Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Who is killing the tiger Panthera tigris and why?

  • Samia Saif (a1), H. M. Tuihedur Rahman (a2) and Douglas Craig MacMillan (a1)
Abstract

We investigated the range of people involved in killing tigers Panthera tigris in the Bangladesh Sundarbans, their motives and methods, and their links to the commercial trade. Using snowball sampling we conducted 141 qualitative interviews with local people. We identified five categories (village residents, poachers, shikaris, trappers and pirates), each with different motives, methods and networks. Village residents kill tigers predominantly for safety, whereas others kill in the forest professionally or opportunistically. Poachers kill tigers for money, but for others the motives are more complex. The motives of local hunters are multifaceted, encompassing excitement, profit, and esteem and status arising from providing tiger parts for local medicine. Pirates kill tigers for profit and safety but also as a protection service to the community. The emerging international trade in tiger bones, introduced to the area by non-local Bangladeshi traders, provides opportunities to sell tiger parts in the commercial trade and is a motive for tiger killing across all groups.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Who is killing the tiger Panthera tigris and why?
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Who is killing the tiger Panthera tigris and why?
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Who is killing the tiger Panthera tigris and why?
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
(Corresponding author) E-mail saif.samia@gmail.com
Footnotes
Hide All
*

Also at: WildTeam, Dhaka, Bangladesh

To view supplementary material for this article, please visit https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605316000491

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Ahmad, I.U., Greenwood, C.J., Barlow, A.C.D., Islam, M.A., Hossain, A.N.M., Khan, M.M.H. et al. (2009) Bangladesh Tiger Action Plan 2009–2017. Bangladesh Forest Department, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Aziz, M.A. (2015) Sundorboner bagh: Choddobeshi shikari o bishtoper akkhan. Bdnews.24. Https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283054355_Sundarbans_Tiger_How_tiger_poisoning_and_snaring_of_prey_endanger_our_big_cat_Bengali [accessed 12 December 2015]. [In Bengali].
Aziz, M.A., Barlow, A.C.D., Greenwood, C.C. & Islam, A. (2013) Prioritizing threats to improve conservation strategy for the tiger Panthera tigris in the Sundarbans Reserve Forest of Bangladesh. Oryx, 47, 510518.
Barlow, A.C.D., Ahmad, I. & Smith, J.L.D. (2013) Profiling tigers (Panthera tigris) to formulate management responses to human-killing in the Bangladesh Sundarbans. Wildlife Biology in Practice, 9, 3039.
Chakraborthy, R. (2010) Prioritising the tiger: a history of human–tiger conflict in the Sundarbans. Current Conservation, 4, 4447.
Daily Sun (2016) 11 Sundarbans pirates surrender arms. Http://www.daily-sun.com/printversion/details/151401/11-Sundarbans-pirates-surrender-arms [accessed 21 August 2016].
Dey, T.K., Kabir, M.J., Islam, M.M., Chowdhury, M.M.R., Hassan, S. & Jhala, Y.V. (2015) First Phase Tiger Status Report of Bangladesh Sundarbans, 2015. Wildlife Institute of India and Bangladesh Forest Department, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Bangladesh.
Dhaka Tribune (2015) 41 pirates killed in gun battles in Sundarbans in one year. Http://www.dhakatribune.com/crime/2015/oct/21/41-pirates-killed-gun-battles-sundarbans-one-year [accessed 22 November 2015].
Gavin, M.C., Solomon, J.N. & Blank, S.G. (2010) Measuring and monitoring illegal use of natural resources. Conservation Biology, 24, 89100.
Ghosh, O. (2015) Seaweed cultivation ushers waves of change in the Sundarbans. Http://www.dw.com/en/seaweed-cultivation-ushers-waves-of-change-in-the-sundarbans/a-18861596 [accessed 2 December 2015].
GTRP (2011) Global Tiger Recovery Program 2010–2022. Http://www.globaltigerinitiative.org/download/St_Petersburg/GTRP_Nov11_Final_Version_Eng.pdf [accessed 26 May 2015].
Halle, B.O.V. & Puyol, A. (2014) Chocolate, chambira and chuncho—economic alternatives to wild meat. TRAFFIC Bulletin, 26, 810.
Hardin, G. (1968) The tragedy of the commons. Science, 162, 12431248.
Harihar, A., Veríssimo, D. & MacMillan, D.C. (2015) Beyond compensation: integrating local communities’ livelihood choices in large carnivore conservation. Global Environmental Change, 33, 122130.
Inskip, C., Fahad, Z., Tully, R., Roberts, T. & MacMillan, D. (2014) Understanding carnivore killing behaviour: exploring the motivations for tiger killing in the Sundarbans, Bangladesh. Biological Conservation, 180, 4250.
Inskip, C., Ridout, M., Fahad, Z., Tully, R., Barlow, A., Barlow, C.G. et al. (2013) Human–tiger conflict in context: risks to lives and livelihoods in the Bangladesh Sundarbans. Human Ecology, 41, 169186.
Khan, M.M.H. (2009) Can domestic dogs save humans from tigers Panthera tigris? Oryx, 43, 4447.
MacMillan, D.C. & Han, J.H. (2011) Cetacean by-catch in the Korean Peninsula—by chance or by design? Human Ecology, 39, 757768.
MacMillan, D.C. & Leitch, K. (2008) Conservation with a gun: understanding landowner attitudes to deer hunting in the Scottish Highlands. Human Ecology, 36, 473484.
MacMillan, D.C. & Phillip, S. (2010) Can economic incentives resolve conservation conflict: the case of wild deer management and habitat conservation in the Scottish Highlands. Human Ecology, 38, 485493.
Messer, K.D. (2010) Protecting endangered species: when are shoot-on-sight policies the only viable option to stop poaching? Ecological Economics, 69, 23342340.
Newing, H., Eagle, C.M., Puri, R.K. & Watson, C.W. (2011) Conducting Research in Conservation: A Social Science Perspective. Routledge, New York, USA.
Nowell, K. (2000) Far From a Cure: The Tiger Trade Revisited. TRAFFIC International, Cambridge, UK.
Ostrom, E., Gardner, R. & Walker, J. (1994) Institutional analysis and common-pool resources. In Rules, Games, and Common-Pool Resources, pp. 2350. The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, USA.
Padilla, E. & Kofinas, G.P. (2014) ‘Letting the leaders pass’: barriers to using traditional ecological knowledge in comanagement as the basis of formal hunting regulations. Ecology and Society 19, http://dx.doi.org/10.5751/ES-05999-190207.
PALF (Project for the Application of the Law for Fauna) (2014) PALF annual report 2014. Http://palf-enforcement.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/2014-PALF-Annual-Report.pdf [accessed 21 August 2016].
Pratt, D.G., Macmillan, D.C. & Gordon, I.J. (2004) Local community attitudes to wildlife utilisation in the changing economic and social context of Mongolia. Biodiversity and Conservation, 13, 591613.
Rangarajan, M. (2001) India's Wildlife History: An Introduction. Permanent Black, New Delhi, India.
Rastogi, A., Hickey, G.M., Badola, R. & Hussain, S.A. (2014) Understanding the local socio-political processes affecting conservation management outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India. Environmental Management, 53, 913929.
Rejuan, A.S.M. (2014) Management of the community-based volunteer teams to mitigate human–tiger conflict in the Bangladesh Sundarbans. MSc thesis. Roehampton University, London, UK.
Saif, S. & MacMillan, D. (2016) Poaching, trade, and consumption of tiger parts in the Bangladesh Sundarbans. In The Geography of Environmental Crime: Conservation, Wildlife Crime and Environmental Activism (eds Potter, G.R., Nurse, A. & Hall, M.), pp. 1332. Palgrave, London, UK.
Saif, S., Russell, A.M., Nodie, S.I., Inskip, C., Lahann, P., Barlow, A. et al. (2016) Local usage of tiger parts and its role in tiger killing in the Bangladesh Sundarbans. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 21, 95110.
Solomon, J., Jacobson, S.K., Wald, K.D. & Gavin, M. (2007) Estimating illegal resource use at a Ugandan park with the randomized response technique. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 12, 7588.
Sramek, J. (2006) ‘Face him like a Briton’: tiger hunting, imperialism, and British masculinity in colonial India, 1800–1875. Victorian Studies, 48, 659680.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Oryx
  • ISSN: 0030-6053
  • EISSN: 1365-3008
  • URL: /core/journals/oryx
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Saif supplementary material
Tables S1-S3

 PDF (323 KB)
323 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 116
Total number of PDF views: 363 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 2518 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 28th October 2016 - 27th May 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.