Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-59b7f5684b-npccv Total loading time: 0.749 Render date: 2022-09-25T22:29:35.038Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Article contents

Integrated control of ticks and tick-borne diseases of cattle in Africa

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  06 April 2009

A. S. Young
Affiliation:
Protozoology Division, Veterinary Research Department, Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Muguga, P.O. Box 32, Kikuyu, Kenya
C. M. Groocock
Affiliation:
Protozoology Division, Veterinary Research Department, Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Muguga, P.O. Box 32, Kikuyu, Kenya
D. P. Kariuki
Affiliation:
Protozoology Division, Veterinary Research Department, Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Muguga, P.O. Box 32, Kikuyu, Kenya

Summary

The problems caused by tick and tick-borne diseases for livestock particularly cattle on the African continent are described and discussed. The control of ticks and tick-borne diseases must receive high priority in Africa with regard to both research and control application because of their widespread distribution in areas of high livestock potential and productivity. The conventional methods of tick and tick-borne disease control are discussed and are found to be inadequate in the conditions prevailing in Africa. Methods of integrated control are suggested and discussed in light of recent development in control methods and those still under development. Any one of these methods may not be adequate to control the problem on its own but when several of the methods are combined an economic and robust integrated control is likely to result. Encouragement is given to attempt this approach in Africa to solve what must be the largest animal health problem of livestock remaining in the world.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1988

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

REFERENCES

Ahrens, E. H. & Cocke, J. (1978). Comparative tests with insecticide impregnated ear tags against the Gulf Coast tick. Journal of Economic Entomology 71, 764–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ahrens, E. H., Gladney, W. J., McWhorter, G. M. & Deer, J. A. (1977). Prevention of screw worm infestation in cattle by controlling Gulf Coast ticks with slow release devices. Journal of Economic Entomology 72, 215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aliu, Y. O. (1980). Chemoimmunization of ruminants against Babesia, Anaplasma, Theileria and Cowdria species. Veterinary Research Communications 4, 99106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Allsopp, B. A., Gibson, W. C. & Stagg, D. A. (1985). Characterization of some East African Theileria species isolated by isoenzyme analysis with particular reference to T. parva. International Journal for Parasitology 15, 272–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anon. (1910). Annual Report Chief Veterinary Officer, Annual Report Veterinary Pathologist. In Department of Agriculture, British East Africa, Annual Report 19091910.Google Scholar
Anon. (1912). Annual Report of the Veterinary Pathologist, East African Protectorate, 19101911.Google Scholar
Anon. (1913). Annual Report of the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory, Nairobi, 1911–1912. In Department of Agriculture, British East African Annual Report 19111913.Google Scholar
Anon. (1935–1939). Kenya: Department of Agriculture and Veterinary Services. In Annual Report 19341938, Management of Insects, Ticks and Mites.Google Scholar
Anon. (1979). Integrated pest affecting livestock and poultry. In Proceedings of a Workshop on Livestock Pest Management, p. 322. Manhattan: Kansas State University.Google Scholar
Anon. (1981). The eradication of East Coast fever in South Africa. Journal of the South Africa Veterinary Association 52, 71–3.Google Scholar
Barnett, S. F. (1961). The Control of Ticks on Livestock, Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
Barnett, S. F. (1965). The chemotherapy of Babesia bigemina infection in cattle. Research in Veterinary Science 6, 397415.Google ScholarPubMed
Barnett, S. F. (1968). Theileriosis. In Infectious Blood Diseases of Man and Animals (ed. Weinman, D. and Ristic, M.), Vol. 2, pp. 269328. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Barnett, S. F. & Brocklesby, D. W. (1966). The passage of Theileria lawrencei (Kenya) through cattle. British Veterinary Journal 122, 396406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bezuidenhout, J. D. (1981). The development of a new Heartwater vaccine using Amblyomma haebraeum nymphae infected with Cowdria ruminatium. In Tick Biology and Control (ed. Whitehead, G. B. and Gibson, J. D.), pp. 41–6. Grahamstown: Tick Research Unit, Rhodes University.Google Scholar
Binnington, K. C., Young, A. S. & Obenchain, F. D. (1983). Morphology of normal and Theileria – infected salivary glands of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Acari: Ixodoidea). Journal of Parasitology 69, 421–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bonsma, J. C. (1981). Breeding tick-repellant cattle. In Tick Biology and Control (ed. Whitehead, G. B. and Gibson, J. D.), pp. 6778. Grahamstown: Tick Research Unit, Rhodes University.Google Scholar
Branagan, D. (1970). The development and survival of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann 1901 in laboratory and field. Ph.D. thesis, Edinburgh University.Google Scholar
Brocklesby, D. W. (1962). Cytauxzoon taurotragi Martin and Brocklesby, 1960. A piroplasm of eland (Taurotragus orynx pattersonianus Lydekker, 1906). Research in Veterinary Science 3, 334–44.Google Scholar
Brocklesby, D. W. (1964). Parasites of the family Theileridae of the African buffalo occurring in East Africa. D.V.M. thesis, University of Zurich.Google Scholar
Brocklesby, D. W. & Bailey, K. P. (1965). The immunization of cattle against East Coast fever (Theileria parva infection) using tetracyclines. A review of the literature and a reappraisal of the method. Bulletin of Epizootic Disease of Africa 13, 161–8.Google Scholar
Brown, C. G. D. (1979). Progation of Theileria. In Practical Tissue Culture Applications (ed. Moramorosch, K. and Hurumi, H.), pp. 223–54. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Brown, C. G. D. & Berger, J. (1970). Chemotherapy of experimental Babesia bigemina infections with imidocarb dihydrochloride. Tropical Animal Health and Production 2, 196203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, C. G. D., Stagg, D. A., Purnell, R. E., Kanhai, G. K. & Payne, R. C. (1973). Infection and transformation of bovine lymphoid cells in vitro by infective particles of Theileria parva. Nature, London 245, 101–3.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burridge, M. J., Morzaria, S. P., Cunningham, M. P. & Brown, C. G. D. (1972). Duration of immunity to East Coast fever (Theileria parva infection of cattle). Parasitology 64, 511–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Byford, R. L., Riner, J. L., Kocan, K. M., Strattom, L. G. & Hair, J. A. (1981). Chemoprophylaxis of vector-borne anaplasmosis with sustained release boluses. American Journal of Veterinary Research 42, 2088–9.Google ScholarPubMed
Callow, L. L. (1977). Vaccination against bovine babesiosis. In Immunity to Blood Parasites of Animals and Man (ed. Miller, L. H., Pino, J. A. and McKelvey, J. J. Jr), pp. 121–49. Plenum Press: New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Callow, L. L. & McGregor, W. (1970). The effect of imidocarb against Babesia argentina and Babesia bigemina infections of cattle. Australian Veterinary Journal 46, 195200.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carson, C. A., Sells, D. M. & Ristic, M. (1976). Cell mediated immunity in bovine anaplasmosis and correlation with protection induced by vaccination: a review. Veterinary Parasitology 2, 7581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cheira, J. W., Newson, R. M. & Cunningham, M. P. (1985). Cummulative effect of host resistance on Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann (Acarini, Ixodidae) in the laboratory. Parasitology 90, 401–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chema, S. (1984). Evaluation of new acaricides in Kenya and views on selection for acaricide resistance in past and future. In Report of the third FAO Expert Consultation on Research on Tick-borne Diseases and their Vectors, p. 29. Rome, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
Chema, S., Chumo, R. S., Dolan, T. T., Gathuma, J. M., James, A. D., Irvin, A. D. & Young, A. S. (1987). Clinical trials of Halofuginone lactate for the treatment of East Coast fever in Kenya. Veterinary Record 120, 575–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chema, S., Waghela, S., James, A. D., Dolan, T. T., Young, A. S., Masiga, W. N., Irvin, A. D., Mulela, G. H. M. & Wekesa, L. S. (1986). Clinical trial of parvaquone for the treatment of East Coast fever in Kenya. Veterinary Record 118, 588–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Conrad, P. A. (1985). Use of monoclonal antibodies and DNA probes for Theileria strain/species characterization. In Parasite Antigens p. 42. Nairobi: ILRAD.Google Scholar
Conrad, P. A., Stagg, D. A., Grootenhuis, J. G., Irvin, A. D., Newson, J., Njamunggeh, R. E. G., Rossiter, P. B. & Young, A. S. (1987). Isolation of Theileria parasites from African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and characterization with anti-schizont monoclonal antibodies. Parasitology 94, 413–23.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cunningham, M. P. (1977). Immunization of cattle against Theileria parva. In Immunity to Blood Parasites of Animals and Man (ed. Miller, L. H., Pino, J. A. and McKelvey, J. J. Jr), pp. 189207. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cunningham, M. P. (1981). Biological control of ticks with particular reference to Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. In Advances in the Control of Theileriosis (ed. Irvin, A. D., Cunningham, M. P. and Young, A. S.), pp. 160–4, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cunningham, M. P., Brown, C. G. D., Burridge, M. J. & Purnell, R. E. (1973). Cryopreservation of infective particles of Theileria parva. International Journal for Parasitology 3, 583–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cunningham, M. P., Brown, C. G. D., Burridge, M. J., Musoke, A. J., Purnell, R. E. & Dargie, J. D. (1973). East Coast fever: Co60 irradiation of infective particles of Theileria parva. Journal of Protozoology 20, 298300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cunningham, M. P., Brown, C. G. D., Burridge, M. J., Musoke, A. J., Purnell, R. E., Radley, D. E. & Sempebwa, A. C. (1974 a). East Coast fever: titration in cattle of suspension of Theileria parva derived from ticks. British Veterinary Journal 130, 336–45.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cunningham, M. P., Brown, C. G. D., Burridge, M. J., Irvin, A. D., Kirimi, I. M., Purnell, R. E., Radley, D. E. & Wagner, G. G. (1974 b). Theileriosis: exposure of immunized cattle in a Theileria lawrencei enzootic area. Tropical Animal Health and Production 6, 3943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dallwitz, M. J., Young, A. S., Mahoney, D. F. & Sutherst, R. W. (1986). Comparative epidemiology of tick-borne disease with special emphasis on modelling. In Parasitology Quo Vadit (ed. Howell, M. J.), pp. 629–37. Canberra: Australian Academy of Science.Google Scholar
De Castro, J. J., Dransfield, R. D., Cunningham, M. P., Dolan, T. T., Newson, R. M. & Young, A. S. (1985 a). Effects on cattle of artificial infestation with the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Parasitology 90, 2133.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De Castro, J. J., Young, A. S., Dransfield, R. D., Cunningham, M. P. & Dolan, T. T. (1985 b). Effects of natural tick infestation on cattle immunized against Theileriosis in an endemic area of Kenya. Research in Veterinary Science 39, 279–88.Google Scholar
De Vos, A. J. & Roos, J. E. (1981). The isolation of Theileria taurotragi in South Africa. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 48, 149–53.Google ScholarPubMed
De Vos, A. J., Bessenger, R. & Banting, L. F. (1981). Theileria taurotragi: a probable agent of bovine cerebral theileriosis. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 48, 177–8.Google ScholarPubMed
Dolan, T. T. (1981). Progress in the chemotherapy of Theileriosis. In Advances on the Control of Theileriosis (ed. Irvin, A. D., Cunningham, M. P. and Young, A. S.), pp. 186208. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dolan, T. T. (1985 a). Choice of drug for infection and treatment immunization against East African Theileriosis. In Immunization of Cattle against Theileriosis in Africa (ed. Irvin, A. D.), pp. 100–3 Nairobi: ILRAD.Google Scholar
Dolan, T. T. (1985 b). Immunization of cattle against Theileriosis on 01 Pajeta Ranch, Laikipia, Kenya. In Immunization of Cattle against Theileriosis in Africa (ed. Irvin, A. D.), pp. 73–8, Nairobi: ILRAD.Google Scholar
Dolan, T. T. (1986). Chemotherapy of East Coast fever. The long term growth rate, carrier state and disease manifestations of parvaquone treated cattle. Journal of Comparative Pathology 96, 137–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dolan, T. T., Linyonyi, A., Mbogo, S. K. & Young, A. S. (1984 a). A comparison of long acting oxytetracycline and parvaquone for immunization against East Coast fever by infection and treatment. Research in Veterinary Science 37, 175–8.Google ScholarPubMed
Dolan, T. T. & Newson, R. M. (1980). Sweating sickness in adult cattle. Tropical Animal Health and Production 12, 119–24.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dolan, T. T., Teale, A. J., Stagg, D. A., Kemp, S. J., Cowan, K. M., Young, A. S., Groocock, C. M., Leitch, B. L., Spooner, R. L. & Brown, C. G. D. (1984 b). A histocompatibility barrier to immunization against East Coast fever using Theileria parva infected lymphoblastoid cell lines. Parasite Immunology 6, 243–50.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dolan, T. T. & Young, A. S. (1981). An approach to the economic assessment of East Coast fever in Kenya. In Advances in the Control of Theileriosis. (ed. Irvin, A. D., Cunningham, M. P. and Young, A. S.), pp. 412–15. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dolan, T. T., Young, A. S., Leitch, B. L. & Stagg, D. A. (1984 c). Chemotherapy of East Coast fever: Parvaquone treatment of clinical disease induced by isolates of Theileria parva. Veterinary Parasitology 15, 103–16.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dolan, T. T., Young, A. S., Losos, G. J., McMillan, I., Minder, C. E. & Soulsby, K. (1984 d). Dose dependent response of cattle to Theileria parva stabilate infection. International Journal for Parasitology 14, 8995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Du Plessis, J. L. (1981). The application of the indirect fluorescent antibody test to the serology of heartwater. In Tick Biology and Control (ed. Whitehead, G. B. and Gibson, J. D.), pp. 4752. Grahamstown: Rhodes University, Tick Research Unit.Google Scholar
Fao (1984 a). Ticks and Tick-borne Disease Control. A Practical Field Manual, Vols. 1 & 2. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
Fao (1984 b). Report of the Third FAO Expert Consultation on Research on Tick-borne Diseases and their Vectors. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
Fawcett, D. W., Doxsey, S., Stagg, D. A. & Young, A. S. (1982). The entry of sporozoites of Theileria parva into bovine lymphocytes in vitro. Electron microscopic observations. European Journal of Cell Biology 27, 1021.Google ScholarPubMed
Fawcett, D. W., Young, A. S. & Leitch, B. L. (1985). Sporogony in Theileria (Apicomplexa: Theileriidae). A comparative ultrastructural study. Journal of Submicroscopic Cytology 17, 192208.Google Scholar
Gilbert-Green, P. A. (1985). The Complete Practical Veterinary Handbook for Cattle Farmers, p. 149. Harare: Gilbert-Green.Google Scholar
Gill, B. S., Bhattacharyula, Y., Kaur, D. & Singh, A. (1978). Chemoprophylaxis with tetracycline drugs in the immunization against Theileria annulata infection. International Journal for Parasitology 8, 467–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gill, B. S., Bhattacharyula, Y., Kaur, D. & Singh, A. (1981). Immunization of cattle against Theileria annulata. A résumé of the work done at Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana. In Advances in the Control of Theileriosis (ed. Irvin, A. D., Cunningham, M. P. and Young, A. S.), pp. 259–61. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grootenhuis, J. G., Leitch, B. L., Stagg, D. A., Dolan, T. T. & Young, A. S. (1987 a). Experimental induction of Theileria parva lawrencei carrier state in an African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). Parasitology 94, 425–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grootenhuis, J. G., Morrison, W. I., Karstad, L., Sayer, P. D., Young, A. S., Murray, M. & Haller, R. D. (1980). Fatal theileriosis in eland (Taurotragus oryx). Pathology of natural and experimental cases. Research in Veterinary Science 29, 219–29.Google ScholarPubMed
Grootenhuis, J. G. & Young, A. S. (1981). The importance of wildlife in the epidemiology of theileriosis. In Wildlife Disease Research and Economic Development (ed. Karstad, L., Nestel, B. and Graham, M.), pp. 33–9. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.Google Scholar
Grootenhuis, J. G., Young, A. S., Dolan, T. T. & Stagg, D. A. (1979). Characteristics of Theileria species (eland) infections in eland and cattle. Research in Veterinary Science 27, 5968.Google ScholarPubMed
Grootenhuis, J. G., Young, A. S., Morzaria, S. P., Stagg, D. A. & Leitch, B. L. (1986). Experimental infections of African Buffalo with cloned Theileria parva lawrencei. In Parasitology Quo Vadit Handbook (ed. Howell, M. J.), p. 43. Canberra: Australia Academy of Science.Google Scholar
Grootenhuis, J. G., Young, A. S., Stagg, D. A., Leitch, B. L., Dolan, T. T. & Conrad, P. A. (1987 b). Infection of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and cattle with Theileria parva lawrencei after serial passage in cattle. Research in Veterinary Science 42, 326–30.Google ScholarPubMed
Henning, M. W. (1956). Animal Diseases in South Africa. 3rd edn. Capetown: Central News Agency Ltd.Google Scholar
Howell, C. J., De Vos, A. J., Bezuidenhout, J. D., Potgieter, F. T. & Barrowman, P. R. (1981). The role of chemical tick eradication in the control or prevention of tick transmitted diseases in cattle. In Tick Biology and Control (ed. Whitehead, G. B. and Gibson, J. D.), pp. 61–6. Grahamstown: Rhodes University.Google Scholar
Humke, R. (1985). Halofuginone: toxicology, kinetics efficacy. In Immunization Against Theileriosis in Africa (ed. Irvin, A. D.), p. 89. Nairobi: ILRAD.Google Scholar
Irvin, A. D. & Boarer, C. D. H. (1980). Some implications of a sexual cycle in Theileria. Parasitology 80, 571–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Irvin, A. D., Dobbelaere, D. A. E., Morzaria, S. P., Spooner, P. R., Dolan, T. T., Young, A. S. & Gettinby, G. (1987). East Coast fever: The significance of host age on infection or immunization of cattle with Theileria parva. Research in Veterinary Science (in the Press).Google Scholar
Irvin, A. D., Dobbelaere, D. A. E., Mwamachi, D. M., Mimani, T., Spooner, P. R. & Ocama, J. G. R. (1983). Immunization against East Coast fever. Correlation between monoclonal antibody profiles of Theileria parva stock and cross-immunity in vivo. Research in Veterinary Science 35, 341400.Google ScholarPubMed
Irvin, A. D., Ocama, J. G. R. & Spooner, P. R. (1982). Cycle of bovine lymphoblastoid cells parasitized by Theileria parva. Research in Veterinary Science 33, 298304.Google Scholar
Jarrett, W. F. H., Crighton, G. W. & Pirie, A. M. (1969 a). Theileria parva: Kinetics of replication. Experimental Parasitology 24, 925.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jarrett, W. F. H., Jennings, S., Martin, W. B., Urquhart, G. M., Nderito, P., Brocklesby, D. W. & Bailey, K. P. (1969 b). Transmission of East Coast fever using cells from infected animals. In Proceedings of the First International Congress of Parasitology Vol. 1 (ed. Coradetti, A.), pp. 105–6. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
Jezierski, A. G., Lambelin, G. & Lateur, L. (1959). Immunization des bovides contre l'East Coast fever (ECF), (Theileriose à Theileria parva.) Bulletin de l'Institut de Ineac 8, 121.Google Scholar
Johnston, L. A. Y., Kemp, D. H. & Pearson (1986). Immunization of cattle against Boophilus microplus using extracts derived from adult female tick: Effect of induced immunity on tick population. International Journal for Parasitology 16, 2734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaiser, M. N., Sutherst, R. W. & Bourne, A. S. (1982). Relationship between ticks and zebu cattle in southern Uganda. Tropical Animal Health and Production 14, 6374.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kariuki, D. P. & Mbogo, S. K. (1988). Efficacy of closantal against the brown ear tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa (in the Press).Google Scholar
Keating, M. I. (1983). Tick control by chemical ixodicides in Kenya: a review 1912 to 1981. Tropical Animal Health and Production 15, 16.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kikuth, W. (1935). Die Chemotherapie der Piroplasmosen. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie. Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, I Abt. Originale A, 135, 135–47.Google Scholar
Kuttler, K. (1988). Chemotherapy of babesiosis. In Babesiosis of Domestic Animals and Man (ed. Ristic, M.). Boca Raton: CRC press.Google Scholar
Laird, M. (1980). Biocontrol in veterinary entomology. Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine 24, 145–77.Google ScholarPubMed
Lancaster, J. L., Kilgoke, R. L. & Simco, J. S. (1982). Efficacy of low level daily dose of ivermectin in calves against three species of ticks. South Western Entomologist 7, 116–18.Google Scholar
Lawrence, J. A., Foggin, C. M. & Norval, R. A. I. (1980). The effect of war on the control of the diseases of livestock in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe). Veterinary Record 107, 82–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lawrence, J. A. & Norval, R. A. I. (1979). A history of ticks and tick-borne diseases of cattle in Rhodesia. Rhodesian Veterinary Journal 10, 2840.Google Scholar
Lawrence, J. A., Norval, R. A. I. & Uilenberg, G. (1983). Rhipicephalus zambeziensis as a vector of bovine Theileria. Tropical Animal Health and Production 15, 3942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Legg, J. (1936). The occurrence of bovine babesiellosis in northern Australia. Australia CSIRO pamphlet No. 56, pp. 148.Google Scholar
Levy, M. C. & Ristic, M. (1980). Babesia bovis: Continuous cultivation in a microaerophilous stationary phase culture. Science 207, 1218–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lincoln, S. D., Eckblad, W. P. & Magonigle, R. A. (1982). Bovine anaplasmosis: Clinical hematologie and serologic manifestations in cows given a long acting formulation of oxytetracycline in the prepatent period. American Journal of Veterinary Research 43, 1360–2.Google Scholar
McHardy, N. (1979). Experimental therapy of Theileriosis. Journal of the Southern African Veterinary Association 50, 321–2.Google ScholarPubMed
McHardy, N. (1984 a). Immunization against Anaplasmosis: A review. In Impact of Diseases on Livestock Production in the Tropics (ed. Riemann, H. P. & Burridge, M. J.), pp. 135–46. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
McHardy, N. (1984 b). Recent advances in the chemotherapy of Theileriosis. In Impact of Disease on Livestock Production in the Tropics, (ed. Riemann, H. P. and Burridge, M. J.), pp. 179–92. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
McHardy, N., Haigh, A. J. B. & Dolan, T. T. (1976). Chemotherapy of Theileria parva infection. Nature, London 261, 698–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McHardy, N. & Wekesa, L. S. (1985). Buparvaquone (720c), a new antitheilerial naphthoquinone; its role in the therapy and prophylaxis of Theileriosis. In Immunization against Theileriosis in Africa (ed. Irvin, A. D.), p. 88Nairobi: ILRAD.Google Scholar
McHardy, N., Wekesa, L. S., Hudson, A. T. & Randall, A. W. (1985). Antitheilerial activity of BW 720C (buparvaquone): a comparison with parvaquone. Research in Veterinary Science 39, 2933.Google ScholarPubMed
MacKenzie, P. & McHardy, N. (1984). The culture of Cowdria ruminatium in mice. Significance in respect of the epidemiology and control of Heartwater. In Impact of Disease on Livestock Production in the Tropics (ed. Riemann, H. P. and Burridge, M. J.), pp. 227–37. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
Mahoney, D. F. (1977). Babesia of domestic animals. In Parasitic Protozoa, Vol. 4 (ed. Kreier, J. P.), pp. 152. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Mahoney, D. F. (1983). Studies on the protection of cattle against Babesia bovis infection. In Tropical Parasitoses and Parasitic Zoonoses (ed. Dunsmore, J. D.), pp. 93104. Perth, Murdoch University.Google Scholar
Mahoney, D. F., Wright, I. G. & Goodger, B. V. (1984). Immunization against babesiosis: current studies and future outlook. In Impact of Disease on Livestock Production in the Tropics (ed. Riemann, H. P. and Burridge, M. J.), pp. 401–8. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Malmquist, W. A., Nyindo, M. B. A. & Brown, C. G. D. (1970). East Coast fever: Cultivation in vitro of bovine spleen cell lines infected and transformed by Theileria parva. Tropical Animal Health and Production 2, 139–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mathewson, M. D. (1984). The future of tick control: A review of the chemical and non-chemical options. In Impact of Disease on Livestock Production in the Tropics (ed. Riemann, H. P. and Burridge, M. J.), pp. 559–68. Amsterdam, Elsevier.Google Scholar
Mason, I. & Maule, J. P. (1960). The Indigenous Livestock of East and Central Africa, pp. 151. Farnham Royal, Commonwealth Agriculture Bureaux.Google Scholar
Miller, L. H., Pino, J. A. & McKelvey, J. J. Jr (1977). Immunity to Blood Parasites of Animals and Man. pp. 1132. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Minami, T., Spooner, P. R., Irvin, A. D. & Fujinaga, T. (1983). Characterization of stocks of Theileria parva by monoclonal antibody profiles. Research in Veterinary Science 35, 334–40.Google Scholar
Moll, G., Lohding, A. & Young, A. S. (1984). Epidemiology of Theileriosis in the Trans-Mara Division, Kenya. Husbandry and Disease Background and Preliminary Observations on Theileriosis in calves. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 2, 801–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moll, G., Lohding, A., Young, A. S. & Leitch, B. L. (1986). Epidemiology of Theileriosis in calves in an endemic area of Kenya. Veterinary Parasitology 19, 255–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morrison, W. I., Buscher, G., Emery, D. L., Nelson, R. T. & Murray, M. (1981). The kinetics of infection with Theileria parva in cattle and the relevance to the development of immunity. In Advances in the Control of Theileriosis (ed. Irvin, A. D., Cunningham, M. P. and Young, A. S.), pp. 311–26. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morrison, W. I. & Musoke, A. J. (1985). Alternative approaches to immunization against East Coast fever. In Immunization against Theileriosis in Africa (ed. Irvin, A. D.), pp. 97–9. Nairobi: ILRAD.Google Scholar
Morzaria, S. P., Irvin, A. D., Taracha, E. & Spooner, P. R. (1985). East Coast fever immunization trials in the Coast Province of Kenya. In Immunization against Theileriosis in Africa (ed. Irvin, A. D.), pp. 76–8. Nairobi: ILRAD.Google Scholar
Morzaria, S. P., Young, A. S. & Hudson, E. B. (1977). Babesia bigemina in Kenya: experimental transmission by Boophilus decoloratus and production of tick-derived stabilates. Parasitology 74, 291–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Murray, M. & Gray, A. R. (1984). The current situation on animal Trypanosomiasis in Africa. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 2, 2330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mutugi, J. J., Young, A. S., Maritim, A. C., Ndungu, S. G., Stagg, D. A., Grootenhuis, J. C. & Leitch, B. L. (1988 a). Immunization of cattle against Theileriosis using various doses of Theileria parva parva and Theileria parva lawrencei sporozoites and oxytetracycline treatment. International Journal for Parasitology (in the Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mutugi, J. J., Young, A. S., Maritim, A. C., Linyonyi, A., Mbogo, S. K. & Leitch, B. L. (1988 b). Immunization of cattle using varying infective doses of Theileria parva lawrencei sporozoites derived from an African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and treatment with buparvaquone. Parasitology 96, 391402.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Neitz, W. O. (1953). Aureomycin in Theileria parva infection. Nature, London 171, 34–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Neitz, W. O. (1957). Theileriosis, gonderioses and cytauxzooneses. A review. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 27, 275430.Google Scholar
Neitz, W. O. & Alexander, R. A. (1945). The immunization of cattle against Heartwater and the control of tick borne diseases, red water, gall sickness and heartwater. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Science 20, 137–58.Google Scholar
Newson, R. M., Chiera, J. W., Young, A. S., Dolan, T. T., Cunningham, M. P. & Radley, D. E. (1984). Survival of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Acarina: Ixodidae) and persistence of Theileria parva (Apicomplexa: Theileriidae) in the field. International Journal for Parasitology 14, 483–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nolan, J. (1981). Current developments in resistance to amidine and pyrethroid tickicide in Australia. In Tick Biology and Control, (ed. Whitehead, G. B. and Gibson, J. D.), pp. 109–14. Grahamstown, Tick Research Unit, Rhodes University.Google Scholar
Nolan, J., Schnitzerling, H. J. & Bird, P. (1981). Evaluation of potential of systemic slow release chemical treatments for the control of cattle tick (Boophilus microplus) using ivermectin. Australian Veterinary Journal 57, 493–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Norval, R. A. I. & Lightfoot, C. J. (1982). Tick problems in wildlife in Zimbabwe. Factors influencing the occurrence and abundance of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal 13, 1120.Google Scholar
Paling, R. W., Grootenhuis, J. G. & Young, A. S. (1981). Isolation of Theileria mutans from Kenya buffalo and the transmission by Ambyomma gemma. Veterinary Parasitology 8, 31–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Palmer, G. H., Barbet, A. F., Davis, W. C. & McGuire, T. C. (1986). Immunization with an isolate common surface protein protects cattle against Anaplasmosis. Science 231, 1299–302.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Palmer, G. H., Kocan, K. M., Barron, S. J., Hair, J. A., Barbet, A. F., Davis, W. C. & McGuire, T. C. (1985). Presence of common antigens, including major surface epitopes, between the cattle (intraerythrocytic) and tick stages of Anaplasma marginale. Infection and Immunity 50, 881–6.Google ScholarPubMed
Pipano, E. (1981). Schizont and tick stages in immunization against Theileria annulata infection. In Advances in the Control of Theileriosis (ed. Irvin, A. D., Cunningham, M. P. and Young, A. S.), pp. 242–52. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Potgieter, F. T. (1979). Epidemiology and control of Anaplasmosis in South Africa. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 50, 367–72.Google ScholarPubMed
Purnell, R. E. (1984). Control of Heartwater in cattle in Southern Airica using Terramycin/LA. In Impact of Diseases on Livestock Production in the Tropics (ed. Riemann, H. P. and Burridge, M. J.), pp. 239–54. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
Radley, D. E. (1978). Immunization against East Coast fever by chemoprophylaxis. FAO Technical Report 1 AG: DP/RAF/61/077, Rome, FAO.Google Scholar
Radley, D. E. (1981). Infection and treatment method of immunization. In Advances in the Control of Theileriosis (ed. Irvin, A. D., M.P., Cunningham and A.S., Young), pp. 227–37. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Radley, D. E., Brown, C. G. D., Burridge, M. J., Cunningham, M. P., Peirce, M. A. & Purnell, R. E. (1974). East Coast fever: Quantitative studies of Theileria parva in cattle. Experimental Parasitology 36, 278–87.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Radley, D. E., Young, A. S., Grootenhuis, J. G., Cunningham, M. P., Dolan, T. T. & Morzaria, S. P. (1979). Further studies on immunization of cattle against Theileria lawrencei by infection and chemoprophylaxis. Veterinary Parasitology 5, 117–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ristic, M. (1977). Bovine anaplasmosis. In Parasitic Protozoa, Vol. 4 (ed. Kreier, J. P.), pp. 235–49. New York: Academic Press Inc.Google Scholar
Robson, J., Yeoman, G. H. & Ross, J. P. J. (1961). Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and East Coast fever in Tanganyika. East Africa Medical Journal 38, 206–14.Google Scholar
Schein, E. & Voigt, W. P. (1979). Chemotherapy of bovine theileriosis with halofuginone. Acta Tropica 36, 391–4.Google ScholarPubMed
Schein, E., Warnecke, N. & Kirmse, P. (1977). Development of Theileria parva (Theiler, 1904) in the gut of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Newmann, 1901). Parasitology 75, 309–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seifert, G. W. (1984). Selection of beef cattle in Northern Australia for resistance to cattle tick (Boophilus microplus): research and application. In Impact of Diseases on Livestock Production in the Tropics (ed. Riemann, H. P. and Burridge, M. J.), pp. 553–9. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
Sergent, E., Parrot, L. & Lestoquard, F. (1945). Etudes sur les Piroplasmoses Bovine, (p. 1816. Institute Pasteur d'Algerie.Google Scholar
Simpson, R. M. & Wiley, A. J. (1951). Annual Report, Veterinary Department, Nairobi, Kenya, 1949, pp. 23–7.Google Scholar
Shortt, N. J. & Norval, R. A. I. (1981). Regulation of seasonal occurrence in the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Tropical Animal Health and Production 13, 1926.Google Scholar
Smith, R. O., James, M. A. & Ristic, M. (1981). Bovine babesiosis: protection of cattle with culture derived soluble Babesia bovis antigen. Science 212, 335–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spickett, A. M. (1978). Genetic incompatibility between Boophilus decoloratus (Koch 1844) and Boophilus microplus (Castrini, 1888) and hybrid sterility of Australian and Southern African Boophilus microplus(Acarina: Ixodidae). Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 45, 149–53.Google Scholar
Spreull, J. (1914). East Coast fever inoculations in the Trakeian territories South Africa. Journal of Comparative Pathology and Therapeutics 27, 229304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stagg, D. A., Dolan, T. T., Leitch, B. L. & Young, A. S. (1981). The initial stages of infection of cattle cells with Theileria parva sporozoites in vitro. Parasitology 83, 191–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stagg, D. A., Young, A. S., Leitch, B. L. & Dolan, T. T. (1983). Infection of mammalian cells with Theileria species. Parasitology 86, 243–54.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stutterheim, C. J. & Stutterheim, I. M. (1980). Evidence of an increase in red-billed Oxpecker populations in the Kruger National Park. South African Journal of Zoology 15, 284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stobbs, T. H. (1966). The introduction of Boran cattle into an ECF endemic area. East African Agriculture and Forestry Journal 31, 298304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sutherst, R. W. (1983). Management of arthropod parasitism in livestock. In Tropical Parasitoses and Parasitic Zoonoses (ed. Dunsmore, J. P.), pp. 4156. Perth, Murdoch University.Google Scholar
Sutherst, R. W., Jones, R. J. & Schnitzerling, H. J. (1982). Tropical legumes of the genus Stylosanthes immobilize and kill cattle ticks. Nature, London 295, 320–1.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sutton, G. D. (1960). Reactions to Heartwater immunization shown by cattle. Journal of the South African Veterinary Medical Association 31, 285–8.Google Scholar
Tatchell, R. J., Chimwani, D., Chirchir, S. J., Ong'are, J. O., Mwangi, E., Rinkanya, F. & Whittington, D. (1986). A study of the justification for intensive tick control in Kenyan rangelands. Veterinary Record 199, 401–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taylor, R. J. & Plumb, I. R. (1981). The effect of natural tick infestation on various blood components and live mass in the bovine in South Africa. In Tick Biology and Control (ed. Whitehead, G. B. and Gibson, J. D.), pp. 21–8. Grahamstown, Tick Research Unit, Rhodes University.Google Scholar
Theiler, A. (1906). Piroplasma mutans (n.spec.) of South African cattle. Journal of Comparative Pathology and Therapeutics 19, 292300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Theiler, A. (1912). Das Trypan blau und Trypan rot in der Behandlung der Piroplasmosen und deren praktische und theoretische Bedeutung. Zeitschrift für Infections Krankheiten, Parasitäre Krankheiten und Hygiene der Haustiere 11, 305–20.Google Scholar
Thompson, J. W. (1985). Theileriosis in Zimbabwe. In Immunization against Theileriosis in Africa, (ed. Irvin, A. D.), pp. 4857. Nairobi: ILRAD.Google Scholar
Thompson, G. S., Osborn, R. L., Davey, R. B., Drummond, R. O. & Price, M. A. (1981). Hybrid sterility in cattle ticks (Acari. Ixodidae). Experimentio 37, 127–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Todorovic, R. A. (1984). Recent advances in research on babesiosis. In Impact of Diseases on Livestock Production in the Tropics (ed. Riemann, H. P. and Burridge, M. J.), pp. 409–10. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
Todorovic, R. A., Lopez, L. A., Lopez, A. G. & Gonzalez, E. F. (1975). Bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. Control by premunition and chemoprophylaxis. Experimental Parasitology 37, 92104.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Todorovic, R. A., Vizcaino, O. G., Gonzalez, E. F. & Adams, L. G. (1973). Chemoprophylaxis (imidocarb) against Babesia bigemina and Babesia argentina infections. American Journal of Veterinary Research 34, 1153–61.Google ScholarPubMed
Tsur-Tchernomoretz, I. (1945). Multiplication in vitro of Koch bodies of Theileria annulata. Nature, London 156, 391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Uilenberg, G. (1964). Haematoxenus veliferus n.g. n.sp., parasite incertae sedis du sang de bovins a Madagascar. Revue d'Elevage et de Medicine Veterinaire des Pays Tropicaux 17, 655–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Uilenberg, G. (1976). Tick-borne livestock diseases and their vectors 2. Epizootiology of tick-borne disease. World Animal Review 17, 815.Google Scholar
Uilenberg, G. (1981). Theilerial species of domestic livestock In Advances in the Control of Theileriosis (ed. Irvin, A. D., Cunningham, M. P. and Young, A. S.), pp. 437. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Uilenberg, G. (1983). Heartwater (Cowdria ruminatium infection): current status. Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine 27, 427–80.Google Scholar
Uilenberg, G. (1985). Possible impact of other tick-borne diseases following East Coast fever immunization. In Immunization against Theileriosis in Africa (ed. Irvin, A. D.), pp. 118–22. Nairobi: ILRAD.Google Scholar
Uilenberg, G., Jongejan, F., Perie, N. M. & Franssen, F. K. J. (1980). Chimiotherapie des theileriosis bovine par un anticoccidien, 1 halofuginone. Revue d'Elevage et de Medicine Veterinaire de pays Tropicaux 33, 3343.Google Scholar
Uilenberg, G. & Niewold, T. A. (1981). Amblyomma astrion Donitz, 1909 (Ixodidae): nouveau vector experimental de la cowdrioses. Revue d'Elevage et de Médicine Vétérinaire des pays Tropicaux 34, 267–70.Google Scholar
Uilenberg, G., Perie, N. M., Spanjer, A. A. M. & Franssen, F. F. J. (1985). Theileria orientalis, a cosmopolitan blood parasite of cattle – demonstration of the schizont stage. Research in Veterinary Science 38, 352–60.Google ScholarPubMed
Uilenberg, G., Silayo, R. S., Mpangala, C., Tondeur, W., Tatchell, R. J. & Sanga, H. J. N. (1977). Studies on Theileriidae (Sporozoa) in Tanzania X. A large scale field trial on immunization against cattle theileriosis. Tropenmedizin und Parasitologie 28, 499506.Google Scholar
Uilenberg, G., Robson, J. & Pedersen, V. (1974). Some experiments on the transmission of Theileria mutans (Theiler, 1906) and Theileria parva (Theiler, 1904) by the ticks Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricus, 1794) and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann 1901, in Uganda. Tropenmedizin und Parasitologie 27, 323–8.Google Scholar
Walker, J. B. (1974). The Ixodid Ticks of Kenya. London: Commonwealth Institute of Entomology.Google Scholar
Walker, J. & Whitworth, S. H. (1930). Artificial immunization and immunity in relationship to the control of East Coast fever. Proceedings of the Pan African Agriculture and Veterinary Conference, Pretoria, August 117, 1929, pp. 158–71.Google Scholar
Wilson, A. J., Parker, R. & Trueman, K. P. (1980). Experimental immunization of calves against Anaplasma marginale infection. Veterinary Parasitology 7, 305–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wikel, S. K. (1982). Immune responses to arthropods and their products. Annual Review of Entomology 27, 2148.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wikel, S. K. (1983). Host immunity to tick bite. In Current Topics in Vector Research, vol. 1 (ed. Harris, K. F.), pp. 120–56. New York: Praeger Publishers.Google Scholar
Willensden, P. (1980). Immunity to ticks. Advances in Parasitology 18, 293313.Google Scholar
Yeoman, G. H. (1956). The Occurrence of East Coast Fever (bovine Theileria parva infection) in Tanganyika and its Large-scale Control by Dipping, p. 6. Dar-es-Salaam: Government printers.Google Scholar
Yeoman, G. H. & Walker, J. B. (1967). The Ixodid Ticks of Tanzania. London: Commonwealth Institute of Entomology.Google Scholar
Young, A. S. (1981). The epidemiology of Theileriosis in East Africa. In Advances on the Control of Theileriosis (ed. Irvin, A. D., Cunningham, M. P. and Young, A. S.), pp. 3855. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Young, A. S. (1985). Immunization of cattle against theileriosis in the Trans-Mara Division of Kenya. A comparison of trials on a ranch development and under traditional Maasai Management. In Immunization against Theileriosis in Africa (ed. Irvin, A. D.), pp. 64–8. Nairobi: ILRAD.Google Scholar
Young, A. S. (1988 a). Epidemiology of Babesiosis. In Babesiosis of Domestic Animals and Man (ed. Ristic, M.). Boca-Raton CRC press (in the Press).Google Scholar
Young, A. S. (1987). Anaplasmosis. Kenya Veterinarian 10, 1112.Google Scholar
Young, A. S., Branagan, D., Brown, C. G. D., Burridge, M. J., Cunningham, M. P. & Purnell, R. E. (1973 a). Preliminary observations on Theileria species pathogenic to cattle isolated from buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Tanzania. British Veterinary Journal 129, 382–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Young, A. S., Brown, C. G. D., Burridge, M. J., Cunningham, M. P., Kirimi, I. M. & Irvin, A. D. (1973 b). Observations on cross-immunity between Theileria lawrencei (Serengeti) and Theileria parva (Muguga) in cattle. International Journal for Parasitology 3, 723–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Young, A. S., Brown, C. G. D., Burridge, M. J., Grootenhuis, J. G., Kanhai, G. K., Purnell, R. E. & Stagg, D. A. (1978 a). The incidence of theilerial parasites in East Africa buffalo (Syncerus caffer). Tropenmedizin und Parasitologie 29, 281–8.Google Scholar
Young, A. S., Brown, C. G. D., Cunningham, M. P. & Radley, D. E. (1978 b). Evaluation of method of immunizing cattle against Theileria lawrencei. In Tick-borne Diseases and their vectors (ed. Wilde, J. K. H.), pp. 293–6. University of Edinburgh, Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine.Google Scholar
Young, A. S., Burridge, M. J. & Payne, R. C. (1977 c). Transmission of a Theileria species to cattle by the ixodid tick Amblyomma cohaerens Donitz 1909. Tropical Animal Health and Production 9, 3745.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Young, A. S., De Castro, J. J., Burns, C. & Murphy, D. L. (1985 a). Potential of ear tags impregnated with acaricide for the control of the brown ear tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus infesting cattle. Parasitology 90, 391–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Young, A. S., De Castro, J. J. & Kiza-Aura, P. P. (1985 b). Control of African ticks by application of acaricide impregnated ear tags to cattle. Bulletin of Entomological Research 75, 609–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Young, A. S., Dolan, T. T., Moll, G., Lohding, A., Leitch, B. L., Grootenhuis, J. G., Groocock, C. M. & De Castro, J. J. (1988 a). Immunization of introduced cattle against theileriosis in an endemic area of Kenya. Infection and treatment of Boran (Bos indicus) cattle using parvaquone. Preventive Veterinary Medicine (in the Press).Google Scholar
Young, A. S. & Grootenhuis, J. G. (1985). Influence of wildlife on immunization of cattle against theileriosis in East Africa. In Immunization against theileriosis in Africa (ed. Irvin, A. D.), pp. 104–9. Nairobi: ILRAD.Google Scholar
Young, A. S., Grootenhuis, J. G., Kimber, C. D., Kanhai, G. K. & Stagg, D. A. (1977 a). Isolation of a Theileria from eland (Taurotragus oryx) infective for cattle. Tropenmedizin und Parasitologic 18, 185–94.Google Scholar
Young, A. S., Grootenhuis, J. G., Leitch, B. L. & Schein, E. (1980). The development of Theileria = Cytauxzoon taurotragi (Martin & Brocklesby, 1960) from eland in its tick vector Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Parasitology 81, 129–44.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Young, A. S. & Leitch, B. L. (1982). Epidemiology of East Coast fever: some effects of temperature on the development of Theileria parva in the tick vector, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Parasitology 83, 199211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Young, A. S., Leitch, B. L., Dolan, T. T., Newson, R. M., Ngumi, P. N. & Omwoyo, P. L. (1983 a). Transmission of Theileria parva by a population of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus under simulated natural conditions. Parasitology 86, 255–67.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Young, A. S., Leitch, B. L., Grootenhuis, J. G., Dolan, T. T., Mbogo, S. K., Ndungu, S. G. & De Castro, J. J. (1988 b). Immunization of introduced cattle against Theileriosis in an endemic area of Kenya. Evaluation of infection and treatment methods using Sahiwal/Friesian cross cattle (Bos taurus/B. indicus). Veterinary Parasitology (in the Press).Google Scholar
Young, A. S., Leitch, B. L., Morzaria, S. P., Irvin, A. D., Omwoyo, P. L. & De Castro, J. J. (1987 d). Development and survival of Theileria parva parva in Rhipicephalus appendiculatus exposed in the Trans-Mara, Kenya. Parasitology 94, 433–41.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Young, A. S., Leitch, B. L. & Mutugi, J. J. (1984). Some factors controlling the stimulation of sporogony of Theileria parva in the tick vector. International Journal for Parasitology 14, 97102.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Young, A. S., Leitch, B. L. & Newson, R. M. (1981). The occurrence of Theileria parva carrier state in cattle from an East Coast fever endemic area of Kenya. In Advances on Control of Theileriosis (ed. Irvin, A. D., Cunningham, M. P. and Young, A. S.), pp. 60–2. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Young, A. S., Leitch, B. L., Newson, R. M. & Cunningham, M. P. (1986). Maintenance of Theileria parva parva infection in an endemic area of Kenya. Parasitology 93, 916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Young, A. S., Leitch, B. L. & Omwoyo, P. L. (1979). Induction of infective stages of Theileria parva by exposure of host ticks to high temperature. Veterinary Record 105, 531–3.Google ScholarPubMed
Young, A. S., Leitch, B. L., Stagg, D. A. & Dolan, T. T. (1983 b). Identification of Theileria infections in living salivary glands of ticks. Parasitology 86, 519–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Young, A. S. & Morzaria, S. P. (1986). Biology of Babesia. Parasitology Today 2, 211–19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Young, A. S. & Purnell, R. E. (1973). Transmission of Theileria lawrencei (Serengeti) by the Ixodid tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Tropical Animal Health and Production 5, 146–52.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Young, A. S., Purnell, R. E., Payne, R. C., Brown, C. G. D. & Kanhai, G. K. (1978 c). Studies of Transmission and the course of infection of a Kenyan strain of Theileria mutans. Parasitology 76, 99115.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Young, A. S., Radley, D. E., Cunningham, M. P., Musisi, F. L., Payne, R. C. & Purnell, R. E. (1977 b). Exposure of immunized cattle to prolonged natural challenge of Theileria lawrencei derived from African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). Veterinary Parasitology 3, 283–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
87
Cited by