ACAP (1997) Management Plan for Annapurna Conservation Area. Annapurna Conservation Area Project, Pokhara, Nepal.
Ale, S.B., Shah, K.B. & Jackson, R. (2016) South Asia: Nepal. In Snow Leopards: Biodiversity of the World: Conservation from Genes to Landscapes. 1st ed. (eds Nyhus, P.J., McCarthy, T. & Mallon, D.), pp. 471–479. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Ale, S.B., Shrestha, B. & Jackson, R. (2014) On the status of snow leopard Panthera uncia in Annapurna, Nepal. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 6, 5534–5543.
Arrow, K., Solow, R., Portney, P.R., Leamer, E.E., Radner, R. & Schuman, H. (1993) Report of the NOAA panel on contingent valuation. Federal Register, 58, 4601–4614.
Balmford, A., Beresford, J., Green, J., Naidoo, R., Walpole, M. & Manica, A. (2009) A global perspective on trends in nature-based tourism. PLoS Biology 7(6): e1000144.
Balmford, A., Bruner, A., Cooper, P., Costanza, R., Farber, S., Green, R.E. et al. (2002) Economic reasons for conserving wild nature. Science, 297, 950–953.
Bandara, R. & Tisdell, C. (2005) Changing abundance of elephants and willingness to pay for their conservation. Journal of Environmental Management, 76, 47–59.
Baral, N. & Dhungana, A. (2014) Diversifying finance mechanisms for protected areas capitalizing on untapped revenues. Forest Policy and Economics, 41, 60–67.
Baral, N., Gautam, R., Timilsina, N. & Bhat, M.G. (2007a) Conservation implications of contingent valuation of critically endangered White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis in South Asia. The International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management, 3, 145–156.
Baral, N., Stern, M.J. & Bhattarai, R. (2008) Contingent valuation of ecotourism in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal: implications for sustainable park finance and local development. Ecological Economics, 66, 218–227.
Baral, N., Stern, M.J. & Heinen, J.T. (2007b) Integrated conservation and development project life cycles in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal: Is development overpowering conservation? Biodiversity and Conservation, 16, 2903–2917.
Bartczak, A. & Meyerhoff, J. (2013) Valuing the chances of survival of two distinct Eurasian lynx populations in Poland–do people want to keep the doors open? Journal of Environmental Management, 129, 73–80.
Brooks, T.M., Bakarr, M.I., Boucher, T., Da Fonseca, G.A.B., Hilton-Taylor, C., Hoekstra, J.M. et al. (2004) Coverage provided by the global protected area system: is it enough? BioScience, 54, 1081–1091.
Bruner, A.G., Gullison, R.E. & Balmford, A. (2004) Financial costs and shortfalls of managing and expanding protected area systems in developing countries. BioScience, 54, 1119–1126.
Bruner, A.G., Gullison, R.E., Rice, R.E. & Da Fonseca, G.A.B. (2001) Effectiveness of parks in protecting tropical biodiversity. Science, 291, 125–128.
Carson, R.T. (2000) Contingent valuation: a user's guide. Environmental Science & Technology, 34, 1413–1418.
Chape, S., Harrison, J., Spalding, M. & Lysenko, I. (2005) Measuring the extent and effectiveness of protected areas as an indicator for meeting global biodiversity targets. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 360, 443–455.
Dickman, A.J., Macdonald, E.A. & Macdonald, D.W. (2011) A review of financial instruments to pay for predator conservation and encourage human-carnivore coexistence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108, 13937–13944.
DNPWC (2017) Snow Leopard Conservation Action Plan (2017–2021). Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Emerton, L., Bishop, J. & Thomas, L. (2006) Sustainable Financing of Protected Areas: A Global Review of Challenges and Options. The World Conservation Union (IUCN), Gland, Switzerland.
Gaston, K.J., Jackson, S.F., Cantú-Salazar, L. & Cruz-Piñón, G. (2008) The ecological performance of protected areas. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 39, 93–113.
Geldmann, J., Barnes, M., Coad, L., Craigie, I.D., Hockings, M. & Burgess, N.D. (2013) Effectiveness of terrestrial protected areas in reducing habitat loss and population declines. Biological Conservation, 161, 230–238.
Gössling, S. (2000) Sustainable tourism development in developing countries: some aspects of energy use. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 8, 410–425.
Han, S.Y. & Lee, C.K. (2008) Estimating the value of preserving the Manchurian black bear using the contingent valuation method. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 23, 458–465.
Hanemann, M.W. (1984) Welfare evaluations in contingent valuation experiments with discrete responses. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 66, 332–341.
Horton, B., Colarullo, G., Bateman, I.J. & Peres, C.A. (2003) Evaluating non-user willingness to pay for a large-scale conservation programme in Amazonia: a UK/Italian contingent valuation study. Environmental Conservation, 30, 139–146.
Jackson, R. & Ahlborn, G. (1990) The role of protected areas in Nepal in maintaining viable populations of snow leopards. In International Pedigree Book of Snow Leopards Panthera uncia Volume 6 (ed. Blomqvuist, L.), pp. 51–69. Helsinki Zoo, Helsinki, Finland.
Jackson, R.M., Mishra, C., McCarthy, T. & Ale, S.B. (2010) Snow leopards, conservation and conflict. In The Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids (eds Macdonald, D.W. & Loveridge, A.J.), pp. 417–430. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Jeanty, P.W. (2007) Constructing Krinsky and Robb confidence intervals for mean and median willingness to pay (WTP) using stata. In 6th North American Stata Users’ Group Meeting, Boston, Massachusetts.
Krinsky, I. & Robb, A.L. (1986) On approximating the statistical properties of elasticities. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 68, 715–719.
Laarman, J.G. & Gregersen, H.M. (1996) Pricing policy in nature-based tourism. Tourism Management, 17, 247–254.
Lindsey, P.A., Alexander, R.R., du Toit, J.T. & Mills, M.G.L. (2005) The potential contribution of ecotourism to African wild dog Lycaon pictus conservation in South Africa. Biological Conservation, 123, 339–348.
Linnell, J.D.C., Swenson, J.E. & Anderson, R. (2001) Predators and people: conservation of large carnivores is possible at high human densities if management policy is favourable. Animal Conservation, 4, 345–350.
Loomis, J.B. & White, D.S. (1996) Economic benefits of rare and endangered species: summary and meta-analysis. Biological Economics, 18, 197–206.
McCarthy, T., Mallon, D., Jackson, R., Zahler, P. & McCarthy, K. (2017) Panthera uncia. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T22732A50664030. Http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22732/0 [accessed 7th October 2017].
McCarthy, T.M. & Chapron, G. (eds) (2003) Snow Leopard Survival Strategy. ISLT and SLN, Seattle, USA.
Mora, C. & Sale, P.F. (2011) Ongoing global biodiversity loss and the need to move beyond protected areas: a review of the technical and practical shortcomings of protected areas on land and sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 434, 251–266.
Namgail, T., Majumder, B., Dadul, J., Agvaantseren, B., Allen, P., Dashzeveg, U. et al. (2016) Incentive and reward programs in snow leopard conservation. In Snow Leopards (eds McCarthy, T. & Mallon, D.), pp. 163–178. Elsevier, London, UK and New York, USA.
Nelson, F. (2009) Developing payments for ecosystem services approaches to carnivore conservation. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 14, 381–392.
Ressurreição, A., Gibbons, J., Dentinho, T.P., Kaiser, M., Santos, R.S. & Edwards-Jones, G. (2011) Economic valuation of species loss in the open sea. Ecological Economics, 70, 729–739.
Richardson, L. & Loomis, J. (2009) The total economic value of threatened, endangered and rare species: an updated meta-analysis. Ecological Economics, 68, 1535–1548.
Richardson, L., Rosen, T., Gunther, K. & Schwartz, C. (2014) The economics of roadside bear viewing. Journal of Environmental Management, 140, 102–110.
Ripple, W.J., Estes, J.A., Beschta, R.L., Wilmers, C.C., Ritchie, E.G., Hebblewhite, M. et al. (2014) Status and ecological effects of the world's largest carnivores. Science, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1241484.
Tisdell, C. & Wilson, C. (2012) Nature-based Tourism and Conservation: New Economic Insights and Case Studies. Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, UK.
Tisdell, C., Swarna Nantha, H. & Wilson, C. (2007) Endangerment and likeability of wildlife species: how important are they for payments proposed for conservation? Ecological Economics, 60, 627–633.
Venkatachalam, L. (2004) The contingent valuation method: a review. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 24, 89–124.
Walpole, M.J., Goodwin, H.J. & Ward, K.G.R. (2001) Pricing policy for tourism in protected areas: lessons from Komodo National Park, Indonesia. Conservation Biology, 15, 218–227.
Wegge, P., Pokheral, C.P. & Jnawali, S.R. (2004) Effects of trapping effort and trap shyness on estimates of tiger abundance from camera trap studies. Animal Conservation, 7, 251–256.
Wilson, C. & Tisdell, C. (2007) How knowledge affects payment to conserve an endangered bird. Contemporary Economic Policy, 25, 226–237.
World Tourism Organization (2016) UNWTO Annual Report 2015. UNWTO, Madrid, Spain.