Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

An assessment of the use of drug and non-drug interventions in the treatment of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876, a protozoan parasite of freshwater fish

  • S. M. PICÓN-CAMACHO (a1), M. MARCOS-LOPEZ (a2), J. E. BRON (a1) and A. P. SHINN (a1)

Summary

Infection by the ciliate protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 causes significant economic losses in freshwater aquaculture worldwide. Following the ban on the use of malachite green for treating food fish, there has been extensive research aimed at identifying suitable replacements. In this paper we critically assess drug and non-drug interventions, which have been tested for use or have been employed against this parasite and evaluate possibilities for their application in farm systems. Current treatments include the administration of formaldehyde, sodium chloride (salt), copper sulphate and potassium permanganate. However, purportedly more environmentally friendly drugs such as humic acid, potassium ferrate (VI), bronopol and the peracetic acid-based products have recently been tested and represent promising alternatives. Further investigation, is required to optimize the treatments and to establish precise protocols in order to minimize the quantity of drug employed whilst ensuring the most efficacious performance. At the same time, there needs to be a greater emphasis placed on the non-drug aspects of management strategies, including the use of non-chemical interventions focusing on the removal of free-swimming stages and tomocysts of I. multifiliis from farm culture systems. Use of such strategies provides the hope of more environmentally friendly alternatives for the control of I. multifiliis infections.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Gulf Coast Research Laboratory, University of Southern Mississippi, Ocean Springs, MS 39564, USA. Tel: +228 818 8807. E-mail: sarapicon@yahoo.es

References

Hide All
Aihua, L. and Buchmann, K. (2001). Temperature and salinity-dependent development of a Nordic strain of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis from rainbow trout. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 17, 173276.
Alderman, D. J. (1985). Malachite green: a review. Journal of Fish Diseases 8, 289298.
Balta, F., Kayis, S. and Altinok, I. (2008). External protozoan parasites in three trout species in the Eastern Black Sea region of the Turkey: intensity, seasonality and their treatments. Bulletin of European Association of Fish Pathologists 28, 157162.
Bisharyan, Y., Chen, Q., Hossain, M. M., Papoyan, A. and Clark, T. G. (2003). Cadmium effects on Ichthyophthirius: evidence for metal-sequestration in fish tissues following administration of recombinant vaccines. Parasitology 123 (Suppl.) S87S93.
Bodensteiner, L. R., Sheenan, R. J., Willis, P. S., Brandenburg, A. M. and Lewis, W. M. (2000). Flowing water: an effective treatment for ichthyophthiriasis. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 12, 209219.
Boyd, C. E. (1990). Water Quality In Ponds For Aquaculture. Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA.
Boyd, C. E. (2005). Copper treatment controls phytoplankton. Global Aquaculture Alliance 8, 6970.
Brown, E. M. and Gratzek, J. B. (1980). Fish Farming Handbook. Food, Bait, Tropicals and Goldfish. AVI Publishing Company, Westport, USA.
Bruzio, M. and Buchmann, K. (2010). The effect of peracetic acid products on parasites causing white spot diseases. Fish Farmer 33, 2527.
Bryce, D. I. M., Croshaw, B., Hall, J. E., Holland, V. R. and Lessel, B. (1978). The activity and safety of the antimicrobial agent bronopol (2-bromo-2-nitropropan-1,3-diol). Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists 29, 324.
Buchmann, K. and Bresciani, J. (1997). Parasitic infections in pond-reared rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in Denmark. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 28, 125138.
Buchmann, K., Jensen, P. B. and Kruse, K. D. (2003). Effects of sodium percarbonate and garlic extract on Ichthyophthirius multifiliis theronts and tomocysts: In vitro experiments. North American Journal of Aquaculture 65, 2124.
Buchmann, K., Bresciani, J. and Jappe, C. (2004). Effects of formalin treatment on epithelial structure and mucous cell densities in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), skin. Journal of Fish Diseases 27, 99104.
Burkart, M. A., Clark, T. G. and Dickerson, H. W. (1990). Immunization of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Fouquet): killed versus live vaccines. Journal of Fish Diseases 13, 401410.
Cardeilhac, P. and Whitaker, B. (1988). Copper treatments: uses and precautions. Veterinary Clinics of North America 18, 435448.
Colorni, A., Ullal, A., Heinisch, G. and Noga, E. J. (2008). Activity of the antimicrobial polypeptide piscidin 2 against fish ectoparasites. Journal of Fish Diseases 31, 423432.
Cross, D. G. (1972). A review of the methods to control ichthyophthiriasis. Progressive Fish Culturist 34, 165170.
Culp, S. J. (2004). NTP technical report on the toxicity studies on malachite green chloride and leucomalachite green administered in feed to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. US Department of Health and Human Services June 2004. National Toxicology Program, Toxicity report series. NIH Publication No. 04-4416.
Culp, S. J. and Beland, F. A. (1996). Malachite green: a toxicological review. Journal of American College Toxicology 15, 219238.
Deilhac, P. and Whitaker, B. (1988). Copper treatments: uses and precautions. Veterinary Clinics of North America 18, 435448.
Dickerson, H. W. (2006). Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Cryptocaryon irritans (Phylum Ciliophora) In Fish Diseases and Disorders, Vol. 1: Protozoan and Metazoan infections (ed. Woo, P. T. K.), pp. 116153. CAB International, Cambridge, MA, USA.
Dolezelova, P., Macova, S., Plhalova, L., Pistekova, V., Svobodova, Z., Bedanova, I. and Voslarova, E. (2009). Comparison of the sensitivity of different fish species to medical substances. Neuroendocrinology Letters 30, 248–52.
Duffort, G., Houeix, N., Manier, N. and Troise, A. (2010). Institut National de l'EnviRonnement Industriel et des risSques (INERIS)- Fiche de donnees toxicologiques et environnementales des substances chimiques. Formaldéhyde. INERIS.
Ekamen, A. P., Obiekezie, A., Kloas, W. and Knopf, K. (2004). Effects of crude extracts of Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae) and Carica papaya (Caricaceae) against the protozoan fish parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Parasitology Research 92, 361366.
Elsayed, E. E., El Dien, N. E. and Mahmoud, M. A. (2006). Ichthyophthiriasis: various fish susceptibility or presence of more than one strain of the parasite? Nature and Science 4, 513.
Ewing, M. S., Kocan, K. M. and Ewing, S. A. (1983). Ichthyophthirius multifiliis: morphology of the cyst wall. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 102, 122128.
Fallang, A., Ramsay, J. M., Sevatdal, S., Burka, J. F., Jewess, P., Hammell, K. L. and Horsbergs, T. E. (2004). Evidence for occurrence of an organophosphate-resistant type of acetylcholinesterase in strains of sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer). Pest Management Science 60, 11631170.
Farley, D. G. and Heckmann, R. (1980). Attempts to control Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet (Ciliophora: Orphryoglnidae) by chemotherapy and electrotherapy. Journal of Fish Diseases 3, 203212.
From, J., Karas, N. and Vordermeier, T. (1992). Trials with toltrazuril against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876. Bulletin of European Association of Fish Pathologists 12, 137138.
Gaikowski, M. P., Densmore, C. L. and Blazer, V. S. (2009). Histopathology of repeated, intermittent exposure of chloramine-T to walleye (Sander vitreum) and (Ictalurus punctalus) channel catfish. Aquaculture 287, 2834.
Garcia, L., Becker, A. G., Copatti, C. E. and Baldisserotto, B. (2007). Salt in food and water as a supportive therapy of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infestation on silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, fingerlings. Journal of World Aquaculture Society 38, 111.
Goodwin, A. E. and Straus, D. L. (2006). Solid and liquid formulations of copper sulphate: efficacy at high and low alkalinities. North American Journal of Aquaculture 68, 359363.
Gratzek, J. B., Gilbert, J. P., Lohr, A. L., Shotts, E. B. and Brown, J. (1983). Ultraviolet light control of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet in a closed fish culture recirculation system. Journal of Fish Diseases 6, 145153.
Guest, C. W. (1983). Control of Ichthyophthirius in peacock bass fingerlings. Progressive Fish Culturist 45, 57.
Heinecke, R. D. and Buchmann, K. (2009). Control of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis using a combination of water filtration and sodium percarbonate: dose-response studies. Aquaculture 288, 3235.
Henderson, A. L., Schmitt, T. C., Heinze, T. M. and Cerniglia, C. E. (1997). Reduction of malachite green to leucomalachite green by intestinal bacteria. Applied Environmental Microbiology 63, 40994101.
Herber, T. (2009). Organic compounds used in aquaculture. In Hormones and Pharmaceuticals Generated by Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations, Emerging Topics in Ecotoxicology 1 (ed. Shore, L. S. and Pruden, A.), pp. 95120. Springer Science and Business Media, New York, USA.
Herwig, N. (1979). Handbook of Drugs and Chemicals used in the Treatment of Fish Diseases. Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Springfield, USA.
Heuer, O. E., Kruse, H., Grave, K., Collignon, P., Karunasagar, I. and Angulo, F. J. (2009). Human health consequences of use of antimicrobial agents in aquaculture. Clinical Infectious Diseases 49, 12481253.
Hines, R. S. and Spira, D. T. (1974). Ichthyophthiriasis in the mirror carp Cyprinus carpio L. V. Acquired immunity. Journal of Fish Biology 6, 373378.
Hoffman, G. L. and Meyer, F. P. (1974). Parasites of Freshwater Fishes. A Review of their Control Treatment. TFH Publication, Inc Neptune City, USA.
Hohreiter, D. W. and Rigg, D. K. (2001). Derivation of ambient water quality criteria for formaldehyde. Chemosphere 45, 471486.
Jensen, P. B., Kruse, K. D., Kristensson, R. T. and Buchmann, K. (2001). The effect of sodium percabonate (BioCare SPC) on Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Gyrodactylus in rainbow trout. Biomar Newsletter 3, 2.
Jørgensen, T. R., Larsen, T. B. and Buchmann, K. (2009). Parasite infections in recirculated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farms. Aquaculture 289, 9194.
Johnson, M. D. and Sharma, K. D. (1999). Kinetic and mechanism of the reduction of ferrate by one-electron reductants. Inorganica Chimica Acta 293, 229233.
Kayis, S., Ozcelep, T., Capkin, E. and Altinok, I. (2009). Protozoan and metazoan parasites of cultured fish in Turkey and their applied treatments. The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture 61, 93102.
Kurovskaya, L. Y. (2005). Effect of violet C antiseptic on the numbers of ectoparasites and some physiological and biochemical indices of carps. Hydrobiological Journal 41, 95102.
Lauridsen, J. H. and Buchmann, K. (2010). Effects of short and long-term glucan feeding of rainbow trout (Salmonidae) on the susceptibility to Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infections. Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria 40, 6166.
Lahnsteiner, F. and Weismann, T. (2007). Treatment of ichthyophthiriasis in rainbow trout and common carp with common and alternative therapeutics. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 19, 186194.
Lees, F., Baillie, M., Gettinby, G. and Revie, C. W. (2008). The efficacy of emamectin benzoate against infestations of Lepeophtheirus salmonis on farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in Scotland, 2002–2006. PLoS ONE 3, e1549.
Ling, F., Luo, Q., Wang, J. L., Wang, Y. P., Wang, W. B. and Gong, X. N. (2009). Effects of the ‘all-fish’ GH (growth hormone) transgene expression on resistance to Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infections in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Aquaculture 292, 15.
Ling, F., Wang, J. G., Liu, Q. F., Li, M., Ye, L. T. and Gong, X. N. (2010). Prevention of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infestation in goldfish (Carassius auratus) by postassium ferrate (VI) treatment. Veterinary Parasitology 168, 212216.
Ling, K. H., Sin, Y. M. and Lam, T. J. (1993). Effect of copper sulfate on ichthyophthiriasis (white spot disease) in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Aquaculture 118, 2325.
Lom, J. and Dyková, I. (1992). Protozoan Parasites of Fishes. Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science, Vol. 26. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Luzardo-Álvarez, A., Martínez-Mazagatos, J., Santamarina-Fernández, M. T., Otero-Espinar, F. J. and Blanco-Méndez, J. (2003). Oral pharmacological treatments for Ichthyophthirius of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 220, 1525.
Ma, J. and Liu, W. (2002). Effectiveness and mechanism of potassium ferrate (VI) preoxidation for algae removal by coagulation. Water Research 36, 871878.
Matthews, R. A. (1994). Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876: infection and proactive response within the fish host. In Parasitic Diseases of Fish (ed. Pike, A. W. and Lewis, J. W.), Samara Publishing Ltd., Dyfed.
Matthews, R. A. (2005). Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet and ichthyophthiriosis in freshwater teleosts. Advances in Parasitology 59, 159241.
Mehlhorn, H., Schmahl, G. and Heberkorn, A. (1988). Toltrazuril effective against a broad spectrum of protozoan parasites. Parasitology Research 75, 6466.
Meinelt, T., Pietrock, M., Burnison, K. and Steinberg, C. (2005). Formaldehyde toxicity is altered by calcium and organic matter. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 21, 121124.
Meinelt, T., Matzke, S., Stüber, A., Pietrock, M., Wienke, A., Mitchell, A. J. and Straus, D. L. (2009). Toxicity of peracetic acid (PAA) to tomonts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 86, 5156.
Mifsud, C. and Rowland, S. J. (2008). Use of salt to control ichthyophthiriosis and prevent saprolegniosis in silver perch, Bidyanus bidyanus. Aquaculture Research 39, 11751180.
Miron, D. S., Silva, L. V. F., Golombieski, J. I. and Baldisserotto, B. (2003). Efficacy of different salt (NaCl) concentrations in the treatment of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis-infected silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, fingerlings. Journal of Applied Aquaculture 14, 155161.
Moore, J. M. (2005). Comparison of copper toxicity to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and blue catfish, I. furcatus, fingerlings. Journal of Applied Aquaculture 17, 7784.
Noble, A. C. and Summerfelt, S. T. (1996). Diseases encountered in rainbow trout cultured in recirculating systems. Annual Review of Fish Diseases 6, 6592.
Noga, E. J. (2010). Fish Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment. Wiley-Blackwell.
Novartis (2002). Pyceze: Technical dossier. Information for Farmers. Novartis Animal Vaccines. UK.
Pedersen, L. F., Pedersen, P. B., Nielsen, J. L. and Nielsen, P. H. (2009). Peracetic acid degradation and effects on nitrification in recirculating aquaculture systems. Aquaculture 296, 246254.
Picón-Camacho, S. M., Taylor, N. G. H., Bron, J. E., Guo, F. C. and Shinn, A. P. (2011 a). Effects of continuous exposure to low doses of bronopol on the infection dynamics of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora), parasitising rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum). Veterinary Parasitology (in the Press).
Picón-Camacho, S. M., Marcos-Lopez, M., Beljean, A., Debeaume, S. and Shinn, A. P. (2011 b). In vitro assessment of the chemotherapeutic action of a specific hydrogen peroxide, peracetic and peroctanoic acid based formulation against the free-living stages of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora). Parasitology Research.
Pieters, N., Brunt, J., Austin, B. and Lyndon, A. R. (2008). Efficacy of in-feed probiotics against Aeromonas bestiarum and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis skin infections in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum). Journal of Applied Microbiology 105, 723732.
Pillay, T. V. R. and Kutty, M. N. (2005). Aquaculture: Principles and Practices. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.
Post, G. and Vesely, K. R. (1983). Administration of drugs by hyperosmotic or vacuum infiltration or surfactant immersion ineffective for control of intradermally encysted Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Progressive Fish Culturist 45, 164166.
Pottinger, T. G. and Day, J. G. (1999). A Saprolegnia parasitica challenge system for rainbow trout: assessment of Pyceze as an anti-fungal control agent for both fish and ova. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 36, 129141.
Powell, M. and Harris, J. (2004). Influence of oxygen on the toxicity of chloramine-T to Atlantic salmon smolts in freshwater and seawater. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 16, 8392.
Rábago-Castro, J. L., Sanchez, J. G., Pérez-Castaneda, R. and González-González, A. (2006). Effects of the prophylactic use of Romet®-30 and copper sulfate on growth, condition and feeding indices in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Aquaculture 253, 343349.
Rahkonen, R. and Koski, P. (2002). Post malachite green: alternative strategies for fungal infections and white spot disease. Bulletin of European Association of Fish Pathologists 22, 152157.
Rapp, J. (1995). Treatments of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walb.) fry infected with Ichthyophthirius multifiliis by oral administration of dimetrazole. Bulletin of European Association of Fish Pathologists 15, 6769.
Rintamäki-Kinnunen, P. and Valtonen, E. T. (1997). Epizootiology of protozoans in farmed salmonids in northern latitudes. International Journal of Parasitology 27, 8999.
Rintamäki-Kinnunen, P., Rahkonen, M., Mannermaa-Keränen, A. L., Suomalainen, L. R., Mykrä, H. and Valtonen, E. T. (2005 a). Treatment of ichthyophthiriasis after malachite green. I. Concrete tanks at salmonid farms. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 64, 6976.
Rintamäki-Kinnunen, P., Rahkonen, M., Mykrä, H. and Valtonen, E. T. (2005 b). Treatment of ichthyophthiriasis after malachite green. II. Earth ponds at salmonids farms. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 66, 1520.
Rowland, S. J., Misfud, C., Nixon, M., Read, P. and Landos, M. (2009). Use of formalin and copper to control ichthyophthiriosis in the Australian freshwater fish silver perch (Bidyanus bidyanus Mitchell). Aquaculture Research 40, 4454.
Ruider, S., Schmal, G., Mehlhorn, H., Scmidt, H. and Ritter, G. (1997). Effects of different malachite green derivates and metabolites on the fish ectoparasite, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Fouquet 1876 (Hymenostomatida, Ciliophora). European Journal of Protistology 33, 375388.
Sanabria, C., Diamant, A. and Zilberg, D. (2009). Effects of commonly used disinfectants and temperature on swim bladder non-inflation in freshwater angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare (Lichtenstein). Aquaculture 292, 158165.
Schmidt, L. J., Gaikowski, M. P. and Gingerich, W. H. (2006). Environmental Assessment for the Use of Hydrogen Peroxide in Aquaculture for Treating External Fungal and Bacterial Diseases of Cultured Fish and Fish Eggs. USGS. Science for a Changing World. pp. 180.
Schlenk, D., Gollon, J. L. and Griffin, B. R. (1998). Efficacy of copper sulfate for the treatment of ichthyophthiriasis in channel catfish. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 10, 390396.
Schlotfeld, H. J. (1993). Chemikalien zur therapie bei nutzfischen nun zugelassen! Standard-Zulassungen. Fisch Teichwirt 12, 421424.
Schlotfeld, H. J. (1998). Therapienotstand bei fischen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Fisch Teichwirt 2, 4247.
Schmahl, G., Mehlhorn, H. and Taraschewski, H. (1989). Treatment of fish parasites. 5. The effects of sym. triazinone (toltrazuril) on fish parasitic Ciliophora (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876, Apiosoma amoebea Grenfell, 1884, Trichodina sp. Ehrenberg, 1831). European Journal of Protistology 24, 152161.
Schmahl, G., Schmidt, H. and Ritter, G. (1996). The control of ichthyopthiriasis by a medicated food containing quinine: efficacy test and ultrastructure investigations. Parasitology Research 82, 697705.
Schnick, R. A. (1988). The impetus to register new therapeutants for aquaculture. Progressive Fish Culturist 50, 190196.
Selosse, P. M. and Rowland, S. J. (1990). Use of common salt to treat ichthyophthiriasis in Australian warm water fishes. Progressive Fish Culturist 52, 124127.
Shinn, A., Wootten, R., Sommerville, C. and Conway, D. (2001). Putting the squeeze on whitespot. Trout News 32, 2025.
Shinn, A. P., Wootten, R. and Sommerville, C. (2003a). Alternative compounds for the treatment of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infecting rainbow trout. Trout News 35, 3841.
Shinn, A. P., Wootten, R., Côte, I. and Sommerville, C. (2003 b). Efficacy of selected oral chemotherapeutants against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora: Ophyroglenidae) infecting rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 55, 1722.
Shinn, A., Taylor, N. and Wootten, R. (2005). Development of a management system for the control of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Trout News 40, 2125.
Shinn, A. P., Picón-Camacho, S. M., Bawden, R. and Taylor, N. G. H. (2009). Mechanical control of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 (Ciliophora) in a rainbow trout hatchery. Aquaculture Engineering 41, 152157.
Shinn, A. P., Picón-Camacho, S. M., Bron, J. E., Conway, D., Yoon, G. H., Guo, F. C. and Taylor, N. G. H. (2011). The anti-protozoal activity of bronopol on the key life-stages of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 (Ciliophora). Veterinary Parasitology (in press).
Sommerset, I., Krossøy, B., Biering, E. and Frost, P. (2005). Vaccines for fish in aquaculture. Expert Reviews of Vaccines 4, 89101.
Straus, D. L. and Griffin, B. R. (2001). Prevention of an initial infestation of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in channel catfish and blue tilapia by potassium permanganate treatment. North American Journal of Aquaculture 63, 1116.
Srivastava, S., Sinha, R. and Roy, D. (2004). Toxicological effects of malachite green. Aquatic Toxicology 66, 319329.
Straus, D. L. and Griffin, B. R. (2002). Efficacy of potassium permanganate in treating ichthyophthiriasis in channel catfish. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 14, 145148.
Straus, D. L. (1993). Prevention of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infestation in channel catfish fingerlings by copper sulfate treatment. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 5, 152154.
Straus, D. L. (2008). Comparison of copper sulphate concentrations to control ichthyophthiriasis in fingerling channel catfish. Journal of Applied Aquaculture 20, 272284.
Straus, D. L. and Meinelt, T. (2009). Acute toxicity of peracetic acid (PAA) formulations to Ichthyophthirius multifiliis theronts. Parasitology Research 104, 12371241.
Straus, D. L., Hossain, M. M. and Clark, T. G. (2009). Strain differences in Ichthyophthirius multifiliis to copper toxicity. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 83, 3136.
Sudová, E., Straus, D. L., Wienke, A. and Meinelt, T. (2010). Evaluation of continuous 4-day exposure to peracetic acid as a treatment for Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Parasitology Research 106, 539542.
Swennes, A. G., Findly, R. C. and Dickerson, H. W. (2007). Cross-immunity and antibody responses to different immobilisation serotypes of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Fish Shellfish Immunology 22, 589597.
Tieman, D. M. and Goodwin, A. E. (2001). Treatments of ich infestations in channel catfish evaluated under static and flow-through water conditions. North American Journal of Aquaculture 63, 293299.
Tojo, J. L., Santamarina, M. T., Ubeira, F. M., Leiro, J. and Sanmartin, M. L. (1994). Trials for the control of ichthyophthiriosis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Bulletin of European Association of Fish Pathologists 14, 148152.
Tojo-Rodriguez, J. L. and Santamarina-Fernandez, M. T. (2001). Attempts at oral pharmacological treatment of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Journal of Fish Diseases 24, 249252.
Tokşen, E. and Nemli, E. (2010). Oral treatment trials on telescope fish (Carassius auratus) experimentally infected with Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Fouquet, 1876). Bulletin of European Association of Fish Pathologists 30, 4852.
Treves-Brown, K. M. (2000). Applied Fish Pharmacology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
Tucker, C. S. (1987). Acute toxicity of potassium permanganate to channel catfish fingerlings. Aquaculture 60, 9398.
Ullal, A. J., Litaker, R. W. and Noga, E. J. (2008). Antimicrobial peptides derived from haemoglobin are expressed in epithelium of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Rafinesque). Developmental and Comparative Immunology 32, 13011312.
Ullal, A. J. and Noga, E. J. (2010). Antiparasitic activity of the antimicrobial pepetide HbβP-1, a member of the β-haemoglobin peptide family. Journal of Fish Diseases 33, 657664.
Valtonen, E. T. and Koskivaara, M. (1994). Relationships between the parasites of some wild and cultured fishes in two lakes and a fish farm in central Finland. International Journal of Parasitology 24, 109118.
Wagner, G. (1960). Der Entwicklungszyklus von Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet und der Einfluss physikalischer und chemischer aussenfaktoren. Zeitschrift Fisherei 9, 425443.
Wahli, T., Streiff, K. and Meier, W. (1985). Influence of ascorbic acid on Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infections in trout. Bulletin of European Association of Fish Pathologists 4, 8687.
Wahli, T., Schmitt, M. and Meier, W. (1993). Evaluation of alternatives to malachite green oxalate as a therapeutant for ichthyopthirius in ranbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 9, 237249.
Wahli, T., Frischknecht, R., Schmitt, M., Gabaudan, J., Verlhac, V. and Meier, W. (1995). A comparison of the effect of silicone coated ascorbic acid and ascorbyl phosphate on the course of ichthyophthiriosis in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Journal of Fish Diseases 18, 347355.
Wahli, T., Verlhac, V., Gabaudan, J., Schüep, W. and Meier, W. (1998). Influence of combined vitamins C and E on non-specific immunity and diseases resistance of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Journal of Fish Diseases 21, 127137.
Wooster, G. A., Martinez, C. M. and Bowser, P. R. (2005). Human health risks associated with formalin treatments used in aquaculture: Initial study. North American Journal of Aquaculture 67, 111113.
World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer (2006). Formaldehyde, 2- butoxyethanol and 1-tert-butoxypropan-2-ol. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans Volume 88. World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon.
Xu, D. H., Schoemaker, C. A. and Klesius, P. H. (2008). Effect of tricaine methanesulfonate on survival and reproduction of the fish ectoparasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Parasitology Research 103, 979982.
Yao, J. Y., Shen, J. Y., Li, X. L., Xu, Y., Hao, G. J., Pan, X. Y., Wang, G. X. and Yin, W. L. (2010). Effect of sanguinarine from the leaves of Macleaya cordata against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Parasitology Research 107, 10351042.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed