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Peopled Scrolls: a Hellenistic Motif in Imperial Art*

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 August 2013

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The peopling of floral scrolls with living creatures is a decorative device which enjoyed unrivalled popularity throughout the whole history of Imperial art and in almost every country of the Empire. Its full cultivation and flowering were achieved in the Roman age; but its roots, like those of nearly every Roman art-motif, are in the late classical Greek and Hellenistic worlds. These roots were varied and complex. The primitive notion of spirits indwelling in trees and plants, and at a later stage personified in visible shape, may have played a part; some of the constituent elements can certainly be traced back to religious symbolism; and more immediate was the influence of the naturalistic trend of fourth-century art, which favoured the idea of rendering birds, insects, and small beasts in their native setting. In Hellenistic and Imperial times, as these elements mingled and the motif became more widespread, fancy came gradually to outweigh fact; and a delight in incongruity for its own sake found ready expression in the peopling of vine- and acanthus-rinceaux with mythological and genre scenes and figures, framed in the foliage or poised on slender stems, or with human figures and such solid quadrupeds as dogs, bulls, horses, bears, panthers, and lions, careering through the leafy whorls or springing from the hearts of flowers.

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Copyright © British School at Rome 1950

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1 The writers are indebted to Dr. Berta Segall for much valuable help and advice in the preparation of this summary of the pre-Roman development of the peopled scroll, and in particular for information regarding Hellenistic metal-work.

2 Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, i, 1906, 118120Google Scholar; xxxv, 1940, 211 (ill.).

3 F. H. Marshall, Catal. of the Jewellery, Greek, Etruscan, and Roman in the British Museum, 1901, nos. 1611–4, p. 172 (figs.).

4 Otto Rubensohn, Hellenistiches Silbergerät in antiken Gipsabgüssen (Festschrift ztr Eröffnung des Pelizaus-Museums zu Hildesheim), 1911, no. 19, pl. ix.

5 S. Reinach, Antiquitis du Bosphore Cimmérien, 1892, pl. ii, 1; Minns, E. H., Scythians and Greeks, Cambridge, 1913, fig. 96Google Scholar.

6 Marshall, op. cit. no. 1610, pl. xxvii. Berta Segall, Museum Benaki, Athen: Katalog der Goldschmiedearbeiten, 1938, 28–9, no. 24, pl. 7, illustrates a very similar diadem in the Benaki Museum, and cites another, also in Athens, in the National Museum, no. 10832. She stresses the funerary connotations of such diadems.

7 Rostovtzeff, M., ‘Le culte de la grande déesse dans la Russie méridionale’, Rev. Études Grecques, xxxii, 1919, 462481CrossRefGoogle Scholar, citing the relevant publications. The form with animal-headed coils, sometimes in the shape of stylized tendrils, sometimes serpent-like (e.g. Marshall, op. cit., nos. 1265–6, pl. xvi, two seventh- or sixth-century gold plaques from Cerveteri; Minns, op. cit., fig. 54, horse's frontal from Tsymbalka), is perhaps the prototype.

7a Van Essen, C. C., ‘Modellen van Wapens uit hellenistischen tijd’, Bulletin van de Veraeniging tot Bevordering der kennis van de antieke Beschaving, i, I, 1821, figs. 1 and 3Google Scholar. C. S. Ponger, Katalog der griechischen und römischen Skulptur, der steinernen Gegenstände und der Stuckplastik im Allard Pierson Museum zu Amsterdam, 1942, pp. 86–7, no. 177, fig. 4, pl. xxxix. See fig. opposite.

8 Curtius, L., JDAI, xliii, 1928, 281297Google Scholar; found already in the 4th century on a three-sided base at Athens, dated probably 355–4 B.C. (Ath. Mitt. li, 1926 117 ff.Google Scholar); cf. the marble acroterion at Leningrad (ibid. pl. xix. 1) on which the figure clutches two beasts by the horns. For a surprisingly late representation, see the Antonine tomb of Q. Lollius Liberalis in the Lateran Museum (Curtius, loc. cit. fig. 19); each of the figures rests a hand on theshoulder of the deceased, and it is evident that, at least in a funerary context such as this, the foliate-skirted figure still retained a definite symbolic significance.

9 E.G. the gold diadem worn by the queen in the Koul-Oba tumulus (Reinach, op. cit. pl. ii, 3). It is found commonly on wooden sarcophagi of the fourth and third centuries (Watzinger, C., Griechische Holzsarkophage aus der Zeit Alexanders des Grossen, Leipzig, 1905, pp. 37–8Google Scholar, figs. 65–6; p. 53, fig. 111; p. 62, nos. r and s; Minns, op. cit., figs. 234, 276).

10 N. P. Kondakov, J. I. Tolstoi, S. Reinach, Antiquités de la Russie méridionale, 1891, figs. 256–7; Minns, op. cit., figs. 46–7; M. Rostovtzeff, Iranians and Greeks in S. Russia, 1922, pl. xxi, 2; P. Jacobsthal, Ornamente Griechischer Vasen, 1927, pls. 142–3.

11 E. Pernice and F. Winter, Der Hildeskeimer Silberfund, 1901, pls. xxxii–xxxiii; Monuments et Mémoires: Fondation Piot, V, 1899, pls. ix–xGoogle Scholar.

11a Ausonia, viii, 1913, 2734Google Scholar, figs. I, a and b, 2.

12 E. Gerhard, Apulische Vasenbilder des königlichen Museums zu Berlin, 1845, passim. The ‘Great Goddess’ figure, with kalathos and foliate skirt, figures once only (ibid., pl. A, 1); for other instances of this figure from Hellenistic Italy, see Van Essen, op. cit.

13 Praschniker, C., Jahreshefte des österreichiechen archäologischen Institutes, xxi–xxii, 19221924, 203214, figs. 122–3Google Scholar; cf. fig. 124, from the shoulder of an Apulian amphora.

14 L. D. Caskey, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston: Catal. of Greek and Roman Sculpture, 1925, p. 105, no. 49; A. W. Lawrence, Later Greek Sculpture, 1927, pl. xc b; H. U. v. Schoenebeck, Mnemosynon Theodor Wiegand, 1938, 56, pl. xxi, 2.

15 Ausonia, viii, 1913, 726, pl. iGoogle Scholar.

16 E. v. Mercklin, Arch. Anz. 1925, 164 ff.; Ronczewski, K., Röm. Mitt. xlv, 1930, 5979Google Scholar; Krauss, F. and Herbig, R., Der korinthisch-dorische Tempel am Forum von Paestum (Denkmäler antiker Architektur, 7) 1939, 76Google Scholar.

17 Photo: Alinari, Roma 35574.

18 J. Kohte and C. Watzinger, Magnesia am Maeander, 1904, figs. 57, 60, 61 (acroterion), and 65, 69 (frieze). Pride of place should perhaps go to the small winged at the centre of the scroll from the smaller, and probably slightly earlier, temple of Zeus Sosipolis in the same city, now in Istanbul (Mendel, I, pp. 423–4, no. 194). Here, too, the stems of the scroll spring from an acanthus-calyx and not from the body of the figure.

19 Pergamon, v, 2, 33–4, pls. xiv–xv.

20 Weigand, Th., Didyma, i (H. Knackfuss, Die Baubeschreibung), Berlin, 1941, nos. F. 248–251, pls. 107–9Google Scholar, and remarks on p. 66. For the chronology of the Didymaion, see Pontremoli, E. and Haussoulier, B., Didymes, Paris, 1904Google Scholar; Van Essen, C. C., Bulletin de Correspondence Hellénique, lxx, 1946, p607–616Google Scholar.

21 Gerhard, op. cit. passim; O. Walter, Beschreibun der Reliefs im kleinen Akropolismuseum in Athen, 1923, p. 221, no. 450 (fig.).

22 E.g. Rizzo, G. E., Le pitture della ‘Casa di Livia’ (Monumenti della pittura antica scoperti in Italia, iii, fasc. 3) 1936, fig. 10Google Scholar; Gusman, ii, pl. 73 (the Farnesina stuccoes); ibid., pl. 88 (circular marble base in the Terme Museum); ibid., iii, pl. 164 (terracotta mural plaques in the Louvre; cf. the plaques from Myrina in the same collection).

23 Pergamon, vii, 2, pp. 328–30, no. 412 (fig.). In every essential this arrangement already anticipates the topmost feature of one of the pilasters of the Severan basilica at Lepcis Magna (p. 38).

24 E.g. the circular altar of Eumenes, (Pergamon, vii, 2, 322Google Scholar, pl. xli); the marble relief-fragment showing sprays of corn and poppies (ibid., no. 408, fig.); and the fragment of a terracotta beaker, now at Marburg, with putto and garland (Transactions of the Oriental Ceramic Society, xix, 19421943, pl. ii aGoogle Scholar).

25 Pergamon, v, i, Textbd. pls. xxvii–xxxviii; Tafbd. pls. xvii, xviii; Rostovtzeff, M., Social and Economic History of the Hellenistic World, ii, 1941, 660, pl. lxxiv, 2Google Scholar.

26 To the metal-work examples already cited may be added a gypsum cast from the late third-century metal-worker's shop at Memphis with tiny putti scrambling through the naturalistic foliage of a vine-rinceau (Rubensohn, op. cit., no. 25, pl. viii; v. supra, p. 4, n. 4).

27 E. Pernice, Die hellenistische Kunst in Pompeji: Pavimente und figürliche Mosaiken, 1938, 150, pls. lii, liii.

28 Ibid. 150, pl. xliii, 2.

29 Pergamon, vii, 2, pp. 323–6, no. 407, fig. and Beiblatt xliii; Mnemosynon Theodor Wiegand, 1938, 59, pl. xxiii (one face only).

30 G. Moretti, Ara Pacis Augustae, 1948, pls. i–iv, x–xviii.

31 Arch. Anz. 1934, 473–4, fig. 19; V. Spinazzola, Le arti decorative in Pompei e net Museo Nazionale di Napoli, 1928, pls. xxi b, xxii. Photo: Alinari, Napoli 19045.

32 Moretti, op. cit., 201–3, fig. 162. Photos: Anderson, Firenze 9320, and Brogi, Firenze, 4301.

33 Capitolium, viii, 4, April 1923, 167–171, figs. 15–19. The suggestion that they may come from die forum of Caesar must be rejected. They are altogether more delicate and widely spaced than the Domitianic scrolls from that site (v. infra, p. 12). The deeply-drilled border-moulding, however, suggests a date little, if at all, before the middle of the first century.

34 De Architectura, vii, 5, 3–5, published after the battle of Actium in 31 B.C. and before the assumption of the title Augustus in 27 B.C.

35 Rizzo, G. E., Le pitture della ‘Casa di Livia’ (Monumenti della pittura antica scopertiin Italia, iii, fasc. 3) 1936, 1114, figs. 8–10Google Scholar.

36 E. Pernice and F. Winter, Der Hildesheimer Silberfund, 1901, pp. 25–6, pl. iii; pp. 37–41, pls. xiii–xvi; pp. 57–9, pl. xxix; pp. 67–9, pls. xxxviii–xl.

37 Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum: U.S.A. fasc. 9, Metropolitan Museum of Art, fasc. i, 1943, 20, pl. xxxGoogle Scholar. Cf. Karl Schumacher Festschrift, 1930, 303, pl. xxxv, 5; H. Dragendorff—C. Watzinger, Arretinische Reliefkeramik, 1948, nos. 231–2, 266.

38 Zahn, W., Die schönsten Ornamente und merkwürdigsten Gemälde aus Pompeji, Herculaneum und Stabiae, I, 3, 1828, pl. xxixGoogle Scholar. Cf. von Blanckenhagen, 85, n. 4.

39 von Blanckenhagen, 85, n. 3.

40 Spinazzola, op. cit., pl. cv.

41 Zahn, , op. cit. I, i, 1828, pls. v, viGoogle Scholar; I, 5, 1828, pl. xlix; III, 1852, pl. vii; von Blanckenhagen, pl. xxix, 81; Elia, O., Le pitture del tempio di Iside (Monumenti della pittura antica scoperti in Italia, iii, fasc. 3–4) 1941, figs. 1 and 5, pls. vi, viiGoogle Scholar.

42 Zahn, , op. cit., I, 7, 1829, pl. lxviGoogle Scholar.

43 Museo Borionico, 1833, ix, pl. xxivGoogle Scholar.

44 von Blanckenhagen, 85.

45 Pergamon, vii, 2, 306–7, no. 396, Beiblatt 40.

46 E.g. inv. no. 59506, from the Abruzzi; above, a horizontal acanthus-scroll with man and bird and, below, a fragmentary inscription, in good first-century lettering: … VLLI. L. PHILO SEVIR … O MENOPHILO LIBERTO … TIOPAE LIBERTAE VXORI. (R. Paribeni, Le Terme di Diocleziano ed il Museo Nazionale Romano, 1932, p. 61, no. 41); and inv. no. 120709, from Otricoli, a horizontal acanthus-scroll with a miniature pig and a bird (Pietrangeli, C., Ocricolum (Italia Romana: municipi e colonie, I, 7) 1943, p. 98, no. 34Google Scholar; pl. xvi, c illustrates a part of the same frieze); and inv. no. 34219, from Chieti (found with the remains of the tomb of C. Lusius Sorax), a funerary stele with a scroll-work border, one volute of which is filled by a mask with a tiny bird above it (Monumenti Antichi, xix, 1908, 582, n. 1, fig. 17Google Scholar).

47 E.g. two horizontal frieze-fragments with birds at Foligno.

48 Inscribed: ARBITRATV C. BETVTI M.F. OVF. ET P. ALFI P.L. PHILOMVSI. Former German Arch. Inst., Rome, neg. 31. 3979.

49 Former German Arch. Inst., Rome, neg. 33. 437.

50 A Nervan-Trajanic date has been proposed by McFayden, D. (Classical Journal xi, 1915, 131 ff.Google Scholar) and Magi, F. (I rilievi flavi del Palazzo della Cancelleria, Rome, 1945, 160 ff.Google Scholar); but the reasons advanced are hardly sufficient to justify the rejection of the traditional date, confirmed by Lehmann-Hartleben, K. (Bull. Com. lxii, 1934, 89122Google Scholar) and von Blanckenhagen (pp. 62–4). See JRS xxxvii, 1947, 190Google Scholar.

51 L. Rossini, Gli Archi Trionfali, 1836, pl. xxxiv; von Blanckenhagen, pl. xvi. 51.

52 L. Rossini, op. cit. pl. xxxiv. Photo: Gabinetto Fotografico Nazionale, neg. 26503.

53 Bianchini, F., Del Palazzo de' Cesari, Verona, 1738, 50 ff., pls. ii–vGoogle Scholar; Durry, M., ‘Les trophées farnèses’, Mélanges d'archéologie et d'histoire, xxxix, 1922, 303318, pl. viiiGoogle Scholar; von Blanckenhagen, pp. 64–7, with bibliography.

54 Epigr. vii, 56.

55 Ruesch, Guida illustrate del Museo Nazionale di Napoli, 1911, no. 1020; von Blanckenhagen, pl. xix, 56 and 57.

56 Von Blanckenhagen, pl. xx, 58; cf. pl. xx, 59, from the Aula Regia.

57 Ruesch, op. cit., no. 1020; von Blanckenhagen, pls. xxii, 65; xxiii, 66 and 67.

58 CIL VI, 953 = 31213.

59 Epigr. i, 2, 8.

60 von Blanckenhagen, pl. xiii, 39 and 40.

61 Pergamon, vii, 2, 1908, p. 307, no. 397 (fig.)Google Scholar.

62 Ricci, C., Colini, A. M., Mariani, V., Via dell' Impero (Itinerari del Musei e Monumenti d'Italia, 24), Rome, 1933, p. 43 (fig.)Google Scholar; AJA, xxxvii, 1933, pl. lvi. 2Google Scholar. Photo: Comune di Roma, neg. 21 × 27, 1000.

63 MAAR, xiii, 1936, pl. liii, 1Google Scholar.

64 MAAR, xiii, 1936, pl. liii, 3Google Scholar.

65 Lib. de Caes. 13.

66 Notizie degli Scavi, 1932, 201.

67 See also von Blanckenhagen, p. 77. Characteristic of Flavian architecture is the insertion of two small rings between the dentils of the entablature (Lugli, G., Bull. Com. xlvi, 1918 (1920), 35Google Scholar, note 1); cf. von Blanckenhagen, pls. xxi, 60 and xxvi, 72–3). Compare also the simaornament (MAAR, xiii, 1936, pl. li, 2Google Scholar) and the elaborately decorated bases (Naumann, R., Der Quellbezirk von Nîmes (Denkmäler Antiker Architektur, 4), 1937, 46 ff.Google Scholar, pl. 39; JRS, xxxviii, 1948, 64, no. 17Google Scholar) with those of the Aula Regia (von Blanckenhagen, pl. xxi, 61 and 62; Bianchini, F., Del Palazzo de'Cesari, Verona, 1738, pl. iiiGoogle Scholar).

68 AJA, xxxvii, 1933, pl. lvi, 1Google Scholar; MAAR, xiii, 1936, pl. li, 1Google Scholar; Ricci, Colini, and Mariani, op. cit. p. 44 (fig.).

69 Squarciapino, M., ‘Pannello con amorini del Foro di Cesare’, Arti Figurative, ii, 1946, 69 ff., pls. xxix and xxxGoogle Scholar.

70 Benndorf and Schöne, pp. 38–9, nos. 59 and 60; Strong, i, pl. xxxiii; Gusman, ii. pl. cv. Photos: Anderson, Roma 1851 and 1852.

71 Bartoli, A., ‘La recinzione meridionale del Foro Traiano’, Atti della Pontificia Accademia Romana di archeologia, series 3, Memorie, i, II, 1924, 177 ff.Google Scholar, pl. xxxvii; 185, fig. 5.

72 Gusman, iii, pl. cl. Photos: Anderson, Roma 1850; Moscioni, Roma 2932.

73 Bartoli, op. cit. 183–4, figs. 3 and 4.

74 See Castagnoli, F., Bull. Com. lxix, 1941, 5969Google Scholar, a convincing interpretation of the much-discussed topographical panel as representing a series of Flavian monuments, in the construction of which the deceased had taken part.

75 von Blanckenhagen, p. 105.

76 Strong, ii, 379, fig. 226.

77 Gusman, i, pl. 27. Photo: Anderson, Roma 1875b.

78 Gusman, loc. cit.

79 Benndorf and Schöne, p. 225, no. 350; von Blanckenhagen, 101, pl. xxxvi, 98. Photo: Anderson, Roma 24123.

80 Benndorf and Schöne, pp. 226–7, no. 353.

81 W. Altmann, Die römischen Grabaltäre der Kaiserzat, 1905, p. 40, no. 4, fig. 26; pp. 42–3, no. 9, fig. 30. Inv. nos. 78165, 78166.

82 Inv. no. 2364; British Museum Marbles, v, 1826, pl. v. 1–3Google Scholar.

83 Catal. of Sculpture in the British Museum, iii, 1904, 341–2, fig. 52Google Scholar.

84 Amelung, W., Die Sculpturen des vaticanischen Museums, i, 4, 1903, p. 639, no. 497a, pl. lxviiiGoogle Scholar; Altmann, op. cit., p. 146; no. 163.

84a Former German Arch. Inst. neg. 1933, 1426.

85 Altmann, op. cit., p. 147, no. 168, fig. 120; Amelung, , op. cit., ii, 3, 1908, p. 426, no. 356aGoogle Scholar.

86 Altmann, op. cit., p. 164, no. 206, fig. 133; Amelung, , op. cit. ii, 3, 1908, p. 420, no. 253a, pl. xlviGoogle Scholar.

87 Amelung, , op. cit., i, 2, 1903, p. 256, no. 126, pl. xxviGoogle Scholar; Gusman, i, pl. liv; J. M. C. Toynbee, The Hadrianic School, 1934, pl. xlviii, 3.

88 R. Paribeni, Boll. d'arte, 1914, 279–83, fig. 3; R. Paribeni, Le Terme di Dioclezano e il Museo Nazionale Romano, 1932, p. 266, no. 833; G. Kaschnitz-Weinberg, Sculture del magazzino del Museo Vaticano, 1937, pp. 193–4, nos. 429–31, pl. lxxvi. Alinari, Roma 38254.

89 A. Michaelis, Ancient Marbles in Great Britain, 1882, 459, no. 76; R. Paribeni, Boll. d'Arte, 1914, 283, fig. 4; Auction Catal. of Ancient Marbles in the Lansdowne Collection, March 5, 1930, p. 48, no. 69.

90 MAAR, xiii, 1936, pl. xxxix. 4Google Scholar.

91 Ibid., pl. xxxix. 3.

92 Ibid., pl. xxxix. 1.

93 Gusman, i, pl. 1; MAAR, iv, 1924, pls. xx and xxiGoogle Scholar.

93a F. Cumont, Études Syriennes, 1917, p. 78, fig. 32; Lux Perpetua, 1949, p. 295, fig. 7; Reinach, S., Répertoire de reliefs, iii, 1912, p. 76Google Scholar; Ruesch, Guida illustrata del Museo Nazionale di Napoli, 1911, no. 1879.

94 von Blanckenhagen, pp. 67–8, 90–9.

95 See notably von Blanckenhagen's analysis of the arch of the Argentarii, pp. 90–2. The influence of Flavian monuments on the arch in the Forum Romanum is less pronounced, but is attested by such features as the rings between the dentils of the cornice flanking the central passage-way; see also von Blanckenhagen, pp. 92–3.

96 (a) Ibid., pl. xxxii, 89, from the Aula Regia, now in Naples Museum; (b) ibid., pl. xxxiii, 91, in situ; (c) ibid., pl. xxxiv, 92, in situ; also two smaller fragments in the Villa Mills.

97 In situ.

98 (a) Ibid., pl. xxxv, 95; cf. the stylistically similar fragments in the Vatican Museums (Museo Chiaramonti), with putti standing between the whorls and animalprotomai emerging from the terminal flowers, Amelung, W., Die Sculpturen des vaticanischen Museums, i, 4, 1903, p. 629Google Scholar, nos. 487a and c, pl. lxvi; (b) Gusman, iii, pl. clxxvi, 2; Strong, ii, 309, fig. 187; photo, Moscioni, Roma 2992; (c) unpublished.

99 (d) Unpublished; (e) Benndorf and Schöne, p. 198, nos. 314–6; (f) photo, ex-German Arch. Inst. 31. 1678; (g) A. Munoz, Il restauro della chiesa e del chiostro del SS. Quattro Coronati, 1914, 127–30, figs. 169 and 170.

100 von Blanckenhagen, pl. xxxii, 88.

101 von Blanckenhagen, pl. xxxv, 95.

102 For a general view of these entablatures see photo, Alinari, Roma 5862.

103 Benndorf and Schöne, pp. 199–200, nos. 320, 320a; Gusman, iii, pl. cxxi; Squarciapino, pl. L b. Photo: Anderson, Roma 24122.

104 Brunn, H., Kleine Schriften, i, 1898, 6470Google Scholar; Gusman, ii, pls. xciii, xciv; Photos: Alinari, Roma 26318, 26319, 26320; Anderson, Roma 20325, 20515; Vatican, neg. xv. 2.27.

105 Gusman, i, pl. xli; Strong, i, 120, fig. 75; von Blanckenhagen, pl. xxxvi, 97.

106 Contrast Strong, ii, 305: ‘sarebbe tuttavia difficile suggerire una data esatta per questo lavoro. La tecnica sembra infatti accennare al terzo secolo, mentre lo stile e la composizione ci richiamano a fasi più antiche e presentano elementi familiari già all'arte flavia e traianea’. For the plastic treatment of the figures cf. the Hercules capital in the Baths of Caracalla (Gusman, i, pl. xliii, Strong, ii, 307, fig. 185).

107 Gusman, i, pl. xl.

108 Brought to our notice by dott. E. Paribeni.

109 Calza, G., Ostia: nuovi scavi (Itinerari dei Musei e Monumenti d'Italia, no. 1a), Rome, 1947, p. 31Google Scholar; Calza, G., Ostia, Ed. 2 (Itinerari dei Musei e Monumenti d'Italia, no. 1), Rome, 1949, p. 83Google Scholar.

110 M.G.H.: Chron. min. i, 148: Porticus thermarum Antoniniarum arserunt et fabricatum est.

111 Kähler, H., ‘Zum Sonnentempel Aurelians’, Röm. Mitt., lii, 1937, 94105Google Scholar. The ultimate derivation of these fragments, through-Severan intermediaries, from Flavian prototypes is confirmed by the use of such distinctive elements as the pair of rings between the dentils of the cornice (v. supra, p. 13, n. 67).

112 Inv. no. 80101. F. Toebelmann, Römische Gebälke, 1923, 111, fig. 86; Kähler, op. cit., figs. 4, 7, 8, 11. Photos: Former Germ. Arch. Inst. negs. 30.500, 37.260 and 261.

113 Inv. no. 115751. Kähler, op. cit. fig. 6.

114 Toebelmann, op. cit., 124–5, fig. 97; Kähler, op. cit., fig. 12; H. P. L'Orange and A. von Gerkan, Der spätantik Bildschmuck des Konstantinsbogens, 1939, figs. 50, 51.

114a The over-loading of ornament on the architrave suggests a late third- or early fourth-century date. For work by Maxentius on the Palatine—‘thermas in Palatio fecit’—see M.G.H.: Chron. Min. i, 148.

115 Amelung, , op. cit., i, 2, 1903, p. 183Google Scholar, no. 23; p. 226, no. 82; i, 3, 1903, p. 510, no. 297a, pl. liii; i, 4, 1903, p. 654. no. 516 Ca, pl. lxix. Photos: Anderson, Roma 23923; Vatican neg. 1.3.23.

116 Peirce and Tyler, i, pl. xi, a and b.

117 Photos: Anderson, Roma 20514, 30516.

117a An early-Imperial example is to be seen on a painted panel of first-century A.D. date in the Louvre (P 71), which shows two vertical vine-branches interlocking, with vintaging putti perched upon them.

118 A. Adriani, Le gobelet en argent des amours vendangeurs du Musée d'Alexandrie, 1939. Contrast such vintage-scenes as that on the glass ‘Blue Vase’ at Naples (ibid., 14, fig. 7), in which the putti are outside the schematized scrolls; or the many classical vintage-scenes, which show real vines, growing naturalistically, instead of spreading in lattice-work scrolls across the entire field.

119 Rodenwaldt, G. (JDAI, xlv, 1930, 116189, pls. v–viiGoogle Scholar) refutes the suggestion of Taylor, F. H. (Art Bulletin, x, 1927, 4759CrossRefGoogle Scholar) that the figured panels are a fifteenth century re-working of a classical strigil-sarcophagus.

120 Lippold, G., Die Sculpturen des vaticanischen Museums, iii, 165, no. 566Google Scholar; Michalowski, K., Röm. Mitt. xliii, 1928, 131146Google Scholar; R. Delbrueck, Antike Porphyrwerke, 1932, 219, pl. 104; Sjöqvist, E. and Westholm, A., Skrifter utgivna av svenska Institutet i Rom, iv, 1935, 146Google Scholar. For a derivative fragment, of Roman workmanship, walled into the former studio of Canova, in via Canova, see Röm. Mitt. xliii, 1928, 143, fig. 3Google Scholar.

121 Bull. Com. vi, 1878, 199 ff., pl. xviGoogle Scholar; H. Stuart Jones, Catal. of the Sculptures of the Polazzo dei Conservatori, 1926, p. 93, no. 29a (column), p. 117, no. 70 (capital), pl. xli; Gusman iii, pl. 122. For similarly elongated figures on sarcophagi see Strong, ii, 324, fig. 198; K. Lehmann-Hartleben and E. C. Olsen, Dionysiac Sarcophagi in Baltimore, 1942, fig. 9.

121a Lehmann-Hartleben and Olsen, op. cit. fig. 9.

122 See the recent study by K. Lehmann-Hartleben and E. C. Olsen of a group of Dionysiac sarcophagi found near the Port a Pia, now in Baltimore, Dionysiac sarcophagi in Baltimore, 1942.

123 AJA, liii, 1949, 158, pl. xxvii, AGoogle Scholar.

124 The easy passage of the theme from the old faith to the new is well illustrated by a late second- or early third-century pagan sarcophagus with a vineyard-scene, converted later to Christian use by the simple addition of a fresh inscription; from the Syrian Tripolis, now at Constantinople (Mendel, iii, pp. 408–412, no. 1169; JDAI xlv, 1930, 177–9, figs. 54–5).

125 Most recently with full bibliography, F. Gerke, Der Sarkophag des Iunius Bassus, 1936, figs. 32 and 35.

126 J. Wilpert, Die römischen Mosaïken und Malereien der kirchlichen Bauten von IV–XIII Jahrhundert, 1917, 50, pl. lxxv.

127 Ibid., 290, pl. vi; Cecchelli, C., Architettura e Arti decorative, ii, 1922, p. 15Google Scholar, fig. (the destroyed floor-mosaic).

128 Photos: Zuecca, Milano, nos. 1612 and 1195 respectively, obtained through the kindness of Dr. N. De Grassi.

129 Liber Pontificalis, ed. Duchesne, 38 and 194; L'Arte, i, 1898, 377384Google Scholar.

130 Wilpert, G., I sarcofagi cristiani antichi, i, 1929, pl. xiii (Junius Bassus)Google Scholar; pp. 175–6, pl. cxxi, 4 (Lateran 174); pp. 178–9, pl. cxlix (S. Sebastiano); Gerke, op. cit., figs. 4–5, 13, 40–1; F. Gerke, Christus in der spätantiken Plastik, 1940, pl. lxi.

131 A colonnette in the museum at Ostia is carved in high relief with putti vintaging among the foliage of a spirally wound vine.

132 Wilpert, op. cit., pl. cxlv, 1.

133 O. M. Dalton, British Museum, Catal. of Early Christian Antiquities, 1901, pp. 64–7, nos. 305–6, pl. xix. See also two other silver vessels in the British Museum, a late third- or early fourth-century mirror from Bulgaria (H. B. Walters, Catal. of Silver Plate, 1921, p. 28, no. 106, pl. xv) and a fourth-century fluted silver bowl in the Mildenhall treasure; and the sixth-century (?) patera of Bishop Paternus at Leningrad (L. Matzulewitsch, Byzantinische Antike, 1929, pls. 26 and 27).

134 Cecchelli, C., La cattedra di Massimiano, Rome, 19351944, 6895, pls. i–xiiiGoogle Scholar, with full bibliography; Peirce and Tyler, ii, pls. 3, 5, and 8. See also the ivory Dionysos-panels of the Aachen pulpit (Peirce and Tyler, ii, pls. 155 and 191; illustrated by Cecchelli, op. cit., pls. xxxviii–xxxix, to be discussed in a projected second volume); and a fourth-century (?) ivory diptych at Trieste (P. Arndt and W. Amelung, Photographische Einzelaufnahmen antiker Skulpturen, 1893, 600).

135 A. Patricolo and U. Monneret de Villard, The Church of Sitt Barbara in Old Cairo, 1922; for the date, c. A.D. 500, see Kitzinger, E., Archaeologia, lxxxvii, 1938, 212Google Scholar.

136 Kitzinger, op. cit., 210–5.

136a Among late metal-work examples of the peopled vine-scroll are: (1) a hemi-spherical silver bowl in the Berlin Antiquarium, on which Dionysiac figures stand, each within a loosely-formed medallion (Y. I. Smirnoff, Argenterie Orientale, 1909, pl. cxii); (2) a silver flagon from Persia in the British Museum, showing vintaging putti, a hare, birds etc., in a spreading vine (ibid., pl. li).

137 E.g. the lateral lunettes of the so-called tomb of Galla Placidia, and the presbytery vault of S. Vitale.

138 E.g. two fourth-century fragments of silver vessels from the Traprain Law treasure, in Edinburgh Museum (A. O. Curle, The Treasure of Traprain, 1923, 44, fig. 22; pl. 23); a wooden panel in the Kaiser Friedrich Museum (Peirce and Tyler, i, pl. 169); fabrics (ibid., i, pl. 168, b; ii, pl. 75).

139 Espérandieu, i, 206; L. A. Constans, Aries Antique, 1921, 293–4.

140 M. Jules Formigé, Inspecteur Général Honoraire des Monuments Historiques, writes: ‘La frise du rinceau est prise dans le même bloc que les triglyphes et placée au dessus. La construction vue en coupe semble intacte et sans remaniment’.

141 Espérandieu, i, 114; Röm. Mitt. lii, 1937, pls. iv–xiiiGoogle Scholar.

142 E. Pernice and F. Winter, Der Hildesheimer Silberfund, 1901, pls. xxxviii–xl. Photo: Giraudon 8367.

143 Ibid., pl. xxix. Photo: Giraudon 8650.

144 Ibid., pls. xiii–xvi.

145 Ibid., pl. iii. Photo: Giraudon 8641.

146 Ibid., pls. xxxii–xxxiii. Photo: Giraudon 8639.

147 Monuments et Mémoires: Fondation Piot, v, 1897, pls. ix–x. Photo: Giraudon 4913Google Scholar.

148 Another notable piece of imported metal-work (?Alexandrian) is the silver-inlaid bronze flagon from Gap, now in the museum at Lyon; on four of the vertical panels are formal vine-scrolls with vintaging putti; Gazette Archéologique, iii, 1877, 81, pls. viii–ixGoogle Scholar.

149 Espérandieu, i, 291; Sautel, J., Vaison dans l'antiquité, iii, 1926, pl. lxiii. 5Google Scholar. Now in the Musée Calvet, Avignon.

150 Espérandieu, iv, 2856.

151 Ibid., viii, 5961.

152 Ibid., ii, 1284.

153 Ibid., i, 491; iii, p. 422; ix, p. 326.

154 Ibid., x, 7338.

155 Inventaire des mosaïques de la Gaule, i, I, no. 236; Levi, D., Antioch Mosaic Pavements, i, 1947, 511, fig. 188Google Scholar.

156 Wilpert, , op. cit., i, 1929, pl. cxlv. iGoogle Scholar; E. Le Blant, Les Sarcophages chrétiens de la Gaule, 1886, pl. liv. i.

157 Archaeologia, lxxxvii, 1937, 97Google Scholar, note 3, nos. 35, 48, and 77; cf. (birds only) no. 31, pl. xxxi. 6 = E. Le Blant, Les Sarcophages chrétiens de la Gaule, 1886, pl. xxxiii, 1; Peirce and Tyler, ii, pl. xvii (b).

158 Prof. J. de C. Serra-Ràfols, who has kindly sent photographs of the two examples here cited from Barcelona, confirms that they are, to his knowledge, unique in Catalonia, and that he knows of no other Spanish examples.

159 Huguet, P. Batlle, Arte Romana (Ars Hispaniae, ii, Madrid, 1947), 35, fig. 17Google Scholar.

160 Victoria Country History, Somerset, i, fig. 72.

161 T. D. Kendrick, Anglo-Saxon Art to A.D. 900, 1938, pl. xvi. 4.

162 G. Tocilescu, Das Monument von Adamklissi: Tropaeum Traiani, 1895, 18, fig. 12, pls. ii, iii; Furtwangler, A., Das Tropaion von Adamklissi (Abhandlungen der philosophisch-philologischen Klasse der kön. bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 22), 1903, pl. iii, 3, 4Google Scholar; F. Studniczka, Tropaeum Traiani, 1904, p. 94, fig. 54.

163 S. Ferri, Arte romana sul Danubio, 1933, 371–2, figs. 504 and 505.

164 C. Texier and R. P. Pullan, The Principal Ruins of Asia Minor illustrated and described, 1865, pl. xxv; Krencker, D. and Schede, M., Der Tempel in Ankyra (Denkmäler antiker Architektur, 3), 1936, pl. xlvii. cGoogle Scholar.

165 Squarciapino, pl. xxi; Mendel, ii, pp. 185–8; nos. 494–5. For the surviving member of the pair of acanthus-scroll pilasters which carried these capitals, v. infra, p. 34.

166 Schulz, B. and Winnefeld, H., Baalbek, i, 1921, pl. 96Google Scholar.

167 K. F. Kinch, L'Arc de Triomphe de Salonique, 1890, pl. vi; Peirce and Tyler, i, pl. i.

168 Texier and Pullan, op. cit., pl. xxxix; Lanckoronski, K., Städte Pamphyliens und Pisidiens, i, 1890, 113, fig. 89Google Scholar.

169 Mendel, iii, 547–9, nos. 1341–2.

170 Ibid., 549–551, nos. 1343–4.

171 Pergamon, v. 2, Das Traianeum, 33–4, pls. xiv, xv.

172 Revue Archéologique, x, 1937, 246 (fig. 2)Google Scholar; AJA, xli, 1937, 375Google Scholar, figs. 14, 15. Cf. the bust at Istanbul, from the Hadrianic baths at Aphrodisias, of Atargatis in her fishgoddess form; Latomus, ii, 1949, 257 ff.Google Scholar, pl. xvi.

173 Lanckoronski, op. cit., 100, fig. 78; JDAI, xliv, 1929, 269, fig. 3Google Scholar.

174 Quarterly of the Department of Antiquities, Palestine, x, 1944, pl. xxviii, 3Google Scholar.

175 D. Krencker and W. Zschietzschmann, Römische Tempel in Syrien, 1938, 237 and 239, figs. 362 and 364.

176 Wilberg, W., Jahreshefte des österreichischen archäologischen Institutes, xi, 1908, 122–3, figs. 24–6Google Scholar.

177 Schulz, B. and Winnefeld, H., Baalbek, i, 1921, pls. xxiii, lx (great temple, first century A.D.)Google Scholar; D. Krencker, Th. von Lüpke, H. Winnefeld, ibid., ii, 8, fig. 12; 10, fig. 16 = Syria, xxiii, 19421943, 49Google Scholar, fig. 8 (small, or ‘Bacchus-’, temple, second century A. D.).

177 For information concerning peopled scrolls in Syria, and for the photos illustrated we are indebted to M. Henri Seyrig, Director of the Institut français d'archéologie, Beirut.

178 Robert, C., Antike Sarkophagreliefs, ii, 1890, 129, pl. xlv, fig. 110Google Scholar; Catal. of Sculpture in the British Museum, iii, 1904, 311 ff., no. 2303Google Scholar.

179 Robert, , op. cit., ii, 26–9Google Scholar, no. 21, pl. viii and ix (Kertsch); ibid., iii, 175–6, no. 147, pl. xlv = Suppl. pl. vii (near Sparta, now destroyed); ibid., iii, 178–181, no. 152 b, pl. xlvii = Arch. Anz., 1940, 603–4, fig. 3 (one end of the well-known Hippolytus sarcophagus at Agrigento).

179a Y. I. Smirnoff, Argenterie Orientale, 1909, pl. xiv.

180 Krencker, D. and Schede, M., Der Tempel in Ankyra (Denkmäler antiker Architektur, 3), 1936, pls. xiv, xxviGoogle Scholar.

181 Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique, xlv, 1921, 436 ff.Google Scholar; Squarciapino, pl. M.

182 Mendel, iii, 424–7, no. 1179 (fig.); E. Mamboury and Th. Wiegand, Die Kaiserpaläste von Konstantinopel, 1934, pl. xxxix. Istanbul Museum photos, nos. 2058–2060. Mamboury and Wiegand suggest a Severan date, with which the flat treatment of the plant accords; but the wide spacing of the designs is more reminiscent of Antonine work.

183 Baalbek, ii, 1923, pls. li–liiGoogle Scholar.

184 M. Dunand, Le Musée de Soueïda, 1934, 14–15, no. 3, pl. v. Cf. Syria, vii, 1926, pl lxiii, 2Google Scholar; xxiii, 1942–3, 66, fig. 15, 1. There is part of what appears to be a companion piece, also from Kanawât, now in the Louvre (A.O. 11.078).

185 Th. Wiegand, Palmyra, 1932, pl. liv.

186 Ibid., pl. liii.

186a Seyrig, H., ‘Antiquités Syriennes, 32: Ornamenta Palmyrena antiquiora’, Syria, xxi, 1940, 279328Google Scholar.

186b Syria, xv, 1934Google Scholar, pls. xix, xx (two pairs of symmetrical vine-scrolls, with birds, forming the lower borders of the figured panels decorating two of the transverse beams spanning die peristyle; on one there is male bust at the junction of the two scrolls); xxiii (the border of a figured soffit, vine-scroll with birds).

187 Mendel, ii, 179–184, no. 493 (figs.); Schede, M., Meisterwerke der türkischen Museen, iGoogle Scholar: griech. und röm. Skulpturen des Antikenmuseums, 1028, pls. xxxv, xxxvi; Squarciapino, pls. xix, xx. Istanbul Museum photos, nos. 1617–1622. For the capitals belonging to these pilasters, v. supra, p. 31. For the date of die baths, see CRAcad. 1906, 167.

188 Inv. no. 1921, 12–10, 1237; CRAcad. 1904, 703; 1906, 155 and 158.

189 A. Aziz, Guide du Musée de Smyrna, 1933, no. 162, pl. i. See also the acroteria of the propyleion to the sanctuary of Aphrodite at Aphrodisias (Monumenti Antichi, xxxviii, 1939, ii, 125–6Google Scholar, pl. xl, 5) with three-quarter-length figures of deer leaping through the whorls of a complex scroll.

190 Mendel, ii, 447–8, no. 665; Peirce and Tyler, i, pl. 18; R. Delbrueck, Antike Porphyrwerke, 1932, pl. 107, 2; Early Christian and Byzantine Art: an exhibition held at the Baltimore Museum of Art, 1947, no. 34, pl. ix.

191 Archaeologia, lxxxvii, 1938, 212, pl. lxxvii, iGoogle Scholar.

192 Ibid., 212, pls. lxxv, 3 and lxxvi, i; A. Patricolo and U. Monneret de Villard, The Church ofSitt Barbara in Old Cairo, 1922.

193 Archaeologia, lxxxvii, 1938, pl. lxxi, 2–5Google Scholar; U. Monneret de Villard, La Scultura ad Ahnâs, 1923, figs. 86–7, cf. figs. 85, 88, and 89. from the Fayûm.

194 Byzantinische Zeitschrift, i, 1892, 576–88Google Scholar, pl. i and ii; Peirce and Tyler, i, pl. 127; Mendel, ii, 435–42, nos. 658–9 (figs.); Early Christian and Byzantine Art: an exhibition held at the Baltimore Museum of Art, 1947, 32, no. 54, pl. iv.

195 Cf. the much disputed Antioch chalice, Peirce and Tyler, i, pls. xcix, c; for bibliography, see Orientalia Christiana, 1926–7, 8–10; A. Adriani, Le gobelet en argent des amours vendangeurs du Musée d'Alexandrie, 1939, 37–8.

196 D. Levi, Antioch Mosaic Pavements, 1947, pls. i, b and cxlvi, b.

197 Ibid., pls. xxiii, c and cxlii, b.

198 Ibid., pls. xxxv, b, and cliii, b.

199 Ibid., pls. liv–lvii.

200 Ibid., pl. cxliii, b—e.

201 The Great Palace of the Byzantine Emperors, 1947, pls. xxviii, xxix, xxxi, xl, xliii, xlix, and 1.

202 Levi, op. cit., pl. lxxxii, d.

203 Ibid., pl. cxliv, b—c.

203a Ed. C. H. Kraeling, Gerasa, City of the Decapolis, 1938, pls. lviii, c, lxix, b; Peirce and Tyler, ii, pl. cxxiii.

204 Levi, op. cit., pl. clxxxi, c.

205 Ibid., pls. xci, xcii, b and clxxxi, d.

206 Πρακτικὰ, 1915, 76 ff., figs. 10, 12–19.

207 Peirce and Tyler, ii, pl. cxcv.

208 Orientalia Christiana, 1926–7, pl. xxiii; Cecchelli, C., La cattedra di Massimiano, Rome, 19351944, p. 86 (fig.)Google Scholar.

209 Africa Italiana, iv, 1931, 5660Google Scholar; Squarciapino, pls. xxx b and xxxi; JRS, xxxviii, 1948, pl. vii, 1 and 35Google Scholar.

210 Africa Italiana, iv, 1931, 6970, figs. 49–1Google Scholar.

211 JRS, xxxviii, 1948, 72–3Google Scholar. Several sections of the frieze are executed in a hard, dry manner which is in striking contrast with that of the published fragments.

212 Africa Italiana, i, 1927, 6472, figs. 10–18Google Scholar; Squarciapino, pls. xxviii, xxix, and xxx a; JRS, xxxviii, 1948, 73–4Google Scholar, pls. vii, 2 and viii, 1–3.

213 JRS, xxxviii, 1948, pl. vii, 4Google Scholar.

214 Squarciapino, p. 88.

215 Boll. d'Arte, 1915–6, 554–70; for angle pilaster, see fig. 6.

216 For the Commodan restoration see R. Bartoccini, Le Terme di Lepcis, 1929, 79.

217 Photo: Soprintendenza ai Monumenti e Scavi, Tripoli.

218 Archeologia Classica, i, 1949, 86 ff.Google Scholar, based mainly on the physiognomic and psychological aspects of the Medusa and Victory reliefs found in association with the frieze fragments; see also JRS, xxxviii, 1948, pl. ix, 23Google Scholar. The heads are, as Caputo remarks, closer to those of the Tiberian agora at Aphrodisias (Monumenti Antichi, xxxviii, 1939, p. 160 ff.Google Scholar, pls. i–xl) than to the monster-like heads from the Hadrianic baths in that city or in the Severan forum at Lepcis (Squarciapino, pl. N). The fragments of two Flavian inscriptions found near the west gate do not belong to the arch, but come from some outlying monument demolished to provide material for the fourth-century walls.

219 Photos: Soprintendenza ai Monumenti e Scavi, Tripoli, B 1284.

220 Corò, F., Vestigia di colonie agricole romane: Gebel Nefusa (Collezione di opere e monografie a cura del Ministero delle Colonie, no. 9) Rome, 1928, 1213Google Scholar (mausoleum of Gsur el-Berber, 20 km. SE of Cabao); 30 (mausoleum of Tuil en-Nahla, near Cabao); 64 (mausoleum of Resciadet el-Tual, territory of Haraba).

221 Revue archéologique3 xxvi, 1895, 80–1, figs. 4–6Google Scholar; Bullettino del Museo dell'Impero Romano, xii, 1941, 68Google Scholar.

222 A. Ballu, Les Ruines de Timgad, 1897, 204, fig. 31; Ballu, A. and Cagnat, R., Musée de Timgad (Musées et collections archéologiques de l'Algérie et de la Tunisie, xii), 1903, 25, pl. vii, 1Google Scholar.

223 Ballu and Cagnat, op. cit., 24, pl. ix, 3.

224 S. Aurigemma, I mosaici di Zliten, 1925, pl. E (p. 211), figs. 131–145.

225 P. Wuilleumier, Musée d'Alger: supplement, 1928, 78, pl. xii, 3.

226 Inventaire des mosaïques de l'Afrique, ii, 1, no. 744 (pl.)Google Scholar.

227 Bardo Museum, Tunis. Africa Italiana, vi, 1935, 147, fig. 34Google Scholar.

228 Africa Italiana, v, 1933, 34Google Scholar, fig. 20; vi, 1935, 148, fig. 35.

229 Bardo Museum, Tunis. Gauckler, P., Monuments et Mémoires: Fondation Piot, iii, 1896, pl. xxiGoogle Scholar; Inventaire etc., ii, 1, no. 376 (pl.)Google Scholar.

230 Monuments et Mémoires: Fondation Piot, iii, 1896, 207, pl. xxGoogle Scholar.

231 Inventaire etc., iii, no. 435 (pl.).

232 Peirce and Tyler, ii, pls. cxv, cxvia, and cxviia. A detailed publication by R. Bartoccini is in preparation.

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