Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Evidence for extinction selectivity throughout the marine invertebrate fossil record

  • G. Alex Janevski (a1) and Tomasz K. Baumiller (a2)
Abstract

The fossil record has been used to show that in some geologic intervals certain traits of taxa may increase their survivability, and therefore that the risk of extinction is not randomly distributed among taxa. It has also been suggested that traits that buffer against extinction in background times do not confer the same resistance during mass extinction events. An open question is whether at any time in geologic history extinction probabilities were randomly distributed among taxa. Here we use a method for detecting random extinction to demonstrate that during both background and mass extinction times, extinction of marine invertebrate genera has been nonrandom with respect to species richness categories of genera. A possible cause for this nonrandom extinction is selective clustering of extinctions in genera consisting of species which possess extinction-biasing traits. Other potential causes considered here include geographic selectivity, increased extinction susceptibility for species in species-rich genera, or biases related to taxonomic practice and/or sampling heterogeneity. An important theoretical result is that extinction selectivity at the species level cannot be smoothly extrapolated upward to genera; the appearance of random genus extinction with respect to species richness of genera results when extinction has been highly selective at the species level.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Alroy J., Marshall C. R., Bambach R. K., Bezusko K., Foote M., Fursich F. T., Hansen T. A., Holland S. M., Ivany L. C., Jablonski D., Jacobs D. K., Jones D. C., Kosnik M. A., Lidgard S., Low S., Miller A. I., Novack-Gottshall P. M., Olszewski T. D., Patzkowsky M. E., Raup D. M., Roy K., Sepkoski J. J. Jr., Sommers M. G., Wagner P. J., and Webber A. 2001. Effects of sampling standardization on estimates of Phanerozoic marine diversification. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 98:62616266.
Alvarez L. W., Alvarez W., Asaro F., and Michel H. V. 1980. Extraterrestrial cause for the Cretaceous Tertiary extinction. Science 208:10951108.
Bambach R. K., Knoll A. H., and Wang S. C. 2004. Origination, extinction, and mass depletions of marine diversity. Paleobiology 30:522542.
Eble G. J. 1999. On the dual nature of chance in evolutionary biology and paleobiology. Paleobiology 25:7587.
Foote M. 1996. Perspective: evolutionary patterns in the fossil record. Evolution 50:111.
Gould S. J., Raup D. M., Sepkoski J. J. Jr., Schopf T. J. M., and Simberloff D. S. 1977. The shape of evolution: a comparison of real and random clades. Paleobiology 3:2340.
Gradstein F. M., and Ogg J. G. 2004. Geologic time scale 2004—why, how, and where next! Lethaia 37:175181.
Jablonski D. 2005. Mass extinctions and macroevolution. In Vrba E. and Eldredge N., eds. Macroevolution: diversity, disparity, contingency. Paleobiology 31(Suppl. to No. 2):192210.
Kier P. M., and Lawson M. H. 1978. Index of living and fossil echinoids, 1924–1970. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 34.
Kitchell J. A., Clark D. L., and Gombos A. M. Jr. 1986. Biological selectivity of extinction: a link between background and mass extinction. Palaios 1:504511.
Leighton L. R., and Schneider C. L. 2008. Taxon characteristics that promote survivorship through the Permian–Triassic interval: transition from the Paleozoic to the Mesozoic brachiopod fauna. Paleobiology 34:6578.
Lockwood J. L., Russell G. J., Gittleman J. L., Daehler C. C., McKinney M. K., and Purvis A. 2002. A metric for analyzing taxonomic patterns of extinction risk. Conservation Biology 16:11371142.
MacLeod N., Rawson P. F., Forney P. L., Banner F. T., Boudagher-Fadel M. K., Bown P. R., Burnett J. A., Chambers P., Culver S., Evans S. E., Jeffery C., Kaminski M. A., Lord A. R., Milner A. C., Milner A. R., Morris N., Owen E., Rosen B. R., Smith A. B., Taylor P. D., Urquhart E., and Young J. R.The Cretaceous-Tertiary biotic transition. Journal of the Geological Society, London 154:265292.
McKinney M. L. 1995. Extinction selectivity among lower taxa: gradational patterns and rarefaction error in extinction estimates. Paleobiology 21:300313.
Payne J. L., and Finnegan S. 2007. The effect of geographic range on extinction risk during background and mass extinction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 104:1050610511.
Peters S. E. 2008. Environmental determinants of extinction selectivity in the fossil record. Nature 454:626629.
Plotnick R. E., and Wagner P. J. 2006. Round up the usual suspects: common genera in the fossil record and the nature of wastebasket taxa. Paleobiology 32:126146.
Purvis A., Agapow P. M., Gittleman J. L., and Mace G. M. 2000. Nonrandom extinction and the loss of evolutionary history. Science 288:328330.
R Development Core Team. 2006. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna.
Raup D. M. 1978. Approaches to the extinction problem. Journal of Paleontology 52:517523.
Raup D. M. 1979. Size of the Permo-Triassic bottleneck and its evolutionary implications. Science 206:217218.
Raup D. M. 1991. Extinction: bad genes or bad luck? Norton, New York.
Raup D. M. 1994. The role of extinction in evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 91:67586763.
Raup D. M., and Boyajian G. E. 1988. Patterns of generic extinction in the fossil record. Paleobiology 14:109125.
Raup D. M., and Jablonski D. 1993. Geography of end-Cretaceous marine bivalve extinctions. Science 260:971973.
Schopf T. J. M. 1979. Evolving paleontological views on deterministic and stochastic approaches. Paleobiology 5:337352.
Smith J. T., and Roy K. 2006. Selectivity during background extinction: Plio-Pleistocene scallops in California. Paleobiology 32:408416.
Thomas J. A., Telfer M. G., Roy D. B., Preston C. D., Greenwood J. J., Asher J., Fox R., Clarke R. T., and Lawton J. H. 2004. Comparative losses of British butterflies, birds, and plants and the global extinction crisis. Science 303:18791881.
Twitchett R. J. 2002. The palaeoclimatology, palaeoecology and palaeoenvironmental analysis of mass extinction events. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 232:190213.
Wang S. C. 2003. On the continuity of background and mass extinction. Paleobiology 29:455467.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Paleobiology
  • ISSN: 0094-8373
  • EISSN: 1938-5331
  • URL: /core/journals/paleobiology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 3 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 70 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 16th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.