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Cryptic species and their utilization of indigenous and non-indigenous intermediate hosts in the acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus sensu lato (Polymorphidae)

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 February 2018

Maike Zittel
Affiliation:
Department of Ecology and Parasitology, Zoological Institute, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Kornblumenstr. 13, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
Daniel Grabner*
Affiliation:
Aquatic Ecology and Centre for Water and Environmental Research, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitätsstr. 5, 45141 Essen, Germany
Andre Wlecklik
Affiliation:
Aquatic Ecosystem Research Group and Centre for Water and Environmental Research, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitätsstr. 5, 45141 Essen, Germany
Bernd Sures
Affiliation:
Aquatic Ecology and Centre for Water and Environmental Research, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitätsstr. 5, 45141 Essen, Germany Department of Zoology, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park 2006, Johannesburg, South Africa
Florian Leese
Affiliation:
Aquatic Ecosystem Research Group and Centre for Water and Environmental Research, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitätsstr. 5, 45141 Essen, Germany
Horst Taraschewski
Affiliation:
Department of Ecology and Parasitology, Zoological Institute, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Kornblumenstr. 13, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
Alexander Martin Weigand
Affiliation:
Aquatic Ecosystem Research Group and Centre for Water and Environmental Research, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitätsstr. 5, 45141 Essen, Germany Musée National d'Histoire Naturelle, 25 Rue Münster, 2160 Luxembourg, Luxembourg
*
Author for correspondence: Daniel Grabner, E-mail: daniel.grabner@uni-due.de

Abstract

The bird-infecting acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus has been suggested to comprise different lineages or even cryptic species using different intermediate hosts. To clarify this open question, we investigated Polymorphus cf. minutus cystacanths originating from amphipod intermediate hosts from 27 sites in Germany and France. Parasites and hosts were identified using integrated datasets (COI and/or morphology for hosts and COI + ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 for parasites).

Mitochondrial and nuclear data (ITS1) strongly support the existence of three cryptic species in Polymorphus cf. minutus (type 1-3). These three types reveal a high degree of intermediate host specificity, with Polymorphus type 1 only encountered in Gammarus fossarum type B, Polymorphus type 2 in Echinogammarus sp. and Echinogammarus berilloni, and Polymorphus type 3 in Gammarus pulex and Gammarus roeselii. Our results point to a so far neglected cryptic diversity of the genus Polymorphus in Central Europe. Furthermore, Polymorphus type 2 is most likely a non-native parasite in Germany that co-invaded with E. berilloni from the Mediterranean area. Potentially, type 3 originates from South-East Europe and migrated to Germany by G. roeselii, where it might have captured G. pulex as an intermediate host. Therefore, our findings can be seen in the context of ecological globalization in terms of the anthropogenic displacement of intermediate hosts and its impact on the genetic divergence of the parasites.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2018 

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Footnotes

*

Shared first authorship.

Shared senior authorship.

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Cryptic species and their utilization of indigenous and non-indigenous intermediate hosts in the acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus sensu lato (Polymorphidae)
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Cryptic species and their utilization of indigenous and non-indigenous intermediate hosts in the acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus sensu lato (Polymorphidae)
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