1974. A new look at the statistical model identification. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Algeo T., Henderson C. M., Ellwood B., Rowe H., Elswick E., Bates S., Lyons T., Hower J. C., Smith C., Maynard B., Hays L. E., Summons R. E., Fulton J., and Freeman K. H.. 2012. Evidence for a diachronous Late Permian marine crisis from the Canadian Arctic region. Geological Society of America Bulletin
Amati L., and Westrop S. R.. 2006. Sedimentary facies and trilobite biofacies along an Ordovician shelf to basin gradient, Viola Group, south-central Oklahoma. Palaios
Anderson D. R., Burnham K. P., and Thompson W. L.. 2000. Null hypothesis testing: problems, prevalence, and an alternative. Journal of Wildlife Management
Angiolini L., Checconi A., Gaetani M., and Rettori R.. 2010. The latest Permian mass extinction in the Alborz Mountains (North Iran). Geological Journal
Baarli B. G.
2014. The early Rhuddanian survival interval in the Lower Silurian of the Oslo Region: a third pulse of the end-Ordovician extinction. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology
Brenchley P. J., Carden G. A., Hints L., Kaljo D., Marshall J. D., Martma T., Meidla T., and Nolvak J.. 2003. High-resolution stable isotope stratigraphy of Upper Ordovician sequences: constraints on the timing of bioevents and environmental changes associated with mass extinction and glaciation. Geological Society of America Bulletin
Breiman L., Friedman J. H., Olshen R. A., and Stone C. J.. 1984. Classification and regression trees. Chapman and Hall/CRC, Boca Raton, Fla.
Casella G., and Berger R. L.. 2002. Statistical inference, 2nd ed. Duxbury, Pacific Grove, Calif.
Darroch S. A. F., and Wagner P. J.. 2015. Response of beta diversity to pulses of Ordovician–Silurian mass extinction. Ecology
Garbelli C., Angiolini L., Brand U., Shen S.-Z., Jadoul F., Posenato R., Azmy K., and Cao C.-Q.. 2015. Neotethys seawater chemistry and temperature at the dawn of the end Permian mass extinction. Gondwana Research
Graham R. L., Knuth D. E., and Patashnik O.. 1994. Concrete mathematics: a foundation for computer science, 2nd ed. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass.
Groves J. R., Rettori R., Payne J. L., Boyce M. D., and Altiner D.. 2007. End-Permian mass extinction of Lagenide foraminifers in the southern Alps (northern Italy). Journal of Paleontology
Hastie T., Tibshirani R., and Friedman J.. 2009. The elements of statistical learning, 2nd ed. Springer, New York.
He W.-H., Shi G. R., Twitchett R. J., Zhang Y., Zhang K.-X., Song H.-J., Yue M.-L., Wu S.-B., Wu H.-T., Yang T.-L., and Xiao Y.-F.. 2015. Late Permian marine ecosystem collapse began in deeper waters: evidence from brachiopod diversity and body size changes. Geobiology
Holland S. M.
1995. The stratigraphic distribution of fossils. Paleobiology
Holland S. M.
2000. The quality of the fossil record: a sequence stratigraphic perspective. Pp. 148–168 in D. H. Erwin, and S. L. Wing, eds. Deep time: paleobiology’s perspective. Paleontological Society, Lawrence, Kans.
Holland S. M.
2003. Confidence limits on fossil ranges that account for facies changes. Paleobiology
Holland S. M., and Patzkowsky M. E.. 2002. Stratigraphic variation in the timing of first and last occurrences. Palaios
Holland S. M., and Patzkowsky M. E.. 2004. Ecosystem structure and stability: Middle Upper Ordovician of central Kentucky. USA. Palaios
Holland S. M., and Patzkowsky M. E.. 2007. Gradient ecology of a biotic invasion: biofacies of the type Cincinnatian series (Upper Ordovician), Cincinnati, Ohio region. USA. Palaios
Holland S. M., and Patzkowsky M. E.. 2009. The stratigraphic distribution of fossils in a tropical carbonate succession: Ordovician Bighorn Dolomite, Wyoming, USA. Palaios
Holland S. M., and Patzkowsky M. E.. 2015. The stratigraphy of mass extinction. Palaeontology
Horton B. P., Edwards R. J., and Lloyd J. M.. 1999. UK intertidal foraminiferal distributions: implications for sea-level studies. Marine Micropaleontology
2006. Fitting and comparing models of phyletic evolution: random walks and beyond. Paleobiology
2002. End-Permian double-phased mass extinction and killer volcanism. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs
Jin Y. G., Wang Y., Wang W., Shang Q. H., Cao C. Q., and Erwin D. H.. 2000. Pattern of marine mass extinction near the Permian–Triassic boundary in South China. Science
Keller G., Stinnesbeck W., Adatte T., and Stüben D.. 2003. Multiple impacts across the Cretaceous–Tertiary boundary. Earth-Science Reviews
Keller G., Adatte T., Bhowmick P. K, Upadhyay H., Dave A., Reddy A. N., and Jaiprakash B. C.. 2012. Nature and timing of extinctions in Cretaceous–Tertiary planktic foraminifera preserved in Deccan intertrappean sediments of the Krishna–Godavari Basin, India. Earth and Planetary Science Letters
Knoll A. H., Bambach R. K., Canfield D. E., and Grotzinger J. P.. 1996. Comparative Earth history and late Permian mass extinction. Science
Konar B., Iken K., and Edwards M.. 2008. Depth-stratified community zonation patterns on Gulf of Alaska rocky shores. Marine Ecology
Lindström S., and McLoughlin S.. 2007. Synchronous palynofloristic extinction and recovery after the end-Permian event in the Prince Charles Mountains, Antarctica: implications for palynofloristic turnover across Gondwana. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology
Macellari C. E.
1986. Late Campanian–Maastrichtian ammonite fauna from Seymour Island (Antarctic Peninsula). Paleontological Society Memoir 18. Journal of Paleontology
60(Suppl. to No. 2), 1–55.
Marshall C. R.
1990. Confidence intervals on stratigraphic ranges. Paleobiology
Marshall C. R.
1995a. Distinguishing between sudden and gradual extinctions in the fossil record: predicting the position of the Cretaceous–Tertiary iridium anomaly using the ammonite fossil record on Seymour Island, Antarctica. Geology
Marshall C. R.
1995b. Stratigraphy, the true order of species originations and extinctions, and testing ancestor-descendent hypotheses among Caribbean Neogene bryozoans. Pp. 208–235 in D. H. Erwin, and R. L. Anstey, eds. New approaches to speciation in the fossil record. Columbia University Press, New York.
Marshall C. R., and Ward P. D.. 1996. Sudden and gradual molluscan extinctions in the latest Cretaceous in western European Tethys. Science
McGhee G. R. Jr.
2001. The “multiple impacts hypothesis” for mass extinction: a comparison of the Late Devonian and the late Eocene. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology
2006. Faunal change and bathymetric diversity gradient in deep-sea prosobranchs from northeastern Atlantic. Biodiversity and Conservation
Patzkowsky M. E., and Holland S. M.. 2012. Stratigraphic paleobiology: understanding the distribution of fossil taxa in time and space. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Paul C. R. C., Lamolda M. A., Mitchell S. F., Vaziri M. R., Gorostidi A., and Marshall J. D.. 1999. The Cenomanian–Turonian boundary at Eastbourne (Sussex, UK): a proposed European reference section. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology
Payne J. L.
2003. Applicability and resolving power of statistical tests for instantaneous extinction events in the fossil record. Paleobiology
Rampino M. R., and Adler A. C.. 1998. Evidence for abrupt latest Permian mass extinction of foraminifera: results of tests for the Signor–Lipps effect. Geology
R Core Team. 2013. R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. http://www.R-project.org.
Rivadeneira M. M., Hunt G., and Roy K.. 2009. The use of sighting records to infer species extinctions: an evaluation of different methods. Ecology
Scarponi D., and Kowalewski M.. 2004. Stratigraphic paleoecology: bathymetric signatures and sequence overprint of mollusk associations from upper Quaternary sequences of the Po Plain, Italy. Geology
Schwarz G. E.
1978. Estimating the dimension of a model. Annals of Statistics
Signor P. W., and Lipps J. H.. 1982. Sampling bias, gradual extinction patterns, and catastrophes in the fossil record. In L. T. Silver and P. H. Schultz, eds. Geological implications of large asteroids and comets on the Earth. Geological Society of America Special Paper 190:291–296.
Smale D. A.
2008. Continuous benthic community change along a depth gradient in Antarctic shallows: evidence of patchiness but not zonation. Polar Biology
Solow A. R.
1996. Tests and confidence intervals for a common upper endpoint in fossil taxa. Paleobiology
Solow A. R.
2003. Estimation of stratigraphic ranges when fossil finds are not randomly distributed. Paleobiology
Solow A. R., and Smith W. K.. 2000. Testing for a mass extinction without selecting taxa. Paleobiology
Solow A. R., Roberts D. L., and Robbirt K. M.. 2006. On the Pleistocene extinctions of Alaskan mammoths and horses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA
Song H., Tong J., and Chen Z. Q.. 2009. Two episodes of foraminiferal extinction near the Permian–Triassic boundary at the Meishan section, South China. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences
Song H. J., Wignall P. B., Tong J. N., and Yin H. F.. 2013. Two pulses of extinction during the Permian–Triassic crisis. Nature Geoscience
Springer M. S.
1990. The effect of random range truncations on patterns of evolution in the fossil record. Paleobiology
Stanley S. M., and Yang X.. 1994. A double mass extinction at the end of the Paleozoic Era. Science
Strauss D., and Sadler P. M.. 1989. Classical confidence intervals and Bayesian probability estimates for ends of local taxon ranges. Mathematical Geology
Tobin T. S., Ward P. D., Steig E. J., Olivero E. B., Hilburn I. A., Mitchell R. N., Diamond M. R., Raub T. D., and Kirschvink J. L.. 2012. Extinction patterns, δ18O trends, and magnetostratigraphy from a southern high-latitude Cretaceous–Paleogene section: links with Deccan volcanism. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology
Varian H. R.
2006. Intermediate microeconomics: a modern approach, 7th ed. Norton, New York.
Wagner P. J.
2000. Likelihood tests of hypothesized durations: determining and accommodating biasing factors. Paleobiology
Wang S. C., and Everson P. J.. 2007. Confidence intervals for pulsed mass extinction events. Paleobiology
Wang S. C., Chudzicki D. J., and Everson P. J.. 2009. Optimal estimators of the position of a mass extinction when recovery potential is uniform Paleobiology 35:447–459.
Wang S. C., Zimmerman A. E., McVeigh B. S., Everson P. J., and Wong H.. 2012. Confidence intervals for the duration of a mass extinction. Paleobiology
Wang S. C., Wang C., Gai L., Moore J. L., Porter S. M., and Maloof A. C.. 2014. Estimating the duration and tempo of the Cambrian explosion. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs
Wang S. C., Everson P. J., Zhou H. J., Park D., and Chudzicki D. J.. 2016. Adaptive credible intervals on stratigraphic ranges when recovery potential is unknown. Paleobiology
Ward P. D., Botha J., Buick R., de Kock M. O., Erwin D. H., Garrison G. H., Kirschvink J. L., and Smith R.. 2005. Abrupt and gradual extinction among Late Permian land vertebrates in the Karoo Basin, South Africa. Science
Weiss R. E., and Marshall C. R.. 1999. The uncertainty in the true end point of a fossil’s stratigraphic range when stratigraphic sections are sampled discretely. Mathematical Geology
Xie S., Pancost R. D., Yin H., Wang H., and Evershed R. P.. 2005. Two episodes of microbial change coupled with Permo/Triassic faunal mass extinction. Nature
Yin H. F., Feng Q. L., Lai X. L., Baud A., and Tong J. N.. 2007. The protracted Permo-Triassic crisis and multi-episode extinction around the Permian–Triassic boundary. Global and Planetary Change