Knowledge of conflicts between people and protected areas is required for the design of sustainable conservation strategies for the management of most protected areas. This study identifies the causes of conflicts between local people and the Bénoué Wildlife Conservation Area (BWCA), which includes the Bénoué National Park, in northern Cameroon. Informal interviews and questionnaires were administered to 114 households in three communities, and to 17 Park staff and seven professional hunting guides. Crop damage affected 86% of the surveyed households, with 31% of crop income lost on average, and with the damage varying significantly between communities. Elephants, baboons, patas monkeys, warthogs and green parrots accounted for 97% of crop damage, with the staple foods maize and millet being most affected. Of the respondents, 28% experienced livestock depredation, with 18% of livestock income lost on average. The civet cat was the main predator. The involvement of local people in illegal activities, their lack of access to natural resources, and damage by wildlife were identified as principal causes of conflicts. Local people, park staff and professional hunting guides had diverse and differing perceptions about the causes of the conflicts, and made various suggestions for reduction of wildlife damage including animal scaring and controlled shooting. We conclude that, under current wildlife policy, conflict between people and BWCA is difficult to resolve. To reduce conflicts and promote sustainable conservation, we suggest co-management of wildlife involving all stakeholders, establishment of crop damage control teams, and promotion of tangible benefits to local people. There may be a requirement for site-specificity inmanagement strategies.