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Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus: effect of temperature on egg development and mortality

  • G. Smith (a1) and G. A. Schad (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 April 2009

The development and mortality of the eggs of Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus in distilled water were monitored over a range of temperatures between 15 and 35°C. Egg demography was examined within the context of a fourparameter mathematical model of development and mortality. Over the range of temperatures studied, egg mortality (μ) was an increasing exponential function of temperature (T) measured in degrees Celsius. A single model adequately described the mortality of both species (ln [μ] = 0·041*T − 6·87). The minimum time (τ) to hatching was consistently less for A. duodenale (ln [1/T] = −(0·79+53·05*[l/T]) than N. americanus (ln [1/T] = −(0·99 + 53·05*[l/T])). The hatching rate [σ when t > τ) was an increasing function of time and temperature in both cases, but the precise functional relationship was species specific.

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J. F. Berberian & J. D. Mizelle (1957). Developmental studies on Haemonchus contortus Rudolphi (1803). American Midland Naturalist 57, 421–39.

N. A. Croll (1974). Necator americanus: activity patterns in the egg and the mechanism of hatching. Experimental Parasitology 35, 80–5.

J. A. Nelder & R. W. M. Wedderburn (1972). Generalized linear models. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, A 135, 370–84.

J. K. Udonsi & G. Atata (1987). Necator americanus: temperature, pH, light and larval development, longevity and desiccation tolerance. Experimental Parasitology 63, 136–42.

H. V. Whitlock (1957). The recovery and identification of first stage larvae of sheep nematodes. Australian Veterinary Journal 35, 310–16.

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