de Kahuzi–Biega. Kahuzi–Biega National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo.
Jachmann, H. (2008) Monitoring law-enforcement performance in nine protected areas in Ghana. Biological Conservation, 141, 8999.
Johnson, R.R. (2012) Police officer job satisfaction: a multidimensional analysis. Police Quarterly, 15, 157176.
Judge, T.A., Thoresen, C.J., Bono, J.E. & Patton, G.K. (2001) The job satisfaction–job performance relationship: a qualitative and quantitative review. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 376407.
Kakira, L.M. (2010) Monitoring law enforcement effort and illegal activity in selected protected areas: implications for management and conservation, Democratic Republic of Congo. MSc thesis. University of Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
Kümpel, N.F., Quinn, A. & Grange, S. (2015) The distribution and population status of the elusive okapi, Okapia johnstoni. African Journal of Ecology, 53, 242245.
Lambert, E.G., Qureshi, H., Hogan, N.L., Klahm, C., Smith, B. & Frank, J. (2015) The association of job variables with job involvement, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment among Indian police officers. International Criminal Justice Review, 25, 194213.
Lawson, K. & Vines, A. (2014) Global Impacts of the Illegal Wildlife Trade: The Costs of Crime, Insecurity and Institutional Erosion. Chatham House, London, UK.
Leader-Williams, N., Albon, S.D. & Berry, P.S.M. (1990) Illegal exploitation of black rhinoceros and elephant populations: patterns of decline, law enforcement and patrol effort in Luangwa Valley, Zambia. Journal of Applied Ecology, 27, 10551087.
Marijnen, E. (2017) The ‘green militarisation’ of development aid: the European Commission and the Virunga National Park, DR Congo. Third World Quarterly, 38, 15661582.
Miller, H.A., Mire, S. & Kim, B. (2009) Predictors of job satisfaction among police officers: does personality matter? Journal of Criminal Justice, 37, 419426.
Moreto, W.D. (2016) Occupational stress among law enforcement rangers: insights from Uganda. Oryx, 50, 646654.
Moreto, W.D., Brunson, R.K. & Braga, A.A. (2015) ‘Such misconducts don't make a good ranger’: examining law enforcement ranger wrongdoing in Uganda. The British Journal of Criminology, 55, 359380.
Moreto, W.D., Lemieux, A.M. & Nobles, M.R. (2016) ‘It's in my blood now’: the satisfaction of rangers working in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. Oryx, 50, 655663.
Moreto, W.D., Gau, J.M., Paoline, E.A., Singh, R., Belecky, M. & Long, B. (2017) Occupational motivation and intergenerational linkages of rangers in Asia. Oryx, published online 22 August 2017.
Near, J.P. (1985) A discriminant analysis of plateaued versus nonplateaued managers. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 26, 177188.
Nelleman, C., Redmond, I. & Refisch, J. (eds) (2010) The Last Stand of the Gorilla: Environmental Crime and Conflict in the Congo Basin. A Rapid Response Assessment. United Nations Environment Programme, GRID-Arendal.
Newing, H., Eagle, C., Puri, R. & Watson, C.W. (2011) Conducting Research in Conservation: A Social Science Perspective. Routledge, Abingdon, UK.
O'Leary-Kelly, A.M. & Griffin, R.W. (2013) Job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Psychology and Policing (eds Brewer, N. & Wilson, C.), pp. 367394. Psychology Press, London, UK.
Ogunjinmi, A.A., Umunna, M.O. & Ogunjinmi, K.O. (2008) Factors affecting job satisfaction of rangers in Yankari Game Reserve, Bauchi, Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Social Research, 8, 19.
Palinkas, L.A., Horwitz, S.M., Green, C.A., Wisdom, J.P., Duan, N. & Hoagwood, K. (2015) Purposeful sampling for qualitative data collection and analysis in mixed method implementation research. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 42, 533544.
Palmer, C.E. & Bryant, C.D. (1985) Keepers of the king's deer. Game wardens and the enforcement of fish and wildlife law. In The Rural Workforce: Non-agricultural Occupations in America (eds Bryant, C.D., Shoemaker, D.J., Skipper, J.K. & Snizek, W.E.), pp. 111137. Bergin & Garvey, Westport, USA.
Plumptre, A.J. (2003) Lessons learned from on-the-ground conservation in Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Journal of Sustainable Forestry, 16, 6988.
Plumptre, A.J., Davenport, T.R.B., Behangana, M., Kityo, R., Eilu, G., Ssegawa, P. et al. (2007) The biodiversity of the Albertine Rift. Biological Conservation, 134, 178194.
Plumptre, A.J., Nixon, S., Kujirakwinja, D.K., Vieilledent, G., Critchlow, R., Williamson, E.A. et al. (2016) Catastrophic decline of world's largest primate: 80% loss of Grauer's gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) population justifies Critically Endangered status. PLOS ONE, 11, e0162697.
R Development Core Team (2014) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. Http://www.r-project.org/ [accessed 17 December 2018].
Reyntjens, F. (2009) The Great African War: Congo and Regional Geopolitics, 1996–2006. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK
Rothmann, S. (2008) Job satisfaction, occupational stress, burnout and work engagement as components of work-related wellbeing. South Africa Journal of Industrial Psychology, 34, 1116.
Saldaña, J. (2009) The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, USA.
Spira, C., Kirkby, A., Kujirakwinja, D. & Plumptre, A.J. (2017) The socio-economics of artisanal mining and bushmeat hunting around protected areas: Kahuzi–Biega National Park and Itombwe Nature Reserve, eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Oryx, published online 11 April 2017.
Stearns, J. et al. (2013) Raia Mutomboki: The Flawed Peace Process in the DRC and the Birth of an Armed Franchise. The Rift Valley Institute, London, UK.
Stokes, E.J. (2010) Improving effectiveness of protection efforts in tiger source sites: developing a framework for law enforcement monitoring using MIST. Integrative Zoology, 5, 363377.
Tashakkori, A. & Teddlie, C. (eds) (2010) Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social & Behavioral Research. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, USA.
The World Bank (2016) Analysis of International Funding to Tackle Illegal Wildlife Trade. World Bank, Washington, DC, USA.
Toch, H. (2002) Stress in Policing. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, USA
White, M.D., Cooper, J.A., Saunders, J. & Raganella, A.J. (2010) Motivations for becoming a police officer: re-assessing officer attitudes and job satisfaction after six years on the street. Journal of Criminal Justice, 38, 520530.
Wilkie, D., Wieland, M. & Detoeuf, D. (2015) A Guide to the Modified Basic Necessities Survey: Why and How to Conduct BNS in Conservation Landscapes. WCS, New York, USA.
Zhao, J., Thurman, Q. & He, N. (1999) Sources of job satisfaction among police officers: a test of demographic and work environment models. Justice Quarterly, 16, 153173.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Oryx
  • ISSN: 0030-6053
  • EISSN: 1365-3008
  • URL: /core/journals/oryx
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed