Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 30
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Atlija, M. Prada, J. M. Gutiérrez-Gil, B. Rojo-Vázquez, F. A. Stear, M. J. Arranz, J. J. and Martínez-Valladares, M. 2016. Implementation of an extended ZINB model in the study of low levels of natural gastrointestinal nematode infections in adult sheep. BMC Veterinary Research, Vol. 12, Issue. 1,

    Neggazi, Sara A. Noreikiene, Kristina Öst, Markus and Jaatinen, Kim 2016. Reproductive investment is connected to innate immunity in a long-lived animal. Oecologia,

    Ahmed, Albin Sebastiano, Simone Sweeney, Torres Hanrahan, James Glynn, Assumpta Keane, Orla Mukhopadhya, Anindya Thornton, Kevin and Good, Barbara 2015. Breed differences in humoral and cellular responses of lambs to experimental infection with the gastrointestinal nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta. Veterinary Research, Vol. 46, Issue. 1, p. 8.

    Arturo, Gálvez-Cerón Diana, Gassó Ramón, López-Olvera Jorge Gregorio, Mentaberre Jordi, Bartolomé Ignasi, Marco David, Ferrer Luca, Rossi Mathieu, Garel Santiago, Lavín Marcus, Clauss and Emmanuel, Serrano 2015. Gastrointestinal nematodes and dietary fibre: Two factors to consider when using FN for wildlife nutrition monitoring. Ecological Indicators, Vol. 52, p. 161.

    Cripps, Jemma Beveridge, Ian Martin, Jennifer K. Borland, Duncan and Coulson, Graeme 2015. Temporal dynamics of helminth infections in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) in Victoria. Australian Journal of Zoology, Vol. 63, Issue. 3, p. 163.

    Gassó, Diana Feliu, Cales Ferrer, David Mentaberre, Gregorio Casas-Díaz, Encarna Velarde, Roser Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier Colom-Cadena, Andreu Navarro-Gonzalez, Nora López-Olvera, Jorge Ramón Lavín, Santiago Fenández-Llario, Pedro Segalés, Joaquim and Serrano, Emmanuel 2015. Uses and limitations of faecal egg count for assessing worm burden in wild boars. Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. 209, Issue. 1-2, p. 133.

    Merrill, Loren Stewart, Tara E. González-Gómez, Paulina L. O’Loghlen, Adrian L. Wingfield, John C. Ellis, Vincenzo A. and Rothstein, Stephen I. 2015. Epaulet Size and Current Condition in Red-Winged Blackbirds: Examining a Semistatic Signal, Testosterone, Immune Function, and Parasites. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, Vol. 88, Issue. 1, p. 11.

    Wongrak, Kalyakorn Gauly, Matthias and Daş, Gürbüz 2015. Diurnal fluctuations in nematode egg excretion in naturally and in experimentally infected chickens. Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. 208, Issue. 3-4, p. 195.

    Cizauskas, Carrie A Turner, Wendy C Wagner, Bettina Küstersrs, Martina Vance, Russell E and Getz, Wayne M 2014. Gastrointestinal helminths may affect host susceptibility to anthrax through seasonal immune trade-offs. BMC Ecology, Vol. 14, Issue. 1,

    Corlatti, Luca Bassano, Bruno and Wright, J. 2014. Contrasting Alternative Hypotheses to Explain Rut-Induced Hypophagia in Territorial Male Chamois. Ethology, Vol. 120, Issue. 1, p. 32.

    García-de Blas, Esther Mateo, Rafael Viñuela, Javier Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo and Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos 2013. Free and Esterified Carotenoids in Ornaments of an Avian Species: The Relationship to Color Expression and Sources of Variability. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, Vol. 86, Issue. 5, p. 483.

    Roeber, Florian Jex, Aaron R. and Gasser, Robin B. 2013.

    Roeber, Florian Jex, Aaron R. and Gasser, Robin B. 2013. Advances in the diagnosis of key gastrointestinal nematode infections of livestock, with an emphasis on small ruminants. Biotechnology Advances, Vol. 31, Issue. 8, p. 1135.

    Roeber, Florian Jex, Aaron R. and Gasser, Robin B. 2013. Comparative evaluation of two DNA isolation techniques for PCR-based diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematode infections in sheep. Molecular and Cellular Probes, Vol. 27, Issue. 3-4, p. 153.

    Ezenwa, Vanessa O. Stefan Ekernas, L. and Creel, Scott 2012. Unravelling complex associations between testosterone and parasite infection in the wild. Functional Ecology, Vol. 26, Issue. 1, p. 123.

    Roeber, Florian Jex, Aaron R. Campbell, Angus J.D. Nielsen, Rad Anderson, Garry A. Stanley, Keith K. and Gasser, Robin B. 2012. Establishment of a robotic, high-throughput platform for the specific diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematode infections in sheep. International Journal for Parasitology, Vol. 42, Issue. 13-14, p. 1151.

    Santilli, Francesco and Bagliacca, Marco 2012. Occurrence of eggs and oocysts of intestinal parasites of pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) in droppings collected in differently managed protected areas of Tuscany (Italy). European Journal of Wildlife Research, Vol. 58, Issue. 1, p. 369.

    Wascher, C. A. F. Bauer, A. C. Holtmann, A. R. and Kotrschal, K. 2012. Environmental and social factors affecting the excretion of intestinal parasite eggs in graylag geese. Behavioral Ecology, Vol. 23, Issue. 6, p. 1276.

    Daş, Gürbüz Savaş, Türker Kaufmann, Falko Idris, Ahmad Abel, Hansjörg and Gauly, Matthias 2011. Precision, repeatability and representative ability of faecal egg counts in Heterakis gallinarum infected chickens. Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. 183, Issue. 1-2, p. 87.

    Clough, Dagmar Heistermann, Michael and Kappeler, Peter M. 2010. Host intrinsic determinants and potential consequences of parasite infection in free-ranging red-fronted lemurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus). American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 142, Issue. 3, p. 441.


Avoiding bias in parasite excretion estimates: the effect of sampling time and type of faeces

  • D. VILLANÚA (a1), L. PÉREZ-RODRÍGUEZ (a1), C. GORTÁZAR (a1), U. HÖFLE (a2) and J. VIÑUELA (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 May 2006

The study of host-parasite relationships usually requires reliable estimates of parasite intensity, which is often estimated from parasite propagule concentration in faeces. However, parasite excretion in faeces may be subject to variation due to endogenous or exogenous factors that must be identified to obtain reliable results. We analysed the effect of the hour of sample collection on propagule counts of 2 intestinal parasites infecting the red-legged partridge: the capillarid nematode Aonchoteca caudinflata and coccidia of the genus Eimeria (Protozoa). Also, we test whether there are differences in propagule counts between caecal and intestinal faeces. Individual faecal samples from infected birds were collected daily at 4 different hours during several days. The hour of the day exerted a very strong effect on propagule counts, excretion of both types of parasites showing a clear and constant increase from dawn to dusk. Also, capillarid eggs were more abundant in intestinal than in caecal faeces, whereas the inverse pattern was found for coccidian oocysts. Standardization of the hour of sample collection or statistical control of this variable is recommendable to prevent bias. Similarly, in bird species with long caeca, consistent collection of one type of faeces may avoid significant errors in parasite burden estimates.

Corresponding author
Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos (IREC, CSIC-UCLM-JCCM) Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain. Tel: +0034 926295450. Fax: +0034 926295451. E-mail:
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0031-1820
  • EISSN: 1469-8161
  • URL: /core/journals/parasitology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *