Ait Lbacha, Hicham Zouagui, Zaid Alali, Said Rhalem, Abdelkbir Petit, Elisabeth Ducrotoy, Marie Julie Boulouis, Henri-Jean and Maillard, Renaud 2017. “Candidatus anaplasma camelii” in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Morocco: a novel and emerging anaplasma species?. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, Vol. 6, Issue. 1,
Ait Lbacha, H. Alali, S. Zouagui, Z. El Mamoun, L. Rhalem, A. Petit, E. Haddad, N. Gandoin, C. Boulouis, H-J. and Maillard, R. 2017. High Prevalence of Anaplasma spp. in Small Ruminants in Morocco. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, Vol. 64, Issue. 1, p. 250.
Battilani, Mara De Arcangeli, Stefano Balboni, Andrea and Dondi, Francesco 2017. Genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of Anaplasma. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, Vol. 49, p. 195.
Han, Yu-Jung Park, Jinho Lee, Young-Sung Chae, Joon-seok Yu, Do-Hyeon Park, Bae-Keun Kim, Hyeon-Cheol and Choi, Kyoung-Seong 2017. Molecular identification of selected tick-borne pathogens in wild deer and raccoon dogs from the Republic of Korea. Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies and Reports, Vol. 7, p. 25.
Isack, Ibrahim Kerario Walter, Muleya Sebastian, Chenyambuga Marja, Koski Seong-Gu, Hwang and Martin, Simuunza 2017. Abundance and distribution of Ixodid tick species infesting cattle reared under traditional farming systems in Tanzania. African Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. 12, Issue. 4, p. 286.
Schorderet-Weber, Sandra Noack, Sandra Selzer, Paul M. and Kaminsky, Ronald 2017. Blocking transmission of vector-borne diseases. International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance, Vol. 7, Issue. 1, p. 90.
Silaghi, Cornelia Santos, Ana Sofia Gomes, Jacinto Christova, Iva Matei, Ioana Adriana Walder, Gernot Domingos, Ana Bell-Sakyi, Lesley Sprong, Hein von Loewenich, Friederike D. Oteo, José A. de la Fuente, José and Dumler, J. Stephen 2017. Guidelines for the Direct Detection of Anaplasma spp. in Diagnosis and Epidemiological Studies. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 17, Issue. 1, p. 12.
ATIF, FARHAN AHMAD 2016. Alpha proteobacteria of genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae): Epidemiology and characteristics of Anaplasma species related to veterinary and public health importance. Parasitology, Vol. 143, Issue. 06, p. 659.
Barghash, Safaa M. and El-Naga, Tarek R. Abou 2016. WITHDRAWN: Blood parasites in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Northern West Coast of Egypt. Parasite Epidemiology and Control,
Doyle, Rovaina L. Oliveira, Camila B. França, Raqueli T. Doleski, Pedro H. Souza, Viviane C. Leal, Daniela B.R. Martins, João R. Lopes, Sonia T.A. Machado, Gustavo Da Silva, Aleksandro S. and Andrade, Cinthia M. 2016. Influence of experimental Anaplasma marginale infection and splenectomy on NTPDase and 5'nucleotidase activities in platelets of cattle. Microbial Pathogenesis, Vol. 95, p. 49.
Ferrolho, Joana Antunes, Sandra Santos, Ana S. Velez, Rita Padre, Ludovina Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro Santos-Silva, Maria Margarida and Domingos, Ana 2016. Detection and phylogenetic characterization of Theileria spp. and Anaplasma marginale in Rhipicephalus bursa in Portugal. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, Vol. 7, Issue. 3, p. 443.
Galeotti, M Manzano, M Beraldo, P Bulfon, C Rossi, G Volpatti, D and Magi, G E 2016. Ultrastructural and biomolecular detection of Rickettsiales-like organisms in tissues of rainbow trout with Red Mark Syndrome. Journal of Fish Diseases,
López, Vladimir Alberdi, Pilar Mera, Isabel G. Fernández de Barasona, José Angel Vicente, Joaquín Garrido, Joseba M. Torina, Alessandra Caracappa, Santo Lelli, Rossella Colomba Gortázar, Christian and de la Fuente, José 2016. Evidence of co-infection with Mycobacterium bovis and tick-borne pathogens in a naturally infected sheep flock. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, Vol. 7, Issue. 2, p. 384.
M’ghirbi, Youmna Bèji, Marwa Oporto, Beatriz Khrouf, Fatma Hurtado, Ana and Bouattour, Ali 2016. Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophilum in cattle in Tunisia. Parasites & Vectors, Vol. 9, Issue. 1,
Pothmann, Daniela Poppert, Sven Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael Hogan, Benedikt Mastropaolo, Mariano Thiel, Claudia and Silaghi, Cornelia 2016. Prevalence and genetic characterization of Anaplasma marginale in zebu cattle (Bos indicus) and their ticks (Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus microplus) from Madagascar. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, Vol. 7, Issue. 6, p. 1116.
Rassouli, Maryam Kafshdouzan, Khatereh Zow, Mohammad Saberi and Ghodrati, Sajjad 2016. Blood smear demonstrations of Anaplasma-infected sheep in a flock. Comparative Clinical Pathology, Vol. 25, Issue. 2, p. 331.
Stuen, S. 2016. Haemoparasites in small ruminants in European countries: Challenges and clinical relevance. Small Ruminant Research, Vol. 142, p. 22.
Tucker, Thomas R. Aly, Sharif S. Maas, John Davy, Josh S. and Foley, Janet E. 2016. Investigation ofAnaplasma marginaleSeroprevalence in a Traditionally Managed Large California Beef Herd. Veterinary Medicine International, Vol. 2016, p. 1.
Atif, Farhan Ahmad 2015. Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum: Rickettsiales pathogens of veterinary and public health significance. Parasitology Research, Vol. 114, Issue. 11, p. 3941.
da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique and Barbosa, José Diomedes 2015. Molecular characterization of Anaplasma marginale in ticks naturally feeding on buffaloes. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, Vol. 35, p. 38.
The tick-borne intracellular pathogen Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) develops persistent infections in cattle and tick hosts. While erythrocytes appear to be the only site of infection in cattle, A. marginale undergoes a complex developmental cycle in ticks and transmission occurs via salivary glands during feeding. Many geographic isolates occur that vary in genotype, antigenic composition, morphology and infectivity for ticks. In this chapter we review recent research on the host–vector–pathogen interactions of A. marginale. Major surface proteins (MSPs) play a crucial role in the interaction of A. marginale with host cells. The MSP1a protein, which is an adhesin for bovine erythrocytes and tick cells, is differentially regulated and affects infection and transmission of A. marginale by Dermacentor spp. ticks. MSP2 undergoes antigenic variation and selection in cattle and ticks, and contributes to the maintenance of persistent infections. Phylogenetic studies of A. marginale geographic isolates using msp4 and msp1α provide information about the biogeography and evolution of A. marginale: msp1α genotypes evolve under positive selection pressure. Isolates of A. marginale are maintained by independent transmission events and a mechanism of infection exclusion in cattle and ticks allows for only the infection of one isolate per animal. Prospects for development of control strategies by use of pathogen and tick-derived antigens are discussed. The A. marginale/vector/host studies described herein could serve as a model for research on other tick-borne rickettsiae.
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