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FINDING COMMERCE: THE TABERNA AND THE IDENTIFICATION OF ROMAN COMMERCIAL SPACE

Abstract

Although commercial activity was one of the central features of Roman urban centres, the identification of commercial space in the archaeological record is not always straightforward. Identifications are routinely made through the application of Latin nomenclature to particular architectural typologies, almost inevitably leading to interpretations of space influenced by both textual and modern analogies, a practice which can be most clearly demonstrated by the so-called taberna. Using the taberna as a case-study, this paper explores the issues of Latin nomenclature and textual analogy; architectural typology and modern analogy; and material evidence and functional space, demonstrating the difficulties of identifying specific functions for so-called tabernae in the archaeological record. It argues that a much wider variety of spaces should be viewed as potentially commercial, since commerce — and especially retail — could take place almost anywhere, and suggests ways in which we could use the ancient evidence to look for commerce beyond the taberna, demonstrating the commercial potential of streets, porticoes, arcades, open spaces, and even private houses, since the separation of commercial and domestic activities in the ancient world was minimal.

Sebbene l'attività commerciale possa essere considerata una delle caratteristiche centrali delle città romane, l'identificazione dello spazio commerciale nel record archeologico non è sempre semplice. Essa è frutto generalmente dell'applicazione della terminologia latina a particolari tipologie architettoniche, il che porta inevitabilmente a interpretazioni influenzate da analogie sia testuali sia moderne, come chiaramente dimostrato dal caso della cosiddetta taberna. Utilizzando la taberna come caso studio, il presente articolo esplora le questioni della terminologia latina e dell'analogia testuale, della tipologia architettonica e dell'analogia moderna, dell'evidenza materiale e dello spazio funzionale, dimostrando le difficoltà di identificare specifiche funzioni nel record archeologico per le cosiddette tabernae. Si sostiene inoltre che una maggiore gamma di spazi dovrebbe essere considerata come potenzialmente commerciale, dal momento che il commercio — specialmente quello di dettaglio — poteva avere luogo quasi ovunque. Si suggeriscono così modi in cui si potrebbe usare l'evidenza antica per indagare la categoria del commercio al di fuori della taberna, dimostrando il potenziale commerciale delle strade, dei portici, degli spazi aperti e persino delle case private, dal momento che nel mondo antico la distinzione tra attività commerciali e domestiche era minima.

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Address for correspondence: Dr Claire Holleran Department of Classics and Ancient History, University of Exeter, Amory Building, Rennes Drive, Exeter EX4 4RJ, United Kingdom c.holleran@exeter.ac.uk
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1

I would like to thank Penelope Allison, Jennifer Baird, Phil Freeman, Fred Jones, Beth Munro, John Pearce and two anonymous reviewers, who read and commented on earlier drafts of this paper. Any errors of fact or interpretation that remain are my own responsibility.

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