Aberhan M., and Kiessling W.. 2015. Persistent ecological shifts in marine molluscan assemblages across the end-Cretaceous mass extinction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 112:7207–7212.
Ackerly D. D., and Cornwell W. K.. 2007. A trait-based approach to community assembly: partitioning of species trait values into within- and among-community components. Ecology Letters 10:135–145.
Alroy J., Aberhan M., Bottjer D. J., Foote M., Fursich F. T., Harries P. J., Hendy A. J. W., Holland S. M., Ivany L. C., Kiessling W., Kosnik M. A., Marshall C. R., McGowan A. J., Miller A. I., Olszewski T. D., Patzkowsky M. E., Peters S. E., Villier L., Wagner P. J., Bonuso N., Borkow P. S., Brenneis B., Clapham M. E., Fall L. M., Ferguson C. A., Hanson V. L., Krug A. Z., Layou K. M., Leckey E. H., Nürnberg S., Powers C. M., Sessa J. A., Simpson C., Tomašových A., and Visaggi C. C.. 2008. Phanerozoic trends in the global diversity of marine invertebrates. Science 321:97–100.
Anderson D. R., Burnham K. P., and Thompson W. L.. 2000. Null hypothesis testing: problems, prevalence, and an alternative. Journal of Wildlife Management 64:912–923.
Anderson M. J., Ellingsen K. E., and McArdle B. H.. 2006. Multivariate dispersion as a measure of beta diversity. Ecology Letters 9:683–693.
Aucoin C. D., Dattilo B. F., Brett C. E., and Cooper D. L.. 2015. Preliminary report on the Oldenburg “butter shale” in the Upper Ordovician (Katian; Richmondian) Waynesville Formation, USA. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences 64:3–7.
Ausich W. I., and Bottjer D. J.. 1982. Tiering in suspension feeding communities on soft substrata throughout the Phanerozoic. Science 216:173–174.
Bambach R. K. 1977. Species richness in marine benthic habitats through the Phanerozoic. Paleobiology 3:152–167.
Bambach R. K 1983. Ecospace utilization and guilds in marine communities through the Phanerozoic. Pp. 719–746 in M. J. S. Tevesz and P. L. McCall, eds. Biotic interactions in recent and fossil benthic communities. Plenum, New York.
Bambach R. K. 1985. Classes and adaptive variety: the ecology of diversification in marine faunas through the Phanerozoic. Pp. 191–253 in J. W. Valentine, ed. Phanerozoic diversity patterns: profiles in macroevolution. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.
Bambach R. K., Bush A. M., and Erwin D. H.. 2007. Autecology and the filling of ecospace: key metazoan radiations. Palaeontology 50:1–22.
Beaumont M. A. 2010. Approximate Bayesian computation in evolution and ecology. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 41:379–406.
Bottjer D. J., and Ausich W. I.. 1986. Phanerozoic development of tiering in soft substrata suspension-feeding communities. Paleobiology 12:400–420.
Boyer A. G. 2010. Consistent ecological selectivity through time in Pacific Island avian extinctions. Conservation Biology 24:511–519.
Brandt D. S. 1996. Epizoans on Flexicalymene (Trilobita) and implications for trilobite paleoecology. Journal of Paleontology 70:442–449.
Brandt D. S., Meyer D. L., and Lask P. B.. 1995. Isotelus (Trilobita) “hunting burrow” from Upper Ordovician strata, Ohio. Journal of Paleontology 69:1079–1083.
Breiman L., Friedman J. H., Olshen R. A., and Stone C. J.. 1984. Classification and regression trees. Wadsworth and Brooks, Monterey, Calif.
Breiman L., Friedman J. H., Olshen R. A., and Stone C. J.. 1993. Classification and regression trees. Chapman and Hall/CRC Press, New York, N.Y.
Browne R. G. 1964. The coral horizons and stratigraphy of the Upper Richmond Group in Kentucky West of the Cincinnati Arch. Journal of Paleontology 38:385–392.
Burnham K. P., and Anderson D. R.. 2002. Model selection and multi-model inference: a practical information-theoretic approach. Springer, New York.
Bush A. M., and Bambach R. K. 2004. Did alpha diversity increase during the Phanerozoic? Lifting the veils of taphonomic, latitudinal, and environmental biases. Journal of Geology 112:625–642.
Bush A. M., and Bambach R. K. 2011. Paleoecologic megatrends in marine Metazoa. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 39:241–269.
Bush A. M., Bambach R. K., and Daley G. M.. 2007. Changes in theoretical ecospace utilization in marine fossil assemblages between the mid-Paleozoic and late Cenozoic. Paleobiology 33:76–97.
Bush A. M., Bambach R. K., and Erwin D. H.. 2011. Ecospace utilization during the Ediacaran radiation and the Cambrian eco-explosion. Pp. 111–134 in M. Laflamme, J. D. Schiffbauer, and S. Q. Dornbos, eds. Quantifying the evolution of early life: numerical approaches to the evaluation of fossils and ancient ecosystems. Springer, New York.
Bush A. M., and Novack-Gottshall P. M.. 2012. Modelling the ecological-functional diversification of marine Metazoa on geological time scales. Biology Letters 8:151–155.
Bush A. M., and Pruss S. B.. 2013. Theoretical ecospace for ecosystem paleobiology: energy, nutrients, biominerals, and macroevolution. In A. M. Bush, S. B. Pruss, and J. L. Payne, eds. Ecosystem paleobiology and geobiology. Short Courses in Paleontology 19:1–20. Paleontological Society and Paleontological Research Institute, Ithaca, N.Y.
Ciampaglio C. N., Kemp M., and McShea D. W.. 2001. Detecting changes in morphospace occupation patterns in the fossil record: characterization and analysis of measures of disparity. Paleobiology 27:695–715.
Codron D., Carbone C., and Clauss M.. 2013. Ecological interactions in dinosaur communities: influences of small offspring and complex ontogenetic life histories. PLoS ONE 8:e77110.
Cornell H. V. 1999. Unsaturation and regional influences on species richness in ecological communities: a review of the evidence. Ecoscience 6:303–315.
Cornell H. V., and Harrison S. P.. 2014. What are species pools and when are they important? Annual review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 45:45–67.
Cutler D. R., Edwards T. C., Beard K. H., Cutler A., Hess K. T., Gibson J., and Lawler J. J.. 2007. Random forests for classification in ecology. Ecology 88:2783–2792.
Dalvé E. 1948. The fossil fauna of the Ordovician in the Cincinnati region. University Museum, Department of Geology and Geography, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio.
De’ath G. 2002. Multivariate regression trees: a new technique for modeling species-environment relationships. Ecology 83:1105–1117.
De’ath G., and Fabricius K. E.. 2000. Classification and regression trees: a powerful yet simple technique for ecological data analysis. Ecology 81:3178–3192.
de Bello F. 2012. The quest for trait convergence and divergence in community assembly: are null-models the magic wand? Global Ecology and Biogeography 21:312–317.
Deline B. 2009. The effects of rarity and abundance distributions on measurements of local morphological disparity. Paleobiology 35:175–189.
Deline B., Ausich W. I., and Brett C. E.. 2012. Comparing taxonomic and geographic scales in the morphologic disparity of Ordovician through Early Silurian Laurentian crinoids. Paleobiology 38:538–553.
Dick D. G., and Maxwell E. E.. 2015. The evolution and extinction of the ichthyosaurs from the perspective of quantitative ecospace modelling. Biology Letters 11:20150339.
Dineen A. A., Fraiser M. L., and Sheehan P. M.. 2014. Quantifying functional diversity in pre- and post-extinction paleocommunities: a test of ecological restructuring after the end-Permian mass extinction. Earth-Science Reviews 136:339–349.
Dineen A. A., Fraiser M. L., and Tong J.. 2015. Low functional evenness in a post-extinction Anisian (Middle Triassic) paleocommunity: a case study of the Leidapo Member (Qingyan Formation), south China. Global and Planetary Change 133:79–86.
Dunne J. A., Williams R. J., Martinez N. D., Wood R. A., and Erwin D. H.. 2008. Compilation and network analyses of Cambrian food webs. PLoS Biol 6:e102.
Durst P. A. P., and Roth V. L.. 2012. Classification tree methods provide a multifactorial approach to predicting insular body size evolution in rodents. American Naturalist 179:545–553.
English A. M., and Babcock L. E.. 2007. Feeding behaviour of two Ordovician trilobites inferred from trace fossils and non-biomineralised anatomy, Ohio and Kentucky, USA. Memoirs of the Association of Australasian Palaeontologists 34(2007):537.
Fargione J., Brown C. S., and Tilman D.. 2003. Community assembly and invasion: an experimental test of neutral versus niche processes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 100:8916–8920.
Feldmann R. M. 1996. Fossils of Ohio. Department of Natural Resources. State of Ohio: Geological Survey Bulletin. 70.
Finnegan S., N. A. Heim, Peters S. E., and Fischer W. W.. 2012. Climate change and the selective signature of the Late Ordovician mass extinction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 109:6829–6834.
Finnegan S., Anderson S. C., Harnik P. G., Simpson C., Tittensor D. P., Byrnes J. E., Finkel Z. V., Lindberg D. R., Liow L. H., Lockwood R., Lotze H. K., McClain C. R., McGuire J. L., O’Dea A., and Pandolfi J. M.. 2015. Paleontological baselines for evaluating extinction risk in the modern oceans. Science 348:567–570.
Fontana S., Petchey O. L., and Pomati F.. 2015. Individual-level trait diversity concepts and indices to comprehensively describe community change in multidimensional trait space. Functional Ecology 123:1391–1399.
Foote M.. 1993. Discordance and concordance between morphological and taxonomic diversity. Paleobiology 19:185–204.
Foote M. 1994. Morphological disparity in Ordovician–Devonian crinoids and the early saturation of morphological space. Paleobiology 20:320–344.
Freeman R. L., Dattilo B. F., Morse A., Blair M., Felton S., and Pojeta J.. 2013. The “curse of Rafinesquina”: negative taphonomic feedback exerted by strophomenid shells on storm-buried lingulids in the Cincinnatian Series (Katian, Ordovician) of Ohio. Palaios 28:359–372.
Frey R. C. 1987a. The occurrence of pelecypods in Early Paleozoic epeiric-sea environments: Late Ordovician of the Cincinnati, Ohio area. Palaios 2:3–23.
Frey R. C. 1987b. The paleoecology of a Late Ordovician shale unit from southwest Ohio and southeastern Indiana. Journal of Paleontology 61:242–267.
Frey R. C. 1988. Paleoecology of Treptoceras duseri (Michelinoceratida, Proteoceratidae) from Late Ordovician of southwestern Ohio. New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources Memoir 44:79–101.
Frey R. C. 1989. Paleoecology of a well-preserved nautiloid assemblage from a Late Ordovician shale unit, southwestern Ohio. Journal of Paleontology 63:604–620.
Gaines R. R., Droser M. L., and Hughes N. C.. 1999. The ichnological record in Ordovician mudstones: examples from the Cincinnatian strata of Ohio and Kentucky (USA). Acta Universitatis Carolinae, Geologica 43:163–166.
Gerhold P., Cahill J. F., Winter M., Bartish I. V., and Prinzing A.. 2015. Phylogenetic patterns are not proxies of community assembly mechanisms (they are far better). Functional Ecology 29:600–614.
Gerisch M. 2014. Non-random patterns of functional redundancy revealed in ground beetle communities facing an extreme flood event. Functional Ecology 28:1504–1512.
Gower J. C. 1971. A general coefficient of similarity and some of its properties. Biometrics 27:857–871.
Grueber C. E., Nakagawa S., Laws R. J., and Jamieson I. G.. 2011. Multimodel inference in ecology and evolution: challenges and solutions. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 24:699–711.
Guillemot N., Kulbicki M., Chabanet P., and Vigliola L.. 2011. Functional redundancy patterns reveal non-random assembly rules in a species-rich marine assemblage. PLoS ONE 6:e26735.
Hatton I. A., McCann K. S., Fryxell J. M., Davies T. J., Smerlak M., Sinclair A. R. E., and Loreau M.. 2015. The predator-prey power law: Biomass scaling across terrestrial and aquatic biomes. Science 349:aac6284.
Hautmann M. 2014. Diversification and diversity partitioning. Paleobiology 40:162–176.
Heim N. A., Knope M. L., Schaal E. K., Wang S. C., and Payne J. L.. 2015. Cope’s rule in the evolution of marine animals. Science 347:867–870.
Holland S. M. 1993. Sequence stratigraphy of a carbonate-clastic ramp: the Cincinnatian Series (Upper Ordovician) in its type area. Geological Society of America Bulletin 105:306–322.
Holland S. M. 2010. Additive diversity partitioning in palaeobiology: revisiting Sepkoski’s question. Palaeontology 53:1237–1254.
Holland S. M., and Patzkowsky M. E.. 2007. Gradient ecology of a biotic invasion: biofacies of the type Cincinnatian series (Upper Ordovician), Cincinnati, Ohio region, USA. Palaios 22:392–407.
Holland S. M., and Patzkowsky M. E.. 2009. The Richmondian invasion: understanding the faunal response to climate change through stratigraphic paleobiology. Type Cincinnatian (Upper Ordovician) outcrops, northern Kentucky, southwestern Ohio, and southeastern Indiana. Pp. 1–67 in The Richmondian invasion in the type Cincinnatian Series. Fieldtrip guidebook, Ninth North American Paleontological Convention. Cincinnati, OH.
Holland S. M., Miller A. I., Dattillo B. F., and Meyer D. L.. 2001. The detection and importance of subtle biofacies in lithologically uniform strata: the Upper Ordovician Kope Formation of the Cincinnati, Ohio region. Palaios 16:205–217.
Hubbell S. P. 2001. The Unified Theory of Biodiversity and Biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.
Hughes N. C, and Cooper D. L.. 1999. Paleobiologic and taphonomic aspects of the “Granulosa” trilobite cluster, Kope Formation (Upper Ordovician, Cincinnati region). Journal of Paleontology 73:306–319.
Huntley J. W., and Scarponi D.. 2012. Evolutionary and ecological implications of trematode parasitism of modern and fossil northern Adriatic bivalves. Paleobiology 38:40–51.
Johnson J. B., and Omland K. S.. 2004. Model selection in ecology and evolution. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19:101–108.
Kinzig A. P., Levin S. A., Dushoff J., and Pacala S.. 1999. Limiting similarity, species packing, and system stability for hierarchical competition-colonization models. American Naturalist 153:371–383.
Knoll A. H., and Bambach R. K.. 2000. Directionality in the history of life: diffusion from the left wall or repeated scaling of the right? Paleobiology 26(Suppl. to No. 4), 1–14.
Knope M. L., Heim N. A., Frishkoff L. O., and Payne J. L.. 2015. Limited role of functional differentiation in early diversification of animals. Nature Communications 6:6455.
Kowalewski M., and Novack-Gottshall P.. 2010. Resampling methods in paleontology. In J. Alroy and G. Hunt, eds. Quantitative methods in paleobiology. Short Courses in Paleontology 16:19–54. Paleontological Society and Paleontological Research Institute, Ithaca, N.Y.
Kowalewski M., Kiessling W., Aberhan M., Fürsich F. T., Scarponi D., Barbour Wood S. L., and Hoffmeister A. P.. 2006. Ecological, taxonomic, and taphonomic components of the post-Paleozoic increase in sample-level species diversity of marine benthos. Paleobiology 32:533–561.
Laflamme M., Xiao S., and Kowalewski M.. 2009. Osmotrophy in modular Ediacara organisms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106:14438–14443.
Laflamme M., Darroch S. A. F., Tweedt S. M., Peterson K. J., and Erwin D. H.. 2013. The end of the Ediacara biota: extinction, biotic replacement, or Cheshire Cat? Gondwana Research 23:558–573.
Laliberté E., and Legendre P.. 2010. A distance-based framework for measuring functional diversity from multiple traits. Ecology 91:299–305.
Laliberté E., and Shipley B.. 2014. FD: measuring functional diversity from multiple traits, and other tools for functional ecology, Version 1.0-12.
Legendre P., and Anderson M. J.. 1999. Distance-based redundancy analysis: testing multispecies responses in multifactorial ecological experiments. Ecological Monographs 69:1–24.
Leighton L. R. 1998. Constraining functional hypotheses: controls on the morphology of the concavo-convex brachiopod Rafinesquina. Lethaia 31:293–307.
Lescinsky H. L. 1995. The life orientation of concavo-convex brachiopods: overturning the paradigm. Paleobiology 21:520–551.
Maire E., Grenouillet G., Brosse S., and Villéger S.. 2015. How many dimensions are needed to accurately assess functional diversity? A pragmatic approach for assessing the quality of functional spaces. Global Ecology and Biogeography 24:728–740.
Mason N. W. H., Mouillot D., Lee W. G., and Wilson J. B.. 2005. Functional richness, functional evenness and functional divergence: the primary components of functional diversity. Oikos 111:112–118.
McShea D. W. 1994. Mechanisms of large-scale evolutionary trends. Evolution 48:1747–1763.
Meyer D. L., Miller A. I., Holland S. M., and Dattilo B. F.. 2002. Crinoid distribution and feeding morphology through a depositional sequence: Kope and Fairview Formations, Upper Ordovician, Cincinnati Arch region. Journal of Paleontology 76:725–732.
Miller J. H., Behrensmeyer A. K., Du A., Lyons S. K., Patterson D., Tóth A., Villaseñor A., Kanga E., and Reed D.. 2014. Ecological fidelity of functional traits based on species presence-absence in a modern mammalian bone assemblage (Amboseli, Kenya). Paleobiology 40:560–583.
Mitchell J. S., and Makovicky P. J.. 2014. Low ecological disparity in Early Cretaceous birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281:20140608.
Mitchell J. S., Roopnarine P. D., and Angielczyk K. D.. 2012. Late Cretaceous restructuring of terrestrial communities facilitated the end-Cretaceous mass extinction in North America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 109:18857–18861.
Mondal S., and Harries P. J.. 2015. Phanerozoic trends in ecospace utilization: the bivalve perspective. Earth-Science Reviews 152:106–118.
Morris R. W., and Felton S. H.. 2003. Paleoecologic associations and secondary tiering of Cornulites on crinoids and bivalves in the Upper Ordovician (Cincinnatian) of southwestern Ohio, southeastern Indiana, and northern Kentucky. Palaios 18:546–558.
Mouchet M. A., Villéger S., Mason N. W. H., and Mouillot D.. 2010. Functional diversity measures: an overview of their redundancy and their ability to discriminate community assembly rules. Functional Ecology 24:867–876.
Mouillot D., Graham N. A. J., Villéger S., Mason N. W. H., and Bellwood D. R.. 2013. A functional approach reveals community responses to disturbances. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 28:167–177.
Novack-Gottshall P. 2015. ecospace: simulating community assembly and ecological diversification using ecospace frameworks, Version 1.0.1. cran.r-project.org/package=ecospace.
Novack-Gottshall P. M. 2007. Using a theoretical ecospace to quantify the ecological diversity of Paleozoic and modern marine biotas. Paleobiology 33:273–294.
Novack-Gottshall P. M. 2008a. Ecosystem-wide body size trends in Cambrian–Devonian marine invertebrate lineages. Paleobiology 34:210–228.
Novack-Gottshall P. M. 2008b. Using simple body-size metrics to estimate fossil body volume: empirical validation using diverse Paleozoic invertebrates. Palaios 23:163–173.
Novack-Gottshall P. M. 2010. Performance of functional diversity metrics applied as measures of disparity. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs 42:A140.
Novack-Gottshall P. M. 2016. General models of ecological diversification. I. Conceptual synthesis. Paleobiology 42 [this issue].
Novack-Gottshall P. M., and Miller A. I.. 2003. Comparative taxonomic richness and abundance of Late Ordovician gastropods and bivalves in mollusc-rich strata of the Cincinnati Arch. Palaios 18:559–571.
O’Brien L. J., and Caron J.-B.. 2015. Paleocommunity analysis of the Burgess Shale Tulip Beds, Mount Stephen, British Columbia: comparison with the Walcott Quarry and implications for community variation in the Burgess Shale. Paleobiology 42:27–53.
Pakeman R. J. 2014. Functional trait metrics are sensitive to the completeness of the species’ trait data? Methods in Ecology and Evolution 5:9–15.
Patzkowsky M. E., and Holland S. M.. 2003. Lack of community saturation at the beginning of the Paleozoic plateau: the dominance of regional over local processes. Paleobiology 29:545–560.
Patzkowsky M. E., and Holland S. M.. 2007. Diversity partitioning of a Late Ordovician marine biotic invasion: controls on diversity in regional ecosystems. Paleobiology 33:295–309.
Pojeta J. Jr. 1971. Review of Ordovician pelecypods. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 695.
Powell M. G., and Kowalewski M.. 2002. Increase in evenness and sampled alpha diversity through the Phanerozoic: comparison of early Paleozoic and Cenozoic marine fossil assemblages. Geology 30:331–334.
Prasad A., Iverson L., and Liaw A.. 2006. Newer classification and regression tree techniques: bagging and random forests for ecological prediction. Ecosystems 9:181–199.
R Development Core Team. 2015. R: a language and environment for statistical computing, Version 3.2.0. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
Raup D. M. 1966. Geometric analysis of shell coiling: general problems. Journal of Paleontology 40:1178–1190.
Richards R. P. 1972. Autecology of Richmondian brachiopods (Late Ordovician of Indiana and Ohio). Journal of Paleontology 46:386–405.
Ros S., Renzi M. D., Damborenea S. E., and Marquez-Aliaga A.. 2012. Early Triassic–Early Jurassic bivalve diversity dynamics. Pp. 1–19. Treatise Online. University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kans.
Ros S., De Renzi M., Damborenea S. E., and Márquez-Aliaga A.. 2012. Part N (revised), vol. 1, chap. 25: Early Triassic–Early Jurassic bivalve diversity dynamics. Treatise Online 39:1–19.
Sandy M. R. 1996. Oldest record of peduncular attachment of brachiopods to crinoid stems, Upper Ordovician, Ohio, U.S.A. Journal of Paleontology 70:532–534.
Schumacher G. A., and Shrake D. L.. 1997. Paleoecology and comparative taphonomy of an Isotelus (Trilobita) fossil lagerstätten from the Waynesville Formation (Upper Ordovician, Cincinnatian Series) of southwestern Ohio. Pp. 131–161 in C. E. Brett and G. C. Baird, eds. Paleontological events: stratigraphic, ecological, and evolutionary implications. Columbia University Press, New York.
Seilacher A. 1970. Arbeitskonzept zur Konstruktions-Morphologie. Lethaia 3:393–396.
Sepkoski J. J. Jr. 1981. A factor analytic description of the Phanerozoic marine fossil record. Paleobiology 7:36–53.
Slater G. J., Harmon L. J., Wegmann D., Joyce P., Revell L. J., and Alfaro M. E.. 2012. Fitting models of continuous trait evolution to incompletely sampled comparative data using approximate Bayesian computation. Evolution 66:752–762.
Strobl C., Boulesteix A.-L., Zeileis A., and Hothorn T.. 2007. Bias in random forest variable importance measures: illustrations, sources and a solution. BMC Bioinformatics 8:25.
Sullivan M., Jones M., Lee D., Marsden S., Fielding A., and Young E.. 2006. A comparison of predictive methods in extinction risk studies: contrasts and decision trees. Biodiversity and Conservation 15:1977–1991.
Thomas R. D. K., and Reif W. E.. 1993. The skeleton space: a finite set of organic designs. Evolution 47:341–360.
Tomašových A., and Kidwell S. M.. 2010. Predicting the effects of increasing temporal scale on species composition, diversity, and rank-abundance distributions. Paleobiology 36:672–695.
Van Valen L. 1974. Multivariate structural statistics in natural history. Journal of Theoretical Biology 45:235–247.
Van Valkenburgh B. 1988. Trophic diversity in past and present guilds of large predatory mammals. Paleobiology 14:155–173.
Van Valkenburgh B., and Molnar R. E.. 2002. Dinosaurian and mammalian predators compared. Paleobiology 28:527–543.
Vermeij G. J. 1987. Evolution and escalation: an ecological history of life. Princeton University Press, N.J.
Vermeij G. J. 2011. The energetics of modernization: the last one hundred million years of biotic evolution. Paleontological Research 15:54–61.
Vermeij G. J. 2013. On escalation. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 41:1–19.
Villéger S., Mason N. W. H., and Mouillot D.. 2008. New multidimensional functional diversity indices for a multifaceted framework in functional ecology. Ecology 89:2290–2301.
Villéger S., Miranda J. R., Hernández D. F., and Mouillot D.. 2010. Contrasting changes in taxonomic vs. functional diversity of tropical fish communities after habitat degradation. Ecological Applications 20:1512–1522.
Villéger S., Novack-Gottshall P. M., and Mouillot D.. 2011. The multidimensionality of the niche reveals functional diversity changes in benthic marine biotas across geological time. Ecology Letters 14:561–568.
Villier L., and Eble G. J.. 2009. Assessing the robustness of disparity estimates: the impact of morphometric scheme, temporal scale, and taxonomic level in spatangoid echinoids. Paleobiology 30:652–665.
Vogt R. J., Peres-Neto P. R., and Beisner B. E.. 2013. Using functional traits to investigate the determinants of crustacean zooplankton community structure. Oikos 122:1700–1709.
Wills M. A. 2001. Morphological disparity: a primer. Pp. 55–143 in J. M. Adrain, G. D. Edgecombe, and B. S. Lieberman, eds. Fossils, phylogeny, and form: an analytical approach. Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York.
Xiao S., and Laflamme M.. 2009. On the eve of animal radiation: phylogeny, ecology and evolution of the Ediacara biota. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 24:31–40.
Zhang Z., Augustin M., and Payne J. L.. 2015. Phanerozoic trends in brachiopod body size from synoptic data. Paleobiology 41:491–501.