Skip to main content Accessibility help

Predation defeats competition on the seafloor

  • Steven M. Stanley (a1)


… the snail, whose tender horns being hit Shrinks backward in his shelly cave with pain, And there, all smothered up, in shade doth sit, Long after fearing to creep forth again….

— William Shakespeare, Venus and Adonis (1593)

For many decades, ecology textbooks presented classical competition theory without reservation. The central principle here is that two species sharing an essential resource that is in limited supply cannot coexist for long because the competitively superior species will eliminate the other one. The implication is that ecological communities should be characterized by division of resources among species, or niche partitioning. Thus, it is understandable that many paleontologists have continued to invoke concepts of competitive exclusion and niche partitioning in their studies of ancient guilds and communities. By now, however, there is a large body of neontological literature demonstrating that interspecific competition and resource partitioning play only a minor role in many ecological communities—especially benthic marine communities, which are the primary focus of the following discussion. Predation and physical disturbance inflict so much damage on biotas of the seafloor that populations of one species seldom monopolize a potentially limiting resource, except sporadically and locally. As a result, it is uncommon for any species to drive another to extinction through competitive exclusion—or even to force another species to drastically change its exploitation of any environmental resource throughout its geographic range. Furthermore, what particular species or group of species occupies a particular microhabitat is often simply a matter of time of arrival.



Hide All
Ambrose, R. F., and Nelson, B. V. 1983. Predation by Octopus vulgaris in the Mediterranean. Marine Ecology 4:251261.
Appeldoorn, R. S. 1984. The effect of size on mortality of small juvenile conchs (Strombus gigas and S. costatus Gmelin). Journal of Shellfish Research 4:3743.
Ausich, W. I. 1980. A model for niche differentiation in lower Mississippian crinoid communities. Journal of Paleontology 54:273288.
Bambach, R. K. 1993. Seafood through time: changes in biomass, energetics, and productivity in the marine ecosystem. Paleobiology 19:372397.
Beal, B. F., Parker, M. R., and Vencile, K. W. 2001. Seasonal effects of intraspecific density and predator exclusion along a shore-level gradient on survival and growth of juveniles of the soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria L., in Maine, USA. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 264:133169.
Bell, S. S., and Coull, B. C. 1978. Field evidence that shrimp predation regulates meiofauna. Oecologia 35:141148.
Benton, M. J. 1987. Progress and competition in macroevolution. Biological Reviews 62:305338.
Blegvad, H. 1928. Quantitative investigations of bottom invertebrates in the Limfjord 1910–1927 with special reference to the plaice food. Reports of the Danish Biological Station 34:3352.
Bonuso, N., Newton, C. R., Brower, J. C., and Ivany, L. C. 2002. Statistical testing of community patterns: uppermost Hamilton Group, Middle Devonian (New York State: USA). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 185:124.
Brett, C. E., and Baird, G. C. 1995. Coordinated stasis and evolutionary ecology of Silurian to Middle Devonian faunas in the Appalachian Basin. Pp. 285315in Erwin, D. H. and Anstey, R. L., eds. New approaches to speciation in the fossil record. Columbia University Press, New York.
Brown, W. L. Jr., and Wilson, E. O. 1956. Character displacement. Systematic Zoology 5:4964.
Buss, L. W., and Jackson, J. B. C. 1979. Competitive networks: nontransitive competitive relationships in cryptic coral reef environments. American Naturalist 113:223234.
Buss, L. W., and Jackson, J. B. C. 1981. Planktonic food availability and suspension-feeder abundance: evidence of in situ depletion. Journal of Experimental Biology and Ecology 49:151161.
Buzas, M. A. 1978. Foraminifera as prey for benthic deposit feeders: results of predator exclusion experiments. Journal of Marine Research 36:617625.
Buzas, M. A., and Culver, S. J. 2001. On the relationship between species distribution-abundance-occurrence. Historical Biology 15:151159.
Carbone, C., and Gittleman, J. L. 2002. A common rule for the scaling of carnivore density. Science 295:22732276.
Choat, J. H., and Andrew, N. L. 1986. Interactions amongst species in a guild of subtidal benthic herbivores. Oecologia 68:387394.
Connell, J. H. 1961a. Effects of competition, predation by Thais lapillus, and other factors on natural populations of the barnacle Balanus balanoides. Ecological Monographs 40:4978.
Connell, J. H. 1961b. The influence of interspecific competition on the distribution of the barnacle Chthamalus stellatus. Ecology 42:710723.
Connell, J. H. 1978. Diversity in tropical rain forest and coral reefs. Science 199:13021310.
Connell, J. H., Hughes, T. P., and Wallace, C. C. 1997. A 30-year study of coral abundance, recruitment, and disturbance at several scales in space and time. Ecological Monographs 67:461488.
Crampton, J. S., Foote, M., Beu, A. G., Maxwell, P. A., Cooper, R. A., Matcham, I., Marshall, B. A., and Jones, C. M. 2006. The ark was full! Constant to declining Cenozoic shallow marine biodiversity on an isolated midlatitude continent. Paleobiology 32:509532.
Cruz-Rivera, E., and Paul, V. J. 2002. Coral reef benthic cyanobacteria as food and refuge: diversity, chemistry and complex interactions. Pp. 515520in Moosa, M. K., Soemodihardjo, S., Soegiarto, A., Romimohtarto, K., Nontji, A., and Suharsono, S., eds. Proceedings of the Ninth International Coral Reef Symposium. International Society for Reef Studies, Bali.
Dahlgren, C. P., Posey, M. H., and Hulbert, A. W. 1999. The effects of bioturbation on the infaunal community adjacent to an offshore hardbottom reef. Bulletin of Marine Science 64:2134.
Darwin, C. 1859. On the origin of species by means of natural selection or the preservation of favored races in the struggle for life. J. Murray, London.
Dayton, P. K. 1971. Competition, disturbance, and community organization: the provisions and subsequent utilization of space in a rocky intertidal community. Ecological Monographs 41:351389.
Dexter, R. W. 1947. The marine communities of a tidal inlet at Cape Ann, Massachusetts: a study in bio-ecology. Ecological Monographs 17:269294.
Droser, M. L. 1993. Trends and patterns of Phanerozoic ichnofabrics. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 21:205225.
Duda, T. F., Kohn, A. J., and Palumbi, S. R. 2001. Origin of diverse feeding ecologies within Conus, a genus of venomous marine gastropods. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 73:391409.
Duda, T. F., and Palumbi, S. R. 2000. Evolutionary diversification of multigene families: allelic selection of toxins in predatory cone shells. Molecular Biology and Evolution 17:12861293.
Duda, T. F., and Palumbi, S. R. 2004. Gene expression and feeding ecology: evolution of piscivory in the venomous gastropod genus Conus. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 271:11651174.
Duggan, W. P. 1973. Growth and survival of the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians, at various locations in the water column and at various densities. Proceedings of the National Shellfisheries Association 63:6871.
Dustan, P., and Sacco, W. K. 1982. The sclerosponges of Chalet Caribe Reef. Discovery 16:1317.
Fernandez, E. M., Lin, J., and Scarpa, J. 1999. Culture of Mercenaria mercenaria (Linnaeus): effects of density, predator exclusion device, and bag inversion. Journal of Shellfish Research 18:7783.
Gause, G. F. 1934. The struggle for existence. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.
Giangrande, A., Geraci, S., and Belmonte, G. 1994. Life-cycle and life-history diversity in marine invertebrates and the implications in community dynamics. In Ansell, A. D., Gibson, R. N., and Barnes, M., eds. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 32: 3-5-333. UCL Press, London.
Gould, S. J., and Calloway, C. B. 1980. Clams and brachiopods—ships that pass in the night? Paleobiology 6:383396.
Grassle, J. F., and Morse-Porteous, L. S. 1987. Macrofaunal colonization of disturbed deep-sea environments and the structure of deep-sea benthic communities. Deep-Sea Research 34:19111950.
Green, R. H. 1971. A multivariate statistical approach to the Hutchinsonian niche: bivalve molluscs of central Canada. Ecology 52:543556.
Hallam, A. 1992. Phanerozoic sea-level change. Columbia University Press, New York.
Hallock, P. 1987. Fluctuations in the trophic resource continuum: a factor in global diversity cycles? Paleoceanography 2:457471.
Hansen, T. A. 1978. Larval dispersal and species longevity in lower Tertiary gastropods. Science 199:885887.
Hawkins, S. J., and Hartnoll, R. G. 1983. Grazing of intertidal algae by marine invertebrates. In Barnes, M., ed. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 21:195282. Aberdeen University Press, Aberdeen, U.K.
Herbert, S. 1971. Darwin, Malthus, and selection. Journal of the History of Biology 4:209217.
Hermoyian, C. S., Leighton, L. R., and Kaplan, P. 2002. Testing the role of competition in fossil communities using limiting similarity. Geology 30:1518.
Hubbell, S. P. 2001. A unified neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.
Hutchinson, G. E. 1951. Review: copepodology for the ornithologist. Ecology 32:571577.
Hutchinson, G. E. 1957. Concluding remarks. Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology 22:415427.
Hutchinson, G. E. 1959. Homage to Santa Rosalia or why are there so many kinds of animals? American Naturalist 93:145159.
Jablonski, D. 1986. Larval ecology and macroevolution of marine invertebrates. Bulletin of Marine Science 39:565587.
Jablonski, D., Flessa, W., and Valentine, J. W. 1985. Biogeography and paleobiology. Paleobiology 11:7590.
Jackson, J. B. C., Goreau, T. F., and Hartman, W. D. 1971. Recent brachiopod-coralline sponge communities and their paleoecological significance. Science 173:623625.
Jensen, K. T., and Jensen, J. N. 1985. The importance of some epibenthic predators on the density of juvenile benthic macro-fauna in the Danish Wadden Sea. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 89:157174.
Kabat, A. R. 1990. Predatory ecology of naticid gastropods with a review of shell boring predation. Malacologia 32:155193.
Kanaya, G., Nobata, E., Toya, T., and Kikuchi, E. 2005. Effects of different feeding habits of three bivalve species on sediment characteristics and benthic diatom abundance. Marine Ecology Progress Series 299:6778.
Kemp, P. F. 1990. The fate of benthic bacterial production. Reviews of Aquatic Science 2:109124.
Knoll, A. H. 1994. Proterozoic and Early Cambrian protists: evidence for accelerating evolutionary tempo. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 91:67436750.
Kohn, A. J. 1990. Tempo and mode of evolution in Conidae. Malacologia 32:5567.
Kohn, A. J. 2001. Maximal species richness in Conus: diversity, diet, and habitat on reefs of northeast Papua New Guinea. Coral Reefs 20:2538.
Kowalewski, M., Dulai, A., and Fürsich, F. T. 1998. A fossil record full of holes: the Phanerozoic history of drilling predation. Geology 26:10911094.
LaBarbera, M. 1981. The ecology of Mesozoic Gryphaea, Exogyra, and Ilymatogyra (Bivalvia: Mollusca) in a modern ocean. Paleobiology 7:510526.
Lack, D. L. 1947. Darwin's finches. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Lack, D. L. 1954. The natural regulation of animal numbers. Clarendon, Oxford.
Lack, D. L. 1971. Ecological isolation in birds. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
Lane, N. G. 1963. The Berkeley crinoid collection from Crawfordsville, Indiana. Journal of Paleontology 37:10011008.
Lang, J. C., and Chornesky, E. A. 1990. Competition between scleractinian reef corals—a review of mechanisms and effects. Pp. 209252in Dubinsky, Z., ed. Ecosystems of the world, Vol. 25. Coral reefs. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Lehane, C., and Davenport, J. 2002. Ingestion of mesozooplankton by three species of bivalve; Mytilus edulis, Cerastoderma edule and Aequipecten opercularis. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 82:615619.
Levinton, J. S., Ward, J. E., and Shumway, S. E. 2002. Feeding responses of the bivalves Crossostrea gigas and Mytilus trossulus to chemical composition of fresh and aged kelp detritus. Marine Biology 141:367376.
Lotka, A. J. 1925. Elements of physical biology. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.
Lovejoy, A. O. 1933. The great chain of being: the history of an idea. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
Lovvorn, J. R., Cooper, L. W., Brooks, M. L., De Ruyck, C. C., Bump, J. K., and Grebmeier, J. M. 2005. Organic matter pathways to zooplankton and benthos under pack ice in late winter and open water in late summer in the north-central Bering Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 291:135150.
Lowenstam, H. A. 1950. Niagaran reefs of the Great Lakes area. Journal of Geology 58:430487.
MacArthur, R. H. 1958. Population ecology of some warblers of northeastern coniferous forests. Ecology 39:599619.
Maguire, B. Jr. 1967. A partial analysis of the niche. American Naturalist 101:515523.
Mayr, E. 1982. The growth of biological thought. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
McKinney, F. K. 1995. One hundred million years of competitive interactions between bryozoan clades: asymmetrical but not escalating. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 56:465481.
Meyer, D. L. 1985. Evolutionary implications of predation on Recent comatulid crinoids from the Great Barrier Reef. Paleobiology 11:154164.
Meyer, D. L., and Lane, N. G. 1976. The feeding behavior of some Paleozoic crinoids and Recent basket stars. Journal of Paleontology 50:472480.
Meyer, D. L., and Macurda, D. B. 1977. Adaptive radiation of the comatulid crinoids. Paleobiology 3:7482.
Mileikovsky, S. A. 1971. Types of larval development in marine bottom invertebrates, their distribution and ecological significance: a re-evaluation. Marine Biology 10:193213.
Morris, P. J., Ivany, L. C., Schopf, K. M., and Brett, C. E. 1995. The challenge of paleoecological stasis: reassessing sources of evolutionary stability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 92:1126911273.
Newell, N. D., Rigby, J. K., Fischer, A. G., Whitman, A. J., Hickox, J. E., and Bradley, J. S. 1953. The Permian reef complex of the Guadalupe Mountains Region, Texas and New Mexico. W. H. Freeman, San Francisco.
Newman, W. A., and Stanley, S. M. 1981. Competition wins out overall: reply to Paine. Paleobiology 7:561569.
Oji, T. 1996. Is predation intensity reduced with increasing depth? Evidence from the west Atlantic stalked crinoid Endoxocrinus parrae (Gervais) and implications for the Mesozoic marine revolution. Paleobiology 22:339351.
Oliver a, B. M., Rivier, J., Clark, C., Ramilo, C. A., Corpuz, G. P., Abogadie, F. C., Mena, E. E., Woodward, S. R., Hillyard, D. R., and Cruz, L. J. 1990. Diversity of Conus neuropeptides. Science 249:257263.
Paine, R. T. 1966. Food web complexity and species diversity. American Naturalist 100:6575.
Paine, R. T. 1981. Disturbance and predation: the evolution and persistence of chthamaloid barnacles. Paleobiology 7:553560.
Park, T. 1948. Experimental studies of interspecific competition. I. Competition between populations of the flour beetles Tribolium confusum Duval and Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Ecological Monographs 18:265308.
Pechenik, J. A. 1999. On the advantages and disadvantages of larval stages in benthic marine invertebrate life cycles. Marine Ecology Progress Series 177:269297.
Peters, S. E. 2005. Geologic constraints on the macroevolutionary history of animals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 102:1232612331.
Peterson, C. H. 1979. Predation, competitive exclusion, and diversity in the soft-sediment benthic communities of estuaries and lagoons. Pp. 233264in Livingston, R. J., ed. Ecological processes in coastal and marine systems. Plenum, New York.
Plante, C. J., and Shriver, A. G. 1998. Patterns of differential digestion of bacteria in deposit feeders: a test of resource partitioning. Marine Ecology Progress Series 163:253258.
Posey, M., Lindberg, W., Alphin, T., and Vose, F. 1996. Influence of storm disturbance on an offshore benthic community. Bulletin of Marine Science 59:523529.
Raup, D. M. 1979. Size of the Permo-Triassic bottleneck and its evolutionary implications. Science 206:217218.
Ribes, M., Coma, R., and Rossi, S. 2003. Natural feeding of the temperate asymbiotic octocoral-gorgonian Leptogorgia sarmentosa (Cnidaria: Octocorallia). Marine Ecology Progress Series 254:141150.
Riisgård, H. U. 1988. Efficiency of particle retention and filtration rate in 6 species of northeast American bivalves. Marine Ecology Progress Series 45:217223.
Robison, B. H., Reisenbichler, K. R., and Sherlock, R. E. 2005. Giant larvacean houses: rapid carbon transport to the deep sea floor. Science 308:16091611.
Rothman, D. H. 2001. Global biodiversity and the ancient carbon cycle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 98:43054310.
Rutman, J., and Fishelson, L. 1969. Food composition and feeding behavior of shallow-water crinoids at Eilat (Red Sea). Marine Biology 3:4657.
Sale, P. F. 1977. Maintenance of high diversity in coral-reef fish communities. American Naturalist 111:337359.
Scott, R. W. 1978. Approaches to trophic analysis of paleocommunities. Lethaia 11:114.
Sepkoski, J. J. Jr. 1981. A factor analytic description of the Phanerozoic marine fossil record. Paleobiology 7:3653.
Sepkoski, J. J. Jr. 1984. A kinetic model of Phanerozoic taxonomic diversity. III. Post-Paleozoic families and mass extinctions. Paleobiology 10:246267.
Sepkoski, J. J. Jr. 1996. Competition in macroevolution: the double wedge revisited. Pp. 211255in Jablonski, D., Erwin, D. H., and Lipps, J. H., eds. Evolutionary paleobiology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Sepkoski, J. J. Jr. 2002. A compendium of fossil marine animal genera. Bulletins of American Paleontology 363.
Sepkoski, J. J., McKinney, F. K., and Lidgard, S. 2000. Competitive displacement among post-Paleozoic cyclostome and cheilostome bryozoans. Paleobiology 26:718.
Shumway, S. E., Cucci, T. L., Newell, R. C., and Yentsch, C. M. 1985. Particle selection, ingestion, and absorption in filter-feeding bivalves. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 91:7792.
Signor, P. W. 1990. Patterns of diversification. Pp. 130135in Briggs, D. E. and Crowther, P. R., eds. Palaeobiology: a synthesis. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.
Signor, P. W., and Brett, C. E. 1984. The mid-Paleozoic precursor to the Mesozoic marine revolution. Paleobiology 10:229245.
Sprinkle, J., and Kier, P. M., 1987. Phylum Echinodermata. Pp. 550611in Boardman, R. S., Cheetham, A. H., and Rowell, A. J., eds. Fossil invertebrates. Blackwell Scientific, Palo Alto, Calif.
Stanley, S. M. 1972. Functional morphology and evolution of byssally attached bivalve mollusks. Journal of Paleontology 46:165212.
Stanley, S. M. 1973a. An ecological theory for the sudden origin of multicellular life in the Late Precambrian. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 70:14861489.
Stanley, S. M. 1973b. Effects of competition on rates of evolution, with special reference to bivalve mollusks and mammals. Systematic Zoology 22:486506.
Stanley, S. M. 1974. What has happened to the articulate brachiopods? Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs 6:966967.
Stanley, S. M. 1977. Trends, rates, and patterns of evolution in the Bivalvia. Pp. 209250in Hallam, A., ed. Patterns of evolution, as illustrated by the fossil record. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Stanley, S. M. 1979. Macroevolution: pattern and process. W. H. Freeman, New York.
Stanley, S. M. 1981. The new evolutionary timetable. Basic Books, New York.
Stanley, S. M. 1986. Anatomy of a regional mass extinction: Plio-Pleistocene decimation of the Western Atlantic bivalve fauna. Palaios 1:1736.
Stanley, S. M. 1990. The general correlation between rate of speciation and rate of extinction: fortuitous causal linkages. Pp. 103172in Ross, R. M. and Allmon, W. D., eds. Causes of evolution. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Stanley, S. M. 2007. An analysis of the history of marine animal diversity. Paleobiology Memoirs No. 4. Paleobiology 33(Suppl. to No. 4).
Stanley, S. M., and Campbell, L. D. 1981. Neogene mass extinction of Western Atlantic molluscs. Nature 293:457459.
Stanley, S. M., and Newman, W. A. 1980. Competitive exclusion in evolutionary time: the case of the acorn barnacles. Paleobiology 6:173183.
Stanton, R. J., and Dodd, J. R. 1976. The application of trophic structure to fossil communities in paleoenvironmental reconstruction. Lethaia 9:327342.
Steele-Petrovic, H. M. 1976. Brachiopod food and feeding processes. Palaeontology 19:417436.
Strathmann, R. R. 1978. The evolution and loss of feeding larval stages of marine invertebrates. Evolution 32:894906.
Sutherland, J. P., and Karlson, R. H. 1977. Development and stability of the fouling community at Beaufort, North Carolina. Ecological Monographs 47:425446.
Thayer, C. W. 1979. Biological bulldozers and the evolution of marine communities. Science 203:458461.
Thayer, C. W. 1983. Sediment-mediated biological disturbance and the evolution of marine benthos. Pp. 479629in Tevesz, M. J. S. and McCall, P. L., eds. Biotic interactions in Recent and fossil benthic communities. Plenum, New York.
Thorson, G. 1966. Some factors influencing the recruitment and establishment of marine benthic communities. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research 3:267293.
Turpaeva, E. P. 1957. Food interrelationship of dominant species in marine benthic biocoenoses. Pp. 137148in Nikitin, B. N., ed. Marine biology. Translation of Transactions of the Institute of Oceanology, Vol. XX. USSR Academy of Sciences Press, Moscow. Translated by American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1959 (publ. 1960).
Valentine, J. W. 1969. Patterns of taxonomic and ecologic structure of the shelf benthos during Phanerozoic time. Paleontology 12:684708.
Valentine, J. W. 1971. Plate tectonics and shallow marine diversity and endemism, an actualistic model. Systematic Zoology 20:253264.
Valentine, J. W., Foin, T. C., and Peart, D. 1978. A provincial model of Phanerozoic marine diversity. Paleobiology 4:5566.
Van Valen, L. 1973. A new evolutionary law. Evolutionary Theory 1:130.
Van Valen, L. 1980. Evolution as a zero-sum game for energy. Evolutionary Theory 4:289300.
Van Valkenburgh, B. 1988. Trophic diversity in past and present guilds of large predatory mammals. Paleobiology 14:155173.
Vermeij, G. J. 1977. The Mesozoic marine revolution: evidence from snails, predators, and grazers. Paleobiology 3:245258.
Vermeij, G. J. 1995. Ergonomics, volcanoes, and Phanerozoic revolutions. Paleobiology 21:125152.
Volterra, V. 1926. Variations and fluctuations of the number of individuals of animal species living together. Pp. 409448in Chapman, R. N., ed. Animal ecology. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Walker, K. R. 1972. Trophic analysis: a method for studying the function of ancient communities. Journal of Paleontology 46:8293.
Woodin, S. A. 1976. Adult-larval interactions in dense infaunal assemblages: patterns of abundance. Journal of Marine Research 34:2542.
Yamamoto, T. 2004. Prey composition and prey selectivity of an intertidal generalist predator, Muricodrupa fusca (Kuester) (Muricidae). Marine Ecology 25:3549.
Young, D. K., Buzas, M. A., and Young, M. W. 1976. A field experimental study of predation. Journal of Marine Research 34:577592.
Zaret, T. M. 1972. Predator-prey interactions in a tropical lacustrine ecosystem. Ecology 53:248257.
Zaret, T. M. 1980. Predation and freshwater communities. Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn.
Zipser, E., and Vermeij, G. J. 1978. Crushing behavior of tropical and temperate crabs. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 31:155172.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0094-8373
  • EISSN: 1938-5331
  • URL: /core/journals/paleobiology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed