Alexander, J. 1989. Delta or coastal plain? With an example of the controversy from the Middle Jurassic of Yorkshire. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 41:11–19.
Alexander, J 1992. A discussion of alluvial sandstone body characteristics related to variations in marine influence, Middle Jurassic of the Cleveland Basin, UK, and the implications for analogous Brent Group strata in the North Sea Basin. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 61:149–167.
Allison, T. D. 1990. Pollen production and plant density affect pollination and seed production in Taxus canadensis. Ecology 71:516–522.
Balme, B. E. 1995. Fossil in situ spores and pollen grains: an annotated catalogue. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 87:81–323.
Batten, D. J., and Dutta, R. J.. 1997. Ultrastructure of exine of gymnospermous pollen grains from Jurassic and basal Cretaceous deposits in northwest Europe and implications for botanical relationships. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 99:25–54.
Batten, D. J., and Stead, D. T.. 2005. Palynofacies analysis and its stratigraphic application. Pp. 203–226in E. A. M. Koutsoukos, ed. Applied stratigraphy. Springer, Netherlands.
Behrensmeyer, A. K., and Kidwell, S. M.. 1985. Taphonomy’s contributions to paleobiology. Paleobiology 11:105–119.
Behrensmeyer, A. K., Kidwell, S. M., and Gastaldo, R. A.. 2000. Taphonomy and paleobiology. Paleobiology 26:103–147.
Bercovici, A., Nichols, D., and Pearson, D.. 2008. Detailed palaeontologic and taphonomic techniques to reconstruct an earliest Paleocene fossil flora: an example from southwestern North Dakota, USA. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 151:136–146.
Bercovici, A., Pearson, D., Nichols, D., and Wood, J.. 2009. Biostratigraphy of selected K/T boundary section in southwestern North Dakota, USA: toward a refinement of palynological identification criteria. Cretaceous Research 30:632–658.
Bhowmik, N., and Parveen, S.. 2014. Fossilized pollination droplet in a new seed genus from the Middle Triassic of Nidpur, India. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 59:491–503.
Black, M. 1929. Drifted plant-beds of the Upper Estuarine Series of Yorkshire. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society 85:389–439.
Bonis, N. R., and Kürschner, W. M.. 2012. Vegetation history, diversity patterns, and climate change across the Triassic/Jurassic boundary. Paleobiology 38:240–264.
Boulter, M., and Riddick, A.. 1986. Classification and analysis of palyno-debris from the Palaeocene sediments of the Forties Field. Sedimentology 33:871–886.
Boulter, M., and Windle, T.. 1993. A reconstruction of some Middle Jurassic vegetation in northern Europe. Special Papers in Palaeontology 49:125–154.
Bowman, V. C., Francis, J. E., Askin, R. A., Riding, J. B., and Swindles, G. T.. 2014. Latest Cretaceous-earliest Paleogene vegetation and climate change at the high southern latitudes: palynological evidence from Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 408:26–47.
Brack-Hanes, S. D. 1981. On a lycopsid cone with winged spores. Botanical Gazette 142:294–304.
Brugman, W. A., Van Bergen, P. F., and Kerp, J. H. F.. 1994. A quantitative approach to Triassic palynology: the Lettenkeuper of the Germanic Basin as an example. Pp. 409–430in A. Traverse, ed. Sedimentation of organic particles. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Butler, N., Charnock, M. A., Hager, K. O., and Watkins, C. A.. 2005. The Ravenscar Group: a coeval analogue for the Middle Jurassic reservoirs of the North Sea and offshore Mid-Norway. Pp. 43–53in A. J. Powell and J. B. Riding, eds. Recent developments in applied biostratigraphy. Geological Society of London, Micropaleontological Society Special Publications, London.
Carvalho, M. D. A., Filho, J. G. M., and Menezes, T. R.. 2006. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction based on palynofacies analysis of the Aptian-Albian succession of the Sergipe Basin, northeastern Brazil. Marine Micropaleontology 59:56–81.
Chaloner, W. G. 1968. The palaeoecology of fossil spores. Pp. 125–138in E. T. Drake, ed. Evolution and environment. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
Chaloner, W. G., and Muir, M.. 1968. Spores and floras. Pp. 127–146in D. Murchison, and T. S. Westoll, eds. Coal and coal-bearing strata. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh and London.
Chatfield, C., and Collins, A. J.. 1980. Introduction to multivariate analysis. Chapman and Hall/CRC, USA.
Clark, D. A., and Clark, D. B.. 1987. Temporal and environmental patterns of reproduction in Zamia skinneri, a tropical rain forest cycad. Journal of Ecology 75:135–149.
Colwell, R. K., and Coddington, J. A.. 1994. Estimating terrestrial biodiversity through extrapolation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 345:101–118.
Couper, R. A. 1958. British Mesozoic microspores and pollen grains. Palaeontographica Abteilung B 103:75–179.
Cox, T. F., and Cox, M. A. A.. 2001. Multidimensional scaling, second edition. Chapman and Hall/CRC, USA.
Cox, B. M., and Sumbler, M. G.. 2002. British Middle Jurassic stratigraphy. Geological Conservation Review Series, Peterborough.
Crane, P. R. 2013. Ginkgo: the tree that time forgot. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
Crane, P. R., and Herendeen, P. S.. 2009. Bennettitales from the Grisethorphe Bed (Middle Jurassic) at Cayton Bay, Yorkshire, UK. American Journal of Botany 96:284–295.
Crepet, W., Friis, E. M., and Nixon, K. C.. 1991. Fossil evidence for the evolution of biotic pollination. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 333:187–195.
Critchfield, W. B. 1985. The late Quaternary history of lodgepole and jack pines. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 15:749–772.
Delevoryas, T. 1963. Investigations of North American cycadeoids: cones of Cycadeoidea. American Journal of Botany 50:45–52.
Del Tredici, P. 1989. Ginkgos and multituberculates: evolutionary interactions in the Tertiary. Biosystems 22:327–339.
Dettmann, M. E. 1963. Upper Mesozoic microfloras from south-eastern Australia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 77:1–148.
Dubuisson, J. Y., Schneider, H., and Hennequin, S.. 2009. Epiphytism in ferns: diversity and history. Comptes Rendus Biologies 332:120–128.
Durand, L. Z., and Goldstein, G.. 2001. Growth, leaf characteristics, and spore production in native and invasive tree ferns in Hawaii. American Fern Journal 91:25–35.
Filatoff, J. 1975. Jurassic palynology of the Perth Basin, Western Australia. Palaeontographica Abteilung B 154:1–113.
Fisher, M. J., and Hancock, N. J.. 1985. The Scalby Formation (Middle Jurassic, Ravenscar Group) of Yorkshire: reassessment of age and depositional environment. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society 45:293–298.
Frahm, J. P., and Newton, A. E.. 2005. A new contribution to the moss flora of Dominican amber. The Bryologist 108:526–536.
Frederiksen, N. O. 1980. Significance of monosulcate pollen abundance in Mesozoic sediments. Lethaia 13:1–20.
Friedman, J., and Barrett, S. C. H.. 2009. Wind of change: new insights on the ecology and evolution of pollination and mating in wind-pollinated plants. Annals of Botany 103:1515–1527.
Friis, E. M., and Pedersen, K. R.. 1996. Eucommiitheca hirsuta, a new pollen organ with Eucommiidites pollen from the Early Cretaceous of Portugal. Grana 35:104–112.
Gedl, P., and Ziaja, J.. 2012. Palynofacies from Bathonian (Middle Jurassic) ore-bearing clays at Gnaszyn, Kraków-Silesia Homocline, Poland, with special emphasis on sporomorph eco-groups. Acta Geologica Polonica 3:325–349.
Götz, A. E., Ruckwied, K., and Barbacka, M.. 2011. Palaeoenvironment of the Late Triassic (Rhaetian) and Early Jurassic (Hettangian) Mecsek Coal Formation (south Hungary): implications from macro- and microfloral assemblages. Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments 91:75–88.
Gowland, S., and Riding, J. B.. 1991. Stratigraphy, sedimentology and palaeontology of the Scarborough Formation (Middle Jurassic) at Hundale Point, North Yorkshire. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society 48:375–392.
Grauvogel-Stamm, L., and Lugardon, B.. 2009. Phylogeny and evolution of the horsetails: evidence from spore wall ultrastructure. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 156:116–129.
Gray, J. 1960. Fossil chlorophycean algae from the Miocene of Oregon. Journal of Paleontology 34:453–463.
Greenacre, M. 2007. Correspondence analysis in practice, second edition. Chapman and Hall/CRC, Boca Raton, USA.
Guignard, G., Wang, Y., Ni, Q., Tian, N., and Jiang, Z.. 2009. A dipteridaceous fern with in situ spores from the Lower Jurassic in Hubei, China. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 156:104–115.
Hammer, Ø., and Harper, D. T.. 2006. Paleontological data analysis. Blackwell, Oxford.
Hammer, Ø., Harper, D. T., and Ryan, P. D.. 2001. PAST: paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica 4:1–9.
Hancock, N. J., and Fisher, M. J.. 1981. Middle Jurassic North Sea deltas with particular reference to Yorkshire. Pp. 186–195in L. V. Illing, and G. D. Hobson, eds. Petroleum geology of the continental shelf of north-west Europe. Institute of Petroleum, London.
Harrington, G. J. 2008. Comparisons between Palaeocene–Eocene paratropical swamp and marginal marine pollen floras from Alabama and Mississippi, USA. Palaeontology 51:611–622.
Harris, T. M. 1933. A new member of the Caytoniales. The New Phytologist 32:97–114.
Harris, T. M 1941. Caytonanthus, the microsporophyll of Caytonia. Annals of Botany 5:47–58.
Harris, T. M 1944. Notes on the Jurassic flora of Yorkshire. Journal of Natural History Series 11:13–15.
Harris, T. M 1945. On a coprolite of Caytonia pollen. Annals of Magazine of Natural History Series 11, 12:357–378.
Harris, T. M 1952. The zonation of the Yorkshire Jurassic flora. Palaeobotanist 1:207–211.
Harris, T. M 1953. The geology of the Yorkshire Jurassic flora. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society 29:63–71.
Harris, T. M 1961a. The fossil cycads. Palaeontology 4:313–323.
Harris, T. M 1961b. The Yorkshire Jurassic flora I. Thallophyta-Pteridophyta. British Museum (Natural History), London.
Harris, T. M 1964. The Yorkshire Jurassic flora II. Caytoniales, Cycadales and pteridosperms. British Museum (Natural History), London.
Harris, T. M 1969. The Yorkshire Jurassic flora III. Bennettitales. British Museum (Natural History), London.
Harris, T. M 1974. Williamsoniella lignieri: its pollen and the compression of spherical pollen grains. Palaeontology 17:125–148.
Harris, T. M 1978. A reconstruction of Equisetum columnare and notes on its elater bearing spores. Palaeobotanist 25:120–125.
Harris, T. M 1979. The Yorkshire Jurassic flora V. Coniferales. British Museum (Natural History), London.
Harris, T. M 1983. The stem of Pachypteris papillosa. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 86:149–159.
Harris, T. M., Millington, W., and Miller, J.. 1974. The Yorkshire Jurassic flora IV. Ginkgoales and Czekanowskiales. British Museum (Natural History), London.
Hemingway, J. E.. 1974. Jurassic. Pp. 161–233in D. H. Rayner, and J. E. Hemingway, eds. The geology and mineral resources of Yorkshire. Yorkshire Geological Society, Leeds.
Hemingway, J. E., and Knox, R. W. O’B.. 1973. Lithostratigraphical nomenclature of the Middle Jurassic strata of the Yorkshire Basin of north-east England. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society 39:527–535.
Hill, C. R. 1974. Further plant fossils from the Hasty Bank locality. Naturalist 929:55–56.
Hill, C. R 1990. Ultrastructure of in situ fossil cycad pollen from the English Jurassic, with a description of the male cone Androstrobus balmei sp. nov. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 65:165–173.
Hill, C. R., and van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J. H. A.. 1973. Species of plant fossils collected from the Middle Jurassic plant bed at Hasty Bank, Yorkshire. Naturalist 925:59–63.
Hill, C. R., Moore, D. T., Greensmith, J. T., and Williams, R.. 1985. Palaeobotany and petrology of a Middle Jurassic ironstone bed at Wrack Hills, North Yorkshire. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society 45:277–292.
Hubbard, R. N. L. B., and Boulter, M. C.. 1997. Mid Mesozoic floras and climates. Palaeontology 40:43–70.
Jana, B. N., and Hilton, J.. 2007. Resolving the age of the Mesozoic Kuar Bet Beds (Kachchh, Gujarat, India): a reinvestigation of palaeobotanical and palynological assemblages. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 30:457–463.
Jardine, P. E., Harrington, G. J., and Stidham, T. A.. 2012. Regional-scale spatial heterogeneity in the late Paleocene paratropical forests of the U.S. Gulf Coast. Paleobiology 38:15–39.
Kantorowicz, J. D. 1985. The petrology and diagenesis of Middle Jurassic clastic sediments, Ravenscar Group, Yorkshire. Sedimentology 32:833–853.
Klavins, S. D., Kellogg, D. W., Krings, M., Taylor, E. L., and Taylor, T. N.. 2005. Coprolites in a Middle Triassic cycad pollen cone: evidence for insect pollination in early cycads? Evolutionary Ecology Research 7:479–488.
Knox, R. W. O’B. 1973. The Eller Beck Formation (Bajocian) of the Ravenscar Group of NE Yorkshire. Geological Magazine 110:511–534.
Kono, M., and Tobe, H.. 2007. Is Cycas revoluta (Cycadaceae) wind– or insect–pollinated? American Journal of Botany 94:847–855.
Kovach, W. L. 1989. Comparisons of multivariate analytical techniques for use in pre-Quaternary plant paleoecology. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 60:255–282.
Kovach, W. L 1993. Multivariate techniques for biostratigraphical correlation. Journal of the Geological Society 150:697–705.
Labandeira, C. C. 2010. The pollination of mid Mesozoic seed plants and the early history of long-proboscid insects. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 97:469–513.
Labandeira, C. C., Kvaček, J., and Mostovski, M. B.. 2007. Pollination drops, pollen, and insect pollination of Mesozoic gymnosperms. Taxon 56:663–695.
Leeder, M. R., and Nami, M.. 1979. Sedimentary models for the non-marine Scalby Formation (Middle Jurassic) and evidence for late Bajocian/Bathonian uplift of the Yorkshire Basin. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society 42:461–482.
Legendre, P., and Legendre, L.. 2012. Numerical ecology, third edition. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Levin, D. A., and Kerster, H.. 1974. Gene flow in seed plants. Evolutionary Biology 7:139–220.
Lidgard, S., and Crane, P. R.. 1990. Angiosperm diversification and Cretaceous floristic trends: a comparison of palynofloras and leaf macrofloras. Paleobiology 16:77–93.
Lindley, J., and Hutton, W.. 1833. The fossil flora of Great Britain: or, figures and descriptions of the vegetable remains found in a fossil state in this country. James Ridgway, London.
Livera, S. E., and Leeder, M. R.. 1981. The Middle Jurassic Ravenscar Group (‘Deltaic Series’) of Yorkshire: recent sedimentological studies as demonstrated during a field meeting 2–3 May 1980. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association 92:241–250.
Looy, C. V., and Hotton, C. L.. 2014. Spatiotemporal relationships among Late Pennsylvanian pant assemblages: palynological evidence from the Markley Formation, West Texas, U.S.A. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 211:10–27.
Mander, L. 2011. Taxonomic resolution of the Triassic-Jurassic sporomorph record in East Greenland. Journal of Micropalaeontology 30:107–118.
Mander, L., Kürschner, W. M., and McElwain, J. C.. 2010. An explanation for conflicting records of Triassic-Jurassic plant diversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107:15351–15356.
Mander, L., Kürschner, W. M., and McElwain, J. C.. 2013. Palynostratigraphy and vegetation history of the Triassic-Jurassic transition in East Greenland. Journal of the Geological Society 170:37–46.
Milsom, J., and Rawson, P. F.. 1989. The peak trough – a major control on the geology of the North Yorkshire coast. Geological Magazine 126:699–705.
Minchin, P. 1987. An evaluation of the relative robustness of techniques for ecological ordination. Vegetatio 69:89–107.
Mjøs, R., and Prestholm, E.. 1993. The geometry and organization of fluviodeltaic channel sandstones in the Jurassic Saltwick Formation, Yorkshire, England. Sedimentology 40:919–935.
Morgans, H. S. 1999. Lower and Middle Jurassic woods of the Cleveland Basin (North Yorkshire), England. Palaeontology 42:303–328.
Nami, M., and Leeder, M. R.. 1978. Changing channel morphology and magnitude in the Scalby Formation (M. Jurassic) of Yorkshire, England. Pp. 431–440in A. D. Miall, ed. Fluvial sedimentology. Canadian society of petroleum geologists memoir 5. Calgary, Canada.
Niklas, K. J., and Norstog, K.. 1984. Aerodynamics and pollen grain depositional patterns on cycad megastrobili: implications on the reproduction of three cycad genera (Cycas, Dioon, and Zamia). Botanical Gazette 145:92–104.
Norstog, K. 1987. Cycads and the origin of insect pollination. American Scientist 75:270–279.
Norstog, K. J., and Fawcett, P. K. S.. 1989. Insect–cycad symbiosis and its relation to the pollination of Zamia furfuracea (Zamiaceae) by Rhopalotria mollis (Curculionidae). American Journal of Botany 76:1380–1394.
Oboh-Ikuenobe, F. E., and Yepes, O.. 1997. Palynofacies analysis of sediments from the Côte d’Ivoire-Ghana transform margin: preliminary correlation with some regional events in the equatorial Atlantic. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 129:291–314.
Oboh-Ikuenobe, F. E., Obi, C. G., and Jaramillo, C. A.. 2005. Lithofacies, palynofacies, and sequence stratigraphy of Palaeogene strata in southeastern Nigeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences 41:79–101.
Oksanen, J., Blanchet, F. G., Kindt, R., Legendre, P., Minchin, P. R., O’Hara, R. B., Simpson, G. L., Solymos, P., Stevens, M. H. H., and Wagner, H.. 2015. Vegan: Community Ecology Package. R package, version 2.2–1. http://www.cran.r-project.org/web/packages/vegan/index.html.
Okubo, A., and Levin, S. A.. 1989. A theoretical framework for data analysis of wind dispersal of seeds and pollen. Ecology 70:329–338.
Ornduff, R. 1990. Geographic variation in reproductive behavior and size structure of the Australian cycad Macrozamia communis (Zamiaceae). American Journal of Botany 77:92–99.
Osborn, J. M., and Taylor, T. N.. 1993. Pollen morphology and ultrastructure of the Corystospermales: permineralized in situ grains from the Triassic of Antarctica. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 79:205–219.
Pacton, M., Gorin, G. E., and Vasconcelos, C.. 2011. Amorphous organic matter – experimental data on formation and the role of microbes. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 166:253–267.
Palliani, R. B., and Riding, J. B.. 2000. A palynological investigation of the Lower and lowermost Middle Jurassic strata (Sinemurian to Aalenian) from North Yorkshire, UK. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society 53:1–16.
Parry, C. C., Whitley, P. K. J., and Simpson, R. D. H.. 1981. Integration of palynological and sedimentological methods in facies analysis of the Brent Formation. Pp. 205–215in L. V. Illings, and G. D. Hobson, eds. Petroleum geology of the continental shelf of north-west Europe. Institute of Petroleum, London.
Pedersen, K. R., and Lund, J. J.. 1980. Palynology of the plant-bearing Rhaetian to Hettangian Kap Stewart Formation, Scoresby Sund, East Greenland. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 31:1–69.
Pedersen, K. R., Crane, P. R., and Friis, E. M.. 1989. Pollen organs and seeds with Eucommiidites pollen. Grana 28:279–294.
Pellmyr, O., Tang, W., Groth, I., Bergsröm, G., and Thien, L. B.. 1991. Cycad cone and angiosperm floral volatiles: inferences for the evolution of insect pollination. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 19:623–627.
Picket, S. T. A., and Cadenasso, M. L.. 2005. Vegetation dynamics. Pp. 172–198in E. van der Maarel, ed. Vegetation ecology. Blackwell, Oxford.
Pohjamo, M., Laaka-Lindberg, S., Ovaskainen, O., and Korpelainen, H.. 2006. Dispersal potential of spores and asexual propagules in the epixylic hepatic Anastrophyllum hellerianum. Evolutionary Ecology 20:415–430.
Powell, J. H. 2010. Jurassic sedimentation in the Cleveland Basin: a review. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society 58:21–72.
Prentice, I. C. 1985. Pollen representation, source area, and basin size: toward a unified theory of pollen analysis. Quaternary Research 23:76–86.
Pšenička, J., and Opluštil, S.. 2013. The epiphytic plants in the fossil record and its example from in situ tuff from Pennsylvanian of Radnice Basin (Czech Republic). Bulletin of Geosciences 88:401–416.
R Development Core Team. 2014. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, version 3.1.2, Vienna, Austria. http://www.R-project.org/.
Rawson, P. F., and Wright, J. K.. 2000. Geologists’ association guide No. 34. The Yorkshire coast. The Geologists’ Association Guide, London.
Regal, P. J. 1982. Pollination by wind and animals: ecology of geographic patterns. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 13:497–524.
Ren, D., Labandeira, C. C., Santiago-Blay, J. A., Rasnitsyn, A., Shih, C., Bashkuev, A., Logan, M. A. V., Hotton, C. L., and Dilcher, D.. 2009. A probable pollination mode before angiosperms: Eurasian, long-proboscid scorpionflies. Science 326:840–847.
Riding, J. B. 1984. A palynological investigation of Toarcian to early Aalenian strata from the Blea Wyke area, Ravenscar, North Yorkshire. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society 45:109–122.
Riding, J. B., and Wright, J. K.. 1989. Palynostratigraphy of the Scalby Formation (Middle Jurassic) of the Cleveland Basin, north-east Yorkshire. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society 47:349–354.
Romano, M., and Whyte, M. A.. 2003. Jurassic dinosaur tracks and trackways of the Cleveland Basin, Yorkshire: preservation, diversity and distribution. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society 54:185–215.
Romano, M., Whyte, M. A., and Manning, P. L.. 1999. New sauropod dinosaur prints from the Saltwick Formation (Middle Jurassic) of the Cleveland Basin, Yorkshire. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society 52:361–369.
Roncaglia, L. 2004. Palynofacies analysis and organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts as indicators of palaeo-hydrographic changes: an example from Holocene sediments in Skálafjord, Faroe Islands. Marine Micropaleontology 50:21–42.
Scheihing, M. H. 1980. Reduction of wind velocity by the forest canopy and the rarity of non-arborescent plants in the Upper Carboniferous fossil record. Argumenta Palaeobotanica 6:133–138.
Schneider, H., and Kenrick, P.. 2001. An Early Cretaceous root-climbing epiphyte (Lindsaeaceae) and its significance for calibrating the diversification of polypodiaceous ferns. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 115:33–41.
Schuettpelz, E., and Pryer, K. M.. 2007. Fern phylogeny from 400 leptosporangiate species. Taxon 56:1037–1050.
Schuettpelz, E., and Pryer, K. M.. 2009. Evidence for a Cenozoic radiation of ferns in an angiosperm-dominated canopy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106:11200–11205.
Schweitzer, H. J., van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J. H. A., and van der Burgh, J.. 1997. The Rhaeto-Jurassic flora of Iran and Afghanistan. 10. Bryophyta, Lycophyta, Sphenophyta, Pterophyta-eusporangiate and -protoleptosporangiate. Palaeontographica Abteilung B 243:103–192.
Schwendemann, A. B., Wang, G., Mertz, M. L., McWilliams, R. T., Thatcher, S. L., and Osborn, J. M.. 2007. Aerodynamics of saccate pollen and its implications for wind pollination. American Journal of Botany 94:1371–1381.
Skog, J. E., and Hill, C. R.. 1992. The Mesozoic herbaceous lycopsids. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 79:648–675.
Slater, S. M., Taylor, W. A., Batten, D. J., Hill, C. R., and Wellman, C. H.. 2015. Morphology and wall ultrastructure of a new and highly distinctive megaspore from the Middle Jurassic of Yorkshire, UK. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 216:33–43.
Spicer, R. A., and Hill, C. R.. 1979. Principal components and correspondence analyses of quantitative data from a Jurassic plant bed. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 28:273–299.
Srivastava, S. K. 2011. Spore-pollen biostratigraphy of the English Jurassic. Palaeontographica Abteilung B 285:113–201.
Stukins, S., Jolley, D. W., McIlroy, D., and Hartley, A. J.. 2013. Middle Jurassic vegetation dynamics from allochthonous palynological assemblages: an example from a marginal marine depositional setting; Lajas Formation, Neuquén Basin, Argentina. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 392:117–127.
Tang, W. 1987. Insect pollination in the cycad Zamia pumila (Zamiaceae). American Journal of Botany 74:90–99.
ter Braak, C. J. F. 1995. Ordination. Pp. 91–173in R. H. G. Jongman, C. J. F. ter Braak, and O. F. R. van Tongeren, eds. Data analysis in community and landscape ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Terry, I., Walter, G. H., Moore, C., Roemer, R., and Hull, C.. 2007. Odor–mediated push–pull pollination in cycads. Science 318:70.
Tinner, W., Ammann, B., and Germann, P.. 1996. Treeline fluctuations recorded for 12,500 years by soil profiles, pollen, and plant macrofossils in the central Swiss Alps. Arctic and Alpine Research 28:131–147.
Traverse, A. 2007. Paleopalynology, second edition. Springer, Netherlands.
Tstutsumi, C., and Kato, M.. 2006. Evolution of epiphytes in Davalliaceae and related ferns. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 151:495–510.
Tyson, R. V. 1995. Sedimentary organic matter. Organic facies and palynofacies. Chapman and Hall, London.
Van der Zwan, C. J. 1990. Palynostratigraphy and palynofacies reconstruction of the Upper Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous of the Draugen Field, offshore mid Norway. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 62:157–186.
van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J. H. A. 1968. Androstrobus major, a new male cycad cone from the Jurassic of Yorkshire (England). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 7:267–273.
van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J. H. A 1971. In situ gymnosperm pollen from the Middle Jurassic of Yorkshire. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 20:1–96.
van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J. H. A 1972. Some additional notes on male gymnosperm fructifications from the Jurassic flora of Yorkshire. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 21:95–98.
van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J. H. A 1975. Some notes on Marattia anglica from the Jurassic of Yorkshire. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 20:205–214.
van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J. H. A 1978. Osmundaceous spores in situ from the Jurassic of Yorkshire, England. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 26:125–141.
van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J. H. A 1981. Schizaeaceous spores in situ from the Jurassic of Yorkshire, England. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 33:169–181.
van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J. H. A 1989. Dicksoniaceous spores in situ from the Jurassic of Yorkshire, England. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 61:273–301.
van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J. H. A 1993. A review of the Matoniaceae based on in situ spores. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 78:235–267.
van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J. H. A 1996. Two Osmundopsis species and their sterile foliage from the Middle Jurassic of Yorkshire. Palaeontology 39:719–731.
van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J. H. A 2000. Osmundaceous spores throughout time. Pp. 435–449in M. M. Harley, C. M. Morton, and S. Blackmore, eds. Pollen and spores: morphology and biology. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J. H. A 2008. The Jurassic fossil plant record of the UK area. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association 119:59–72.
van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J. H. A 2010. The Early Jurassic male ginkgoalean inflorescence Stachyopitys preslii Schenk and its in situ pollen. Scripta Geologica Special Issue 7, 141–149.
van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J. H. A., and Morgans, H. S.. 1999. The Jurassic flora of Yorkshire. The Palaeontological Association, London.
van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J. H. A., and van der Burgh, J.. 1989. The flora from the Kimmeridgian (Upper Jurassic) of Culgower, Sutherland, Scotland. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 61:1–51.
Whitehead, D. R. 1983. Wind pollination: some ecological and evolutionary perspectives. Pp. 97–108in L. Real, ed. Pollination biology. Academic Press, New York, USA.
Whyte, M. A., and Romano, M.. 1993. Footprints of a sauropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of Yorkshire. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association 104:195–199.
Whyte, M. A., and Romano, M.. 2001a. A dinosaur ichnocoenosis from the Middle Jurassic of Yorkshire, UK. Ichnos 8:223–234.
Whyte, M. A., and Romano, M.. 2001b. Probable stegosaurian dinosaur tracks from the Saltwick Formation (Middle Jurassic) of Yorkshire. England. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association 112:45–54.
Whyte, M. A., Romano, M., Hudson, J. G., and Watts, W.. 2006. Discovery of the largest theropod dinosaur track known from the Middle Jurassic of Yorkshire. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society 56:77–80.
Whyte, M. A., Romano, M., and Elvidge, D. J.. 2007. Reconstruction of Middle Jurassic dinosaur-dominated communities from the vertebrate ichnofauna of the Cleveland Basin of Yorkshire, UK. Ichnos 14:117–129.
Whyte, M. A., Romano, M., and Watts, W.. 2010. Yorkshire dinosaurs: a history in two parts. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 343:189–207.
Wilson, G. A. 2002. Insect pollination in the cycad genus Bowenia Hook. ex Hook. f. (Stangeriaceae). Biotropica 34:438–441.
Wing, S. L., and Harrington, G. J.. 2001. Floral response to rapid warming in the earliest Eocene and implications for concurrent faunal change. Paleobiology 27:539–563.
Yang, X. J., Friis, E. M., and Zhou, Z. Y.. 2008. Ovule-bearing organs of Ginkgo ginkgoidea (Tralau) comb. nov., and associated leaves from the Middle Jurassic of Scania, South Sweden. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 149:1–17.
Young, G. M., and Bird, J.. 1822. A geological survey of the Yorkshire coast: describing the strata and fossils occurring between the Humber and the Tees, from the Germany Ocean to the plain of York. R. Kirby, Whitby.
Ziaja, J. 2006. Lower Jurassic spores and pollen grains from Odrowąż, Mesozoic margin of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. Acta Palaeobotanica 46:3–83.